Baltusia, officially the United States of Baltusia, is a country located in North Seleya. It consists of 5 states, 201 counties and a federal district.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Political divisions
- 6 Judicial system
- 7 Foreign relations
- 8 Military
- 9 Economy
- 10 Demographics
- 11 Culture
Baltusia has been known by a number of names, notably the 'Federal Republic of Baltusia' and the 'Workers Republic of Baltusia' before becoming the United States. The exact origins of the name are not known exactly but it is likely to have emerged from a combination the native tribes who inhabited the area in antiquity and successive colonial regimes.
Prior to 1889 much of modern Baltusia, including the states of Santiago, New Egelion, Ralston and Attano belonged to the Selucian Empire. Other parts of modern Baltusia, including the state of Westbrook belong to Native Seleyan tribes (or the Mashacara). Selucian possessions in what is now Baltusia were governed from Gaduridos. The Luthorian Empire governed colonies to the north (Lodamun) and north-east (Kalistan) of modern Baltusia. Many Selucian settlers arrived in Santiago and New Egelion, with their language eventually changing to modern Egelion. The Selucians also brought large number of black slaves to work on plantations along the coast of Gaduridos, including in Santiago.
From the mid-1850's many Luthorian settlers began to move south from Luthorian colonies into territory controlled by the Selucian Empire. In response the Selucian authorities encouraged Canrillaise settlers settle in Attano, however Luthorians began to make up a larger number of settlers in what is now Attano and Ralston states.
In the 1870's Luthori settlers began to agitate for greater self-government. The abolition of the slave trade in 1881 caused great concern that the Selucian authorities were about to abolish slavery and in 1884 Luthori settlers declared independence from the Selucian Empire, establishing the Ralston Republic. After a short campaign Luthori settlers defeated the local colonial authorities and enjoyed five years of independence.
North Seleyan Wars
Baltusia's modern history begins in the late 19th century following the North Seleyan Wars. Baltusia was on the front line between Luthori and Selucian Empires. In response to the Ralston secession the Selucians built up colonial forces in Gaduridos and Baltusia, which lead to the outbreak of the Third Plateau War in 1889.
During this conflict the Ralston Republic invited Luthori forces to occupy the territory. In a series of battles Luthorian forces defeated Selucian forces in the region and in 1894 the Selucians agreed that Baltusia would become a part of the Luthorian Empire.
After independence the new Baltusian government initiated a series of wars against Native Seleyan tribes in Western Baltusia. This gradually expanded the size of the states of Attano, Ralston and New Egelion and also led to the creation of a fifth state, Westbrook. The Native Seleyan population was significantly reduced in size and Westbrook was opened up to increased settlement, including from Valruzian and Dundorfian speaking settlers.
Baltusian War of Independence
Although Luthorian rule encouraged increased migration from Luthori and from Luthorian colonies in northern Seleya, the local Luthori, Egelion and Canrillaise populations grew restive. Frustrated at the Luthorian high levels of taxation, initially raised to pay for the North Seleyan Wars, the local settler populations declared independence in 2035 leading to the Baltusian War of Independence. The four year conflict led to international recognition of Baltusian independence in 2039.
Baltusia borders five other nations, them being Valruzia, Kalistan, Lodamun, Tukarali, and Gaduridos, with Baltusia proper being located in northern Seleya. It has a small area of coastline in the south-east.
Government and politics
Baltusia is a constitutional parliamentary republic, where the President is the Head of State, but he is not the head of government and executive power, positions that are occupied by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister, as he is the head of government and the executive branch, is also the leader of the country. The President acts under the constitution, and is also generally the commander-in-chief of the Baltusian Armed Forces. The President is elected every four years, at the same time as the Parliament, State Governors and State Legislatures. Due to its importance within Baltusia's political system, it is common for ideologically similar parties to support a single candidate. There are no official Presidential term limits, though serving a decade or less is customary.
The legislative branch, the Parliament, is generally regarded as the most powerful as any and all legislation that government proposes must be approved by a majority of the members in the Parliament, of which there are 160 Members (600 after the next election), apportioned equally between the five States. The Baltusian Parliament is elected at the same time as the executive.
Parties and elections
See also: Political parties in Baltusia
See also: Elections in Baltusia
Baltusian elections are mostly a battle between left-wing and centre-right political parties, occasionally seeing right-wing Conservative and fundamentalist Hosian parties play a key role. This divide can be found to originate as far back as the Baltusian Civil War, fought between 4086-4089.
See also: Administrative Divisions of Baltusia
Baltusia is composed of five States (listed in the table below), which are further subdivided into one-hundred-and-one counties. Each county is given a number to be used for official purposes, such as vehicle registration and postal codes. The name given to the head of government of those states is Premier, and the name given to the President's representative in the states is Governor.
The degree to which Baltusia can be described as 'federalist' is debatable. While the central government maintains control over most policy areas, local governments are responsible for some decisions such as funding for policing.
In 4448, Parliament approved the National Referendum on Replacement of State Flags and Seals, which among other things, established the official State Flags and Seals of every State. And most importantly, the amendment created the figure of the State Governor. The State Governor is elected by the people, in a different ballot but at the same time as Baltusia elects their members to the Baltusian Senate, and the President of Baltusia.
In 4946, The Flag and Seal were changed to reflect the new Socialist Republic. The Baltusian Flag and Seal were changed back to it's original form when Baltusia was a Federal Republic/Democracy. (Unknown time of the flag being changed)
|New Egelion||381,300 km²||19,977,734||Johnston, District of Dove (D.D.)|
|Santiago||264,600 km²||19,868,043 (5053)||San Luis|
|Attano||345,900 km²||19,872,856||New Valois|
|Westbrook||282,300 km²||19,989,324||Schwarzwald (Luthorian: Blackwood)|
Baltusia's system is complex and cannot be easily defined. Primarily, laws arise from written statutes (Acts of the Baltusian Congress) and the role of judges is merely to interpret law- not to make it. However, judges do have some power to determine whether government ministers are acting 'outside their authority'. Furthermore, the 2039 Declaration of Rights provides the basis for Baltusian common law, i.e. law in areas where there is no clear statutory provision.
Under the present legal system, regional courts are the most common form of court. Nonetheless, a number of higher levels exist, to which the decisions of regional courts may be appealed, and the Supreme Court of Baltusia represents the highest court of appeal in Baltusia. Between the years 5004 and 5011, the Baltusian Senate has approved a judicial system reform that has implemented a uniform court system across the country.
Baltusia maintains positive relationships with a number of other Terran nations. Owing to its geographical position and shared history, Kalistan is one of its most important economic partners. Baltusia has trade deals with the Democratic Republic of Tukarali and Dolgarstan. Baltusia has ended ties with Pontesi, Kazulia, and the Kivonian Republic. The Rowiet Union of Dankuk has become an important ally of Baltusia in recent years.
The Baltusian Armed Forces are the military forces of Baltusia, under the president as Commander in Chief. They consist of the Baltusian Army , Baltusian Navy, the Baltusian Air Force.
The Military is a two-tier system, with the Lower tier being Provincial, and the Upper-tier being Federal, and the entire system known as the Baltusian Armed Forces. The Provincial Tier contains the police department, as well as a Provincial Army which is used for defending the province and patroling borders. The Provincial Assembly, Governor, and the provincial military executive organize the Army,but have no say if the National Assembly or President descdes to send in National Troops. The Federal Tier is controlled by the National Military Executives, President, cabinet, and rarely, Congress.
The Baltusian Armed Forces are made up of the Army, Air Force, and Navy. The Baltusian Armed Forces are organized and led by the Baltusian Department of Defense, which is charged with the matter concerning the Baltusian Armed Forces and national security. The Head of the Department of Defense is the Minister of National Defense and Veterans Affairs, who is supposed to execute the polocies concerning the military.
These policies are determined by the Commander-in-Chief, who is the President and is also responsible for making major military decisions during a war. The body that advises the president and receives his or her orders are the National Military Executives. This board is made up of the Minister of National Defense and Veteran Affairs and various officers of the Baltusian Armed Forces. Baltusia has domestic and international intelligence agencies, and have separate leaders, who are chosen by the President.
Baltusia derives 79% of its electricity from renewable energy sources, the highest percentage in the world. Baltusia previously had a mixed economy which combines extensive private enterprise (nearly 2.5 million companies registered) with substantial state enterprise.
Baltusia now has a collectivized economy, with the government controlling central industry, and worker cooperatives overseeing all other parts
Baltusia is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the ten most industrialised countries in the world, due to its heavy investment in renewable power. As a result of large investments in renewable technology, most of the electricity produced in the country is generated by renewable energy power plants (water, wind and solar).
Baltusia has historically been an important producer of agricultural products. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and provincial subsidies have combined to make Baltusia the leading agricultural producer and exporter in North Seleya (representing alone 20% of the Seleyan agricultural production) and the world's seventh biggest exporter of agricultural products.
Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as an internationally recognised processed foods are the primary Baltusian agricultural exports. Wines are primarily consumed within the country, but Lindar Valley wines are major exports, being known worldwide.
Provincial agriculture subsidies in Baltusia have increased for the last years, amounting to 50,000,000,000 BLD in 4947. Agriculture is thus an important sector of Baltusian economy : 6.5% of the active population is employed in agriculture, whereas the total agri-food industry made up 4.2% of Baltusian GDP in 3395.
Infrastructure and transport network is overseen by the government. State housing is available for those in need and there is a nationalised train operator and postal agency.
Baltusia is somewhat mixed demographically. Although most people regard themselves as Baltusians, Baltusian people have a variety of different ancestries and there are differences between those who have a white, black, Indralan or Native Seleyan ancestry.
The census of 4450 asked Baltusians what their self-identified ancestry was, giving the following returns.
- Luthorian-Baltusians - 47.6%
- Esinsundu-Baltusians - 27.4%
- Egelion-Baltusians - 11.0%
- Indralan-Baltusians - 4.5%
- Dundorfian-Baltusians - 3.1%
- Native Seleyans (or Mashcara) - 1.2%
- Kazulian-Baltusians - 0.5%
- Other - 4.7%
Baltusia is primarily a nation of Hosians. with multiple religious minorities and a large number of athiests.
In Baltusia, education is compulsory until the age of sixteen, although home schooling is permitted under certain circumstances. Higher education is provided by the state.
|History||Gaduri Miracle - Revolution of 2356 - Baltusian Civil War|
|Politics||President - Congress - Political parties|
|Demographics||Ethnic Groups: Baltusian - White Baltusian - Black Baltusian |
Religion: Hosianism - Yeudism - Ahmadism
|Culture||Sport - Superpolo|
|Economy||Agriculture - Mining - Tourism|