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Augustan
Αυγυστανα Λιγγϝο Aŭgustana lingvo
Augustanalphabetletters
Region South Majatra
Ethnicity Augustan people
Native speakers 116 million  (4147)
Language family
Superseleyan
  • Enetric
  • Selucic
  • South Selucic
Dialects Saqueya, Ingomidê, Dilganat'
Official status
Official language in Cobura, Zardugal, minor language in Vanuku and Jelbania
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Aug
Treatymap 41 47
Area of speech of Augustan:

Red = Major language

Yellow = Minor language

The Augustan language[1][2][3][4] is a South Selucic language and the most widely spoken language in Cobura and Zardugal. It originates from the Enetric languages. Augustan can be written in the Selucian and Kalopian alphabet, with a few letters borrowed from the Irkawan alphabet for sounds not existing in Kalopian.

Writing systemEdit

Kalopian and Selucian alphabets
Kalopian Modern Augustan Ancient Augustan
Α α a a
Β β b b
Τσ τσ c tz
Τϣ τϣ ĉ ch
Δ δ d d
Ε ε e e
Φ φ f ph
Γ γ g g
Γγ γγ ng ng
Γκ γκ nk nc
Δϫ δϫ ĝ gh
* h h
Χ χ ĥ qh
Ι ι i i
Ι ι ** j y
Ϫ ϫ ĵ j
Κ κ k qu (before e, i) or c (before other letters)
Λ λ l l
Μ μ m m
Ν ν n n
Ο ο o o
Π π p p
Ρ ρ r r
Σ σ, ς s s
Ϣ ϣ ŝ sh
Τ τ t t
Θ θ, ϑ th th
Υ υ u u
Υ υ ** ŭ ù
Ϝ ϝ v w
Ζ ζ z z
Ψ ψ ps ps
Ξ ξ ks x
Ω ω œ ***
Ϗ ϗ **** kaj

* The rough breathing mark ( ῾ ) is placed over vowels to indicate a preceding /h/, thus we have Ἁ ἁ for /ha/, Ἱ ἱ for /hi/, Ὑ ὑ for /hu/, Ἑ ἑ for /he/, and Ὁ ὁ for /ho/. The rough breathing mark is written on the second vowel of diphthongs (αὑ = /haŭ/), while placing it on the first indicates vowels in hiatus (ἁυ = /hau/).

** The dialytika ( ¨ ) is used on ‹ι› and ‹υ› to clarify syllable boundaries obscured by merging their corresponding Selucian letters (i/j and u/ŭ). When ‹ι› and ‹υ› come together in hiatus, the dialytika is placed on the ‹ι›, and when either is repeated in hiatus, the dialytika is placed on the second as in στσιϊ (= scii). When a hiatus is marked by one of the vowels carrying the rough breathing mark, the dialytika is not used.

*** Adverbs in Ancient Augustan end in -œ, pronounced like the Dundorfian (German) ö, a phoneme not present in modern Augustan.

**** Because of its frequent occurrence, kaj ("and") is usually abbreviated by a ligature (comparable to Selucian &), written as ϗ (uppercase variant Ϗ), formed from kappa (κ) with an extra lower stroke.

Rules of Modern Augustan Edit

Nowadays, only Modern Augustan is commonly spoken. Modern Augustan is known to be one of the most easiest languages to learn, due to its extremely easy grammar, the absence of exeptions and simply constructed words and phrases. Modern Augustan grammer can be summarised in just 16 rules:
  1. There is no indefinite article (Luthorian a, an); there is only a definite article la, alike for all genders, cases and numbers (Luthorian the). The use of the article is as in other languages. People for whom use of the article offers difficulties {e.g. speakers of Rodshyan, Indralan, etc.) may at first elect not to use it at all.
  2. Nouns have the ending -o. To form the plural, add the ending -j. There are only two cases: nominative and accusative; the latter can be obtained from the nominative by adding the ending -n. The other cases are expressed with the aid of prepositions (genitive by de (Luthorian of), dative by al (Luthorian to), ablative by per (Luthorian by means of) or other prepositions, according to meaning).
  3. Adjectives end in -a. Cases and numbers are as for nouns. The comparative is made with the word pli (Luthorian more), the superlative with plej (Luthorian most); for the comparative the conjunction ol (Luthorian than) is used.
  4. The basic numerals (not declined) are: unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, naŭ, dek, cent, mil (Luthorian one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, hundred, thousand). Tens and hundreds are formed by simple juxtaposition of the numerals. To show ordinal numbers we add the adjective ending; for multiples, the suffix -obl; for fractions (actually, reciprocals), -on; for collectives, -op; for divisionals, the word (particle) po. Noun and adverb numerals can also be used.
  5. Personal pronouns: mi, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi (for an object or animal), si, ni, vi, ili, oni (Luthorian I, you, he, she, it, oneself, we, you, they, they-one-people); the possessive pronouns are formed by addition of the adjective ending. Declension is as for nouns.
  6. The verb does not change for person or number. Forms of the verb: present time takes the ending -as; past time, -is; future time, -os; conditional mood, -us; command mood, -u; infinitive mood, -i. Participles (with adjectival or adverbial meaning): present active, -ant; past active, -int; future active, -ont; present passive, -at; past passive, -it; future passive, -ot. All forms of the passive are formed with the aid of the corresponding form of the verb esti (Luthorian to be) and the passive participle of the required verb; the preposition with the passive is de (Luthorian by).
  7. Adverbs can be formed from adjectives by changing the -a ending to an -e ending (like Luthorian -ly).
  8. All prepositions take the nominative.
  9. Every word is read as it is written.
  10. The accent always falls on the next-to-last syllable (vowel).
  11. Compound words are formed by simple juxtaposition of words (the main word stands at the end); the grammatical endings are also viewed as independent words.
  12. When another negative word is present, the word ne (Luthorian no, not) is omitted.
  13. To show direction, words take the accusative ending.
  14. Every preposition has a definite and permanent meaning, but if we have to use a preposition and the direct meaning doesn't tell us what preposition we should take, then we use the preposition je, which has no independent meaning. Instead of je the accusative without a preposition may be used.
  15. The so-called foreign words, i.e. those taken by the majority of languages from one source, are used in Modern Augustan without change, taking on only the orthography of this language; but for different words from a single root it is better to use without change only the basic word, and form the rest from this latter according to the rules of Modern Augustan.
  16. The final vowel of the noun and the article may be dropped and replaced by an apostrophe (without effect on stress).

Ancient AugustanEdit

The ancient form of the language, Ancient Augustan[5], was the official language of the Augustan Empire, having replaced ancient Selucian and ancient Kalopian in the 11th century. Ancient Augustan preserves much of the Selucian inflexionary system, entirely lost in modern Augustan, and uses a different system of transliteration into the Selucian alphabet.

DialectsEdit

SaqueyaEdit

Saqueya[6] (Σακυεια λιγγυο Saqueya linguo) is a dialect of Augustan spoken in the Sakvejo region in Zardugal. Saqueyo is notable by its closer proximity to Ancient Augustan, being less influenced by the Delic (Slavic) languages than standard Augustan. Other differences from the literary language include a more synthetic form of plural (-i instead of the standard -oj), a passive voice inherited from Ancient Augustan, a slightly different system of transliteration into the Selucian alphabet, and the near-total abandonment of the -n ending for accusative, in addition to a number of differences in vocabulary. Overall, however, Saqueya is mutually intelligible with standard Augustan.

IngomidêEdit

Ingomidê[7] (Ιγγομιδη) is an Augustan dialect spoken in the Ingomo region of Zardugal. Ingomidê is more divergent from the standard Augustan grammar and vocabulary, and notably also has a phoneme not present in other dialects, /ə/ (written as ‹η› in the Kalopian script and ‹ê› in the Selucian script). Other differences include the removal of the noun ending in -o (or replacing it with ê), replacing the plural in -oj with -s, and a number of vocabulary differences.

Dilganat'Edit

Dilganat'[8] (Διλγανατ') is a dialect of Augustan spoken in the Dilganato region in Cobura. Dilganat' differs from standard Augustan primarily in terms of grammar; the most notable feature is the transformation of verbs into nouns and the transfer of mood and tense suffixes to nearby parts of speech. Additionally, nouns lose their endings, adjectives merge with their head nouns, and the plural ending -oj is replaced with the collective suffix -ar-.

Ĵino Edit

Ĵino is an Augustan dialect mostly spoken in Cobura. It is the biggest Augustan dialect spoken in Cobura, differences include grammar and vocabulary changes. The dialect is best known for its pronouns and corresponding grammar rules, such as replacing the overall -as in present tense for other, specified sufifixes.

OOC NotesEdit

Augustan is Esperanto, while Ancient Augustan is Arcaicam Esperantom. There is an Esperanto version of wikipedia, here. This is a table of correspondences for writing Esperanto with the Greek alphabet.

Saqueya is Ido, Ingomidê is Popido, Dilganat' is Esperant'.


ReferencesEdit

  1. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16967/16967-h/16967-h.htm English-Esperanto dictionary
  2. http://www.behindthename.com/names/usage/esperanto Esperanto names
  3. http://classic.particracy.net/viewbill.php?billid=400293 In-Game guide for names in Esperanto
  4. https://sites.google.com/site/wurdbendur/esperanto_greek Guide for transcribing Esperanto in the Greek alphabet
  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcaicam_Esperantom
  6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ido_%28language%29
  7. http://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Popido
  8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esperantido#Esperant.E2.80.99
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