Flag Coat of Arms
|Capital Qart Qildar|
|Languages Ancient Cildanian, Ancient Kalopian, Classical Selucian, Ancient Kathuran|
|Government Oligarchic Republic|
The Cildanian Hegemony (Ancient Cildanian: Mḣannūt biQedar; Selucian: Imperium Cildanium), also known as the Qedarite Empire or simply Qedar, was an ancient empire centred around the Qedarite city-state of Qart Qildar in Cildania, which established hegemony over Qedarite, Kalopian and Selucian city-states and tribes throughout the Majatran Sea. The Empire collapsed as a result of the Jelbo-Tukaric Migrations and a civil war between Qart Qildar and the other city-states on the island.
The Qedarite Empire was in fact a collection of alliances between Qart Qildar and the cities and communities around the Majatran Sea, on more or less favorable terms depending on whether a given city had voluntarily allied with Qart Qildar or been defeated in war. Thus there was no single official name for the entire Hegemony under Cildanian rule; the Cildanian Republic itself was officially known as Safoṭ Shofṭim biQart Qildar ("the Hosts of the Judges of Qart Qildar"), hence the modern Cildanian word for "republic", Safoṭ; the name of the Republic referred to the power of the Suffets (Shofṭim), the rulers of the state, to command armies. The overall Empire of Cildania City was known as Mḣannūt biQedar, literally "Armies in Majatra" (Qedar is the Cildanian name for the continent, deriving from the name of the Qedarites).
- c. 700 BCE: Qart Qildar founded
- c. 500 BCE: Ariel leads Qedarites to Beiteynu
- 6th-4th century BCE: Cildanian colonies established around the Majatran Sea by various city-states on the island
- 451-437 BCE: Qart Qildar-Ramal War; Qart Qildar emerges victorious against the hegemon of the time and subdues the entire island
- 421-407 BCE: Gradual conquest of Badaran islands; Qedarite Empire founded; most Cildanian colonies incorporated into Empire
- 398-280 BCE: Selucian Wars; the Selucian islands are conquered after a number of wars; Selucian colonies in Pontesi, Barmenia, Deltaria, and Jelbania also subdued
- 271-226 BCE: Conquest of North-West Majatra
- 215-205 BCE: Conquest of Kafuristan, Solentia, and Kalopia
- c. 143 BCE - 22 CE: Crisis of the Cildanian Empire; extended period of political instability and social unrest, caused by economic collapse, civil war, plague, and invasion
- c. 100 BCE-c. 50 CE: Jelbo-Tukaric Migrations; Jelbo-Tukaric tribes from Seleya invade and migrate into Qedarite lands
- 95 BCE: Fall of Kafuristan and Solentia
- 81 BCE: Fall of Badara
- 71 BCE: Fall of Kalopia
- 44 BCE: Timur Khan of the Yelb tribe unifies all invading Jelbo-Tukarics under his empire
- 37 BCE: Timur conquers Deltaria and Jelbania; Leucopolis resists conquest
- 31 BCE: Peace between Qedarite Empire and Timur; Cildania agrees to grant trade rights and pay tribute to Yelb Empire
- 27 BCE: Timur dies and his empire collapses; Yelbs however continue westward invasion
- 25 BCE-22 CE: Civil war between Qart Qildar and the city-states on the island, dissatisfied with the heavy cost imposed on them due to wars with Yelbs and lack of citizenship rights; Qart Qildar is defeated, and all city-states gain independence
- 1 CE: Hosianism founded in Cildanian-ruled Beiteynu
- 22 CE: Fall of Qedarite Empire
The Qedarite Empire was a Republican empire, whereby the Republic of Qart Qildar ruled over a large hegemony formed a number of city-states and tribes around the Majatran Sea. The cities under Cildanian rule were theoretically independent, but in practice Qart Qildar had the right to demand from them tribute money and a certain number of soldiers. Cildania also had virtual control over the allies' foreign policy, including their interaction with one another. Until the Yelb Wars, for the most part the communities under Qedarite rule were content to remain as client states of Cildania in return for local autonomy.
Qart Qildar itself was an oligarchic republic with democratic elements, relying on a system of checks and balances. The Cildanian state was ruled by two annually elected and non-hereditary rulers named Suffets (Shofṭim), literally meaning "Judges". These two rulers were elected annually from among the most wealthy and influential families and ruled collegially, and after serving a term in office, a Suffet could only be re-elected to that position after ten years. The power of the Suffets was relatively limited, however they served as collegial commanders-in-chief of the Empire's armed forces, with leadership alternating every other day. They also had judicial and executive power. The Suffets were elected by the Cildanian Senate, a supreme council representing the major aristocratic and plutocratic families of Qart Qildar. Although not a legislative institution, as the Senate was in charge of the Treasury and Foreign Affairs, it was considered the supreme ruling body of the Republic and its Empire. Laws were passed by a Popular Assembly, formed of popularly elected legislators and representatives of trade unions. The power of the Popular Assembly, although theoretically wide, was in practice limited by the fact that the Senate had to approve spending for every law. The Assembly did nonetheless have the power to cast the decisive vote in case of a conflict between the Suffets and the Senate.
Before the 4th century BCE, Cildania also had a hereditary King; the power of the monarch was however very limited by the Senate and the Suffets, and by the time of the Selucian Wars the title had fallen into disuse.
Qedarite culture revolved around the city of Qart Qildar, which had a vast number of monumental structures like theatres, gymnasiums, marketplaces, functional sewers, bath complexes complete with libraries and shops, and fountains with fresh drinking water. Life in Qart Qildar was based on the Cildanian ideal of citizenship in the city-state, such as the principles of equality under the law, civic participation in government, and notions that no one citizen should have too much power for too long. In time, the culture of Cildania blended with those of the peoples under Qedarite rule to create a common culture that helped unite diverse groups within the empire.
The native language of the Cildanians was Ancient Cildanian, a Qedarite (Semitic) language closely related to Yeudi. Cildanian was written in the Qedarite script, the first alphabetic writing system on Terra which subsequently gave birth to most other alphabets. While Cildanian remained the main written language of the Qedarite Empire, other languages also gained prominence. Cildanian was never able to replace Selucian in Selucia proper and the Selucian colonies; in the South, Selucian evolved into Augustan, Ushalandan, and Istalian after the fall of the Qedarite Empire. Also in the South, Kalopian became a lingua franca and the language of the educated elite, even amongst the Selucian population. In West Majatra Kathuran emerged as the regional lingua franca, and the Kathuran adaptation of the Qedarite script, the Arakhim alphabet, was adopted as the writing system of Cildanian and Yeudi towards the end of the Empire.
Cildanian religion was based on Qedarite religious practices and was polytheistic in nature. The supreme divine couple was that of Baʿal Shamay ("Lord of Heavens") and Ishtart. Cildanian pantheon was presided over by the father of the gods, but Ishtart was the principal figure in the Qedarite pantheon. As the Cildanians extended their dominance throughout the Majatran world, their policy in general was to absorb the deities and cults of other peoples rather than try to eradicate them, since they believed that preserving tradition promoted social stability. One way that Qedar incorporated diverse peoples was by supporting their religious heritage, building temples to local deities that framed their theology within the hierarchy of Cildanian religion. At the height of the Empire Cildania hosted a large array of divinities from the civilizations it conquered.
Throughout the Empire's history the Cildanian armies were organized similarly to the classical Kalopian Phalanx. The core of Cildanian military was its citizen militia, known as the Cildanian Phalanx (Dorkim Qildarim), formed of citizens of Qart Qildar. After the Selucian-Cildanian Wars Cildania acquired an overseas empire, which necessitated standing forces to fight lengthy wars of conquest and to garrison the newly gained provinces. Thus the army's character mutated from a temporary force based entirely on short-term conscription to a standing army in which the conscripts were complemented by a large number of volunteers. The elite unit of the Cildanian military was the "Sacred Band" (Dorkim Kdoshim), a group of soldiers that were dedicated to Baʿal Shamay, the supreme god of the Cildanian pantheon; They were all members of the nobility, and were called upon to fight their country’s wars as an elite unit that formed the right wing of the phalanx.
As Cildanian hegemony expanded over large territories, the majority of forces under Cildanian command were foreign. These forces were composed of recruits from Cildanian allies fighting for Qart Qildar in accordance with bilateral treaties. This was the main cause of the Social War of 25 BCE-22 CE that brought the Empire to an end; the allies of Qart Qildar on the Cildanian island had beared most of the cost of the war with the Yelbs while being deprived of Cildanian citizenship and the privileges it implied.
The Cildanian Empire had a major impact on Majatran history, creating a more or less unified culture around the Majatran Sea based on a syncretism of Qedarite (Semitic) and Enetric (Graeco-Roman) cultures. The Qedarite Empire essentially became the progenitor of Majatran civilization, and the customs, religion, law, technology, architecture, political system, military, literature, languages, alphabet, government and many factors and aspects of Majatran civilization are all inherited from Cildanian advancements. The Empire was also fundamental for the spread of the Hosian religion, although the Jelbo-Tukaric migrations halted its expansion for a few centuries. Moreover, all writing systems used on Majatra, and subsequently most writing systems on Terra, originate from the Qedarite script (Phoenician script) used to write the ancient Cildanian language.
Politically, the Kingdom of Leucopolis, and consequently the Augustan Empire, derived its legitimacy from the Qedarite Empire. Leucopolis remained loyal to Qart Qildar even after the rest of Qedarite territory was overrun by the invading Jelbo-Tukarics, maintaining the Qedarite-Enetric syncretism that characterized Qedar into Medieval times and subsequently impacting the cultures of the other South Majatran civilizations following the conquests of Augustus the Great.