Logo of the Alliance, adopted in 4792
|Founded||19 May 4737|
|Merger of||Progressives of the Left|
Various liberal and left-wing groups
|Student wing||Alliance Students|
|Youth wing||Alliance Youth|
|Seats in the Assembly|
|District legislative seats|
|Town, city and rural council seats|
The Alliance (Turjak: Ittifak), formerly known as the Democratic Alliance (Turjak: Demokratik Ittifak), is a major political party in Jakania. Since its foundation in 4737, the party has been one of two dominant parties in Jakanian politics alongside Birlik.
Founded in 4737 by the merger of several existing political parties, the Alliance won a landslide election in November of that year. After five years in majority government, the party entered a coalition agreement after the 4742 elections alongside Birlik and Niyaz. Alliance cabinet members resigned their posts in 4745 after a series of internal disagreements and for several years, the party formed the official opposition to a Birlik minority government alongside the left-wing party Umut.
After the 4751 Jakanian general election, the party returned to power under the leadership of Zehra Apak and formed successive coalition governments with Umut and Kalopian Unity, a Kalopian nationalist party. In 4762, two general elections saw the Alliance in a weakened electoral position and they returned to opposition with the formation of the Basri government.
Apak returned to the Premiership following the 4767 Jakanian general election but retired within three years. Former President Nuray Cevahir replaced her as party leader and the Alliance won the 4772 Jakanian general election with a slightly increased majority under his leadership, before he too retired and was replaced by Eldemir Bal as party leader. Bal led the party into the 4777 Jakanian general election in which the Alliance increased their vote tally but lost their legislative majority.
Generally characterised as a "big tent" or "catch all" political movement, the party supports Ahmadi democracy and social democratic economic policies. In the first years of its foundation the party supported liberal social policies, including gay and lesbian rights. Over the past two decades the party has shifted significantly to the right on social issues and is now often characterised as "socially conservative".
The Democratic Alliance emerged from a series of meetings between left-wing and liberal Jakanian political leaders in the 4737. A combination of political parties, trade unions and pressure groups held a series of meetings in the Jakanian capital in order to discuss the best approach to bring a return to democracy for the country. The ultimate decision was to merge several smaller parties, notably the Progressives of the Left and the Jakanian Greens together to form a single political entity, the Democratic Alliance.
The most prominent individuals involved in these meetings were Khaalid al-Hashmi, Zehra Apak, Nuray Cevahir and Aytolun Toker. With the exception of al-Hashmi, a union leader, all had been directly involved with existing political parties. Alongside former documentary filmmaker Yilma Bal, who they invited to become the party's inaugural leader, they are often cited as the "founding figures" of the Alliance. In the early years of the party's history, many of these figures went on to hold significant positions in party and national leadership. For example, al-Hashmi served as Jakanian Foreign Minister, Cevahir as President and Apak became the party's first elected leader when Bal retired.
Throughout early 4737, the Alliance drafted a new constitution for Jakania with extensive input from elected citizen's assemblies. In May the newly drafted constitution was approved in a special constitutional referendum.
4737-4742: Bal governmentEdit
In the first elections after the implementation of the Constitution, the Alliance won a landslide majority in the Assembly and Nuray Cevahir was elected President on the party's ticket. In the aftermath of these results, the party formed a government under the leadership of Yilma Bal, which included many of the party's founding figures in cabinet roles.
In the first half of this term, the Alliance governed without any parliamentary opposition and implemented a significant policy programme that included the nationalisation of the oil and gas industry. By the parliamentary term though, three Assembly Deputies defected to the newly formed Birlik (Luthorian: Unity) movement.
4742-4745: Coalition governmentEdit
Following the 4742 Jakanian general election, the Alliance was left as the smallest party with representation in the national legislature. In order to prevent the secularist and pacifist Umut from entering government and ensure the stability of the new Consitution, the Alliance entered into a coalition government with Birlik and Niyaz. All three parties shared a commitment to Ahmadi democracy but there was little in terms of shared policy programmes. Former Alliance deputy Baran Batuk replaced Bal as Premier of Jakania.
4745-4751: Resignation and oppositionEdit
After a series of fallouts in the government, the four Alliance ministers resigned their positions. Two early elections followed but failed to resolve the matter of governing the country and eventually the party supported a Birlik minority government.
4751-4763: Apak governmentsEdit
In the wake of the 4751 Jakanian general election, the Alliance won the presidency with the support of Umut. The two parties emerged with a significant majority over the previous governing party Birlik in the Assembly and formed a coalition government led by Alliance leader Zehra Apak. Her confirmation as Premier makes Apak the third of the party's original founding figures to serve in one of Jakania's two leading political offices.
The coalition won a reduced majority in the 4756 Jakanian general election. Following the sudden collapse of Umut, the Alliance turned to the Kalopian nationalist Kalopian Unity for government support.
4763-4767: Return to oppositionEdit
Apak continued to serve as Premier until the December 4762 Jakanian general election saw Birlik emerge as the largest political party and she was replaced by long-time political rival Ayleen Basri.
4767-4785: Cevahir and Bal governmentsEdit
The 4767 Jakanian general election saw the Alliance win an outright legislative majority and Apak returned to the Premiership. Before the end of the term however, she stepped down from the leadership position and former President Nuray Cevahir took over the leadership of the party, without an election by the membership.
Cevahir continued the political programme advanced during Apak's later years and the gradual shift within the party leadership away form their social liberal roots, adopting increasingly conservative positions on gay and lesbian rights as well as the national service scheme.
Despite winning the 4772 Jakanian general election with an increased majority, Cevahir stepped down in 4773. The subsequent leadership election is often cited as a turning point for the Alliance. Eldemir Bal, son of former leader Yilma Bal, won a victory over left-wing candidate Odul Sen who would later defect to Compromise.
On a platform of constitutional reform, Eldemir Bal was elected President in the 4780 Jakanian general election. After forming a government with the Democratic Party, he lost the 4785 Jakanian general election to Orhan Tüfekçi of Birlik.
The party performed poorly in both the 4785 Jakanian general election and the 4790 Jakanian general election, culminating in the resignation of party leader and former President Eldemir Bal. The young Deputy Safiye Aydin-Uysal was elected as his replacement.
From the beginning, the party has been characterised as a broad coalition of ideological traditions. Economically the party is left-wing and advocates for an economic programme known as socialism with a Jakanian sensibility. The primary divisions within the party are between secularists and supporters of Ahmadi democracy, with the latter being dominant. Particularly under the leadership of Eldemir Bal, the party has become increasingly conservative on social issues.
Owing in part to its founding principles, the Alliance is organised as a mass-membership party. Although membership declined in the aftermath of their period of government, subsequent years in opposition as well as the development of an effective two-party system in Jakania have led to a boost in numbers since the end of the last decade.
With significant internal democracy, party members are an important factors in determining the leadership and policy direction within the party. Like the party's national representatives, party members are often divided into various ideological factions with the "Ahmadi democrats" among the most prominent.
The most significant role of the membership is the ability to popularly elect the national party leader when there is a vacancy, or when an incumbent is challenged. Prior to any election, candidates are required to earn the backing of a certain number of local party branches in order to stand. Party branches are organised approximately in line with town, city and rural councils.
|No.||Leader (birth–death)||Image||Took office||Left office||Premier / President*|
|1|| Yilma Bal
(4691 – 4768)
|19 May 4737||30 November 4747||Himself (4737–4743)|
|Baran Batuk (4743–4751)|
|-|| Khaalid al-Hashmi
(4676 – 4753)
|30 November 4747||27 February 4748|
|2|| Zehra Apak
(4695 – 4792)
|27 February 4748||30 May 4770|
|Ayleen Basri (4763–4767)|
|3|| Nuray Cevahir
(4701 – 4785)
|30 May 4770||27 June 4773||Himself (4770–4773)|
|4|| Eldemir Bal
|27 June 4773||12 November 4790||Himself (4773–4780)|
|Mut Baba (4780–4781)|
| Orhan Tüfekçi|
|5|| Safiye Aydin-Uysal
|12 November 4790||incumbent|
*From the adoption of the 4737 Jakanian Constitution until the 4781 Jakanian constitutional reforms, the Jakanian head of government was the Premier. After the reforms, the President became head of state and head of government. The table shows who held the office that corresponded to head of government at the time.