Cobura is a melting pot of ethnicity, religion and culture. The people of Cobura are generally patriotic to the state but also likely to primarily identify themselves with their racial, ethnic or religious group.
|c. 2500 BCE – 402 CE||Kingdom of Irkawa||Monarchy|
|402 - 1401||Augustan Empire||Monarchy|
|1401 - 1477||Emirate of Cobura||Autonomous province of Ahmadi Caliphate|
|1477 - 2114||Kingdom of Cobura||Feudal monarchy|
|2114 - 2116||Republic of Cobura||Military dictatorship|
|2116 - 3527||Republic of Cobura||Democratic republic; military dictatorship|
|3527 - 3566||Deltarian Kingdom of Cobura||Constitutional monarchy; Deltarian vassal state|
|3566 - 3570||Sovereignty of Cobura||Constitutional monarchy|
|3570 - 3601||Federated Zardic States of Cobura||Constitutional monarchy; Zardic vassal state|
|3601 - 3607||Imperial Augustan Republic of Cobura||Democratic republic|
|3607 - 3645||Praetorian Prefecture of Cobura||Autonomous province of Augustan Empire|
|3645 - 3672||Imperial Augustan Republic of Cobura||Democratic republic|
|3672 - 3857||Democratic Republic of Cobura||Semi-Presidential Representative Democratic Republic|
|3857 - 4317||Kingdom of Cobura||Executive Constitutional Monarchy|
|4317 - 4380||United Governorates of Cobura||Semi-presidential Republic|
|4380 - 4398||United Socialist Governorates of Cobura||Communist Dictatorship|
|4398 - 4650||United Kingdom of Cobura||Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy|
|4650 - 4671||Union of Cobura||Parliamentary Transitional Republic|
|4671 -||Union of Cobura||Federal Parliamentary Republic|
GeographyEditCobura is typically split into four principle regions in physical geography: the Northern region, including the Dovana range; the Central region, including the Cintra forest; the Southeast, mostly taken up by Domale; and the Higgs Peninsula. Lake Majatra, bordering the North, is closely associated with Cobura, and is often included in standard Coburan geography textbooks.
North RegionEditThe Northern region is dominated by higher ground, and is bordered by Zardugal, Jakania, and Lake Majatra. It is separated from the rest of Cobura by the San Quato river, which supplies the region's most dependable source of moisture. The North holds the two largest Coburan lakes: Higgins Lake, named after the former President, and Dilaguadia. Perhaps the most striking feature of the North lies not in the water, however, but in the magnificent mountains present. The Dovana Range, in fact, is the largest concentration of mountains in Cobura, and Mount Gateia is the country's highest point of elevation. Eastwards, Mount Augustanii stands as the second tallest Coburan mountain, and is a great source of pride in Dilganato. The North is the largest of all Coburan regions, both by geography and population. Although residents face difficulties such as higher elevation, which increases the cost of transport, and uncomfortably hot temperatures by Coburan standards (the annual regional average is between 31 and -8 degrees Celsius), the Northern economy is very strong and thus renders the region attractive to citizens. In addition to the permanent population, the North is a popular destination for tourism and vacation residency, both of which thrive due to the presence of Lake Majatra, Mount Augustanii, the Dovana Range, the Zardugalian and Jakanian borders, and lakes Higgins and Dilaguadia.
Central RegionEditCentral Cobura is dominated by the Cintra forest. Cintra is a large temperate rainforest, the largest in Southwestern Majatra, and the majority of it has been designated a protected environmental zone.
Due to the vast reaches of the Central Coburan conservation effort, settlement is limited, and sprawling metropolises nonexistent. Instead, most effort is focused on securing the future of the lush forests. Average annual temperatures range between 17 and 5 degrees Celsius, with copius precipitation. Species diversity is astonishingly high, leading some to label the region the Ecological Paradise of Cobura.
The Southeast region is taken up entirely by the State of Domale. In contrast to the Northern plains and Central forests, the Southeast is dominated by grassland and a temperate climate, with moderate rainfall and average temperatures between 4 and 15 degrees Celsius. The soil is fertile and perfect for agriculture, which has led to Domale becoming Cobura's principle breadbasket. As a result, the Southeast's population density is lower than in the Higgs Peninsula or the North.
The Southeast's reliance on agriculture and rural living has resulted in the region lagging somewhat behind the rest of the nation technologically. Far from striving to amend this, many Domalians take pride in their reliance on manual labor and the idyllic, rustic view many outsiders have of their State. Although this leads to an influx of tourism and the occasional establishment of Utopia-building communities nostalgic for the past, the unfortunate consequence is that disease is more rampant and educational standards lower in Domale than elsewhere. In an attempt to remedy this, the national government has allocated a large portion of funds into Domale which, although improving the situation to some extent, has wounded local pride and fostered resentment toward outsiders.
Like Southeastern Cobura, the Higgens Peninsula rests entirely in the State of Tokundi. Climactically, the Higgs Peninsula is similar to the Southeast, though slightly colder and more forested. Culturally, Tokundi is the most unique of all Coburan states.
Although most of Cobura favors national unitarism, Tokundi citizens have always identified more with their region than their country. The State is marked by more militaristic, populist, and autocratic tendencies than the rest of the nation, and their culture glorifies military conquest -- something often frowned upon by non-Tokundi. In the past, the disparity between Tokundi and Coburan society has resulted in the establishment of Tokundi-centric parties, almost all statist in nature: most notably the infamous Tokundski Nacionalisti, which established the early Junta; the Free Tokundi Party; and the recent Tokundi Reform Party, founded by former members of the New People's Party. Tokundi was a base of power for the Populist Movement, which still retains a modicum of influence in the region. Linguistically, Tokundi's ties to the rest of Cobura are further weakened, as the major national language of English has been altered into a Tokundi-specific dialect. Though tourists from outside the region are able to understand the Tokundi, it takes a bit of effort and practice for most to be able to understand every word said with no confusion.
Despite enjoying the same fertile soils as the Southeast, Tokundi culture generally places a low value on farming, and the population is subsequently considerably denser. The Higgs Peninsula possesses the three major cities of Tokundburgh, Karlsburg, and Toklinn, the last of which enjoys the status of being Cobura's primary port. The regional economy is thoroughly reliant on manufacturing, though fishing plays a smaller role, and is one of the most consistently strong in all of Cobura. In fact, Tokundi's manufacturing districts supply goods for most of Cobura, and have been strongly attractive to workers during times of financial crisis.
Generally speaking, the Coburan people have often sided on more liberal policies. However, Coburans are often regarded as having little interest in national politics and are often listed as one of the most politically apathetic people in Majatra.
|Politics & Government of Cobura|
he government of Cobura takes place within the framework of a democratic, constitutional monarchy. The Head of State is the Emperor of the Esinsundu Empire, also referred to as the Crown, who serves as a symbol of the unity of the State, guarantor of the permanence and of the continuity of the State and arbiter between the institutions, sees to respect for the Constitution, to the good functioning of the constitutional institutions, to the protection of democratic choice and of the rights and freedoms of the citizens of the Governorates, and to respect for the international commitments of the State. He is the guarantor of the independence of the country and of the territorial integrity of the State within its authentic frontiers.. However, the larger part of his role is mostly ceremonial. The Crown is part of the Government, but does not hold a position in the Cabinet. When speaking about the relation between the Crown and the executive branch, the Crown is mostly perceived as a ceremonial position with no powerful political influence. The most important political tasks are given to the Prime Minister (Augustan: ''Ŝtatsministro'').
The Coburan Cabinet is the executive branch of the Coburan Government and is headed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister holds the highest political office in Cobura, and oversees the general affairs of the Cabinet.
Cobura's legislative body is the House of Representatives (Augustan: 'Chambro de Representativoj). The House is located in the capital city of Sharba, and counts 355 representatives.
Current Political PartiesEdit
|Name in Cobura||Name in Luthori||Ideology||Seats||Status|
|Bihērawī Dēmokiratisi||Esinsundu National Democrats||Liberalism||162||Government|
|Esinsundu Sociaj Demokratoj||Esinsundu Social Democrats||Social-Democracy||101||Government|
|Girīmi Komīnīsiti||Green Communist Front||Eco-Communism||92||Opposition|
The nationwide executive branch of Cobura consists of several ministries and services, all headed by a minister, state secretary or director.
- Prime Minister, performs the role of the Head of Government and serves as the highest political office in Cobura.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which manages Cobura's foreign policy.
- Ministry of Internal Affairs, which manages domestic activities not covered by other Ministers.
- Ministry of Finance, which exercises powers relating to the economy and financial policy of the state.
- Ministry of Defence, which manages the activities of the Coburan Armed Forces and advises the Prime Minister and Governors on military matters.
- Ministry of Justice, which oversees the judiciary.
- Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, which manages Coburan infrastructure.
- Ministry of Health and Social Services, which oversees the welfare system and the administration of health care.
- Ministry of Education and Culture, which organizes educational projects for the nation, including the building of schools, museums, libraries, and so on.
- Ministry of Science and Technology, which sets research goals and allocates science funding. Often works closely with the Ministry of Health and Social Services.
- Ministry of Food and Agriculture, which deals with the logistics of feeding Cobura and how the nation's agricultural initiatives may be improved. Minister is historically from Domale.
- Ministry of Environment and Tourism, which oversees the administration of the conservation zones in Central Cobura, starts initiatives to make Cobura attractive to foreign tourists, and is tasked witth protecting the environment.
- Ministry of Trade and Industry, which manages both international and intranational trade. Works closely with the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
National Departments Edit
- Immigration and Integration Service, which deals with immigration in Cobura. (Internal Affairs)
- Housing and Urban Development Service, which manages public housing programmes in Cobura and oversees the development of urban regions. (Internal Affairs)
- Emancipation and Ethnicities Service, which deals with ethnic affairs and emancipation problems. (Health and Social Services)
- National Intelligence and Security Agency, NISA in short, which investigates domestic threats and regulates major safety issues withing the Constitutional Republic (Internal Affairs).
- Foreign Intelligence and Security Agency, FISA in short, which manages foreign threats to Cobura such as terrorism, slave trade etc. Also aqcuires intelligence from other, foreign governments.(Foreign Affairs)
- Millitary Intelligence Agency, MIA in short, which acquires millitary intelligence and investigates causes related to the Coburan Army. (Defence)
- Labour and Market Service, which oversees the Coburan market and regulates businesses and trade unions. (Trade and Industry)
- National Tax Service, which manages the state's tax system and collects taxes from the Coburan people.(Finance)
- Public Nutrition and Sports Service, which educates the public about healthy nutrition and the importance of sports, as well as administrates the division of funding of sports clubs nationwide. (Health and Social Services)
- National Service Department, which oversees the execution of the National Civilian/Military Service, and maintains the organisation around it. (Health and Social Services/Defence)
- National Nature Preservation Service, which manages Coburan wildlife and nature and oversees forestry. (Environment and Tourism)
- National Health Service, that oversees hospitals and clinics and regulates health insurances. (Health and Social Services)
- Civil Education Fund, that provides Coburan citizens with funding for their education, starting from primary school, all the way up to university. (Education and Culture)
Main Article: Judiciary of Cobura
The Coburan legal system is a civil law mostly based on a comprehensive compendium of statutes, as compared to the common law systems. In criminal and administrative law, Cobura uses a combination of the inquisitorial system where the judges are actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, and the adversarial system where the role of the judge is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecutor or plaintiff and the defendant.
In Cobura, the independence of the judiciary is historically older than democracy. The organisation of courts is traditionally strong, and almost all national and constitutional actions are subject to judicial review.
The Judiciary of Cobura is very bureaucratic, with each sort of law having its own courts and regulations. The Coburan law is divided into the following segments:
- Social law;
- Civil law;
- Criminal law;
- Administrative law;
- Labour law;
- Financial law;
- Patent law;
- Military law;
- Constitutional law.
Supreme Court Edit
The Supreme Court of Cobura is the highest judicial power. It alone undertakes the judicial control in respect of the constitutionality of the laws and regulations and shall undertake the interpretation of the legislative texts in the manner prescribed by law. In addition, the court is empowered to settle competence disputes between the judicial and the administrative courts.
Cobura is divided into five regions called Governorates:
|Domale||280,800 km²||19,881,656||Addis Amkä|
The military of Cobura is made up of multiple divisions, collectively labeled the Coburan Armed Forces. The Armed Forces are tasked with defending the nation from foreign invasion and domestic rebellion, but have been known in the past to be used in order to protect Coburan interests abroad. In recent years, Cobura has been inclined towards peaceful internationalism..
Cobura enjoys the status of being a fully industrial economy with strong industry. The Republic today is notable for being very business friendly and having a rightist economy, with the corporate tax being only 8% and income taxes equaling about 9% of the GDP. The Coburan government is very friendly towards private businesses and multinational coorporations.
ManufacturingEditTokundi is the center of most Coburan manufacturing. The majority of working-class Tokundi are employed in factories, producing the material goods consumed by the rest of Cobura and other Majatran trading allies. In fact, Tokundi dominates all aspects of Coburan manufacturing except for the automobile industry, which is based in Egato.
Northern Cobura, apart from the Egato delta and river area, as well as coastal areas, is unsuitable for farming, and therefore produces only a negligible amount of farming products. Central Cobura's soil is more fertile, resulting in increased output. The Central Region, however, has a very fertile soil with a lot of minerals. Fertilized by the Inati and Reftionx rivers, the Central region produces most of Cobura's agricultural products.
Economic revenue by Governorate Edit
|No.||Governorate||GDP (x1 billion COB)||% of national GDP|
Exploitation of natural resources is common in much of Cobura. Mining is generally restricted to the North and the Higgs Peninsula, but is relatively unknown in the states of Irkawa, due to very strong environmentalist leanings, and Domale, due to the reliance on agriculture. The most commonly mined resources are iron and coal, which are very common throughout the North, and natural gas, which may be found across the country. In addition to these resources, base metals such as zinc and copper may be found in abundance in both the North and the Higgs Peninsula.
Fishing is another common activity. Like mining, it is frowned upon by most Irkawans, and Northerners lack diverse and populated waters. Fishing is a prosperous industry, however, in both Tokundi and Domale, which supply most of the nation's fish.
Most of Cobura's other domestic economic activites, including information technology and energy, are found in the North and Irkawa. Computer-related industry is quite successful in Egato particularly, resulting in the state being the country's most technologically advanced region. In energy, renewable sources are very popular, as are coal and natural gas. In recent years, the government has taken the initiative in encouraging the growth of nuclear power, and the nuclear industry has hurtled into prosperity. In fact, nuclear power now accounts for as much as 37% of Cobura's energy needs, and economists predict that this share will only increase in future.
As of the most recent census, Cobura's population totaled 99,661,671. The populace is concentrated primarily in the East, and along the shore of both the ocean and Lake Majatra.
In the same census, it was determined that the ethnic makeup of Cobura is roughly as follows:
- 27% Irkawans
- 27% Mallans
- 25% Augustans
- 11% Majatrans
- 8% Tokundians
- 2% Other
For each seperate governorate, the ethinic population is divided as follows:
|Ethnic representation per Governorate in %||Nationwide|
The most widely spoken language in Cobura, and the language of government, the military, and the upper class, is Augustan, the native language of the Augustans. Apart from Augustan, languages vary throughout the regions. Irkawan is the most widely spoken native language in Irkawa, Mallan is the dominant language in Domale, Tokundian is spoken in Tokundi, and Majatran is spoken as a first language by many in Dilganato. The "classical" predecessors of those languages (Arcaicam Augustan for Augustan, Ancient Irkawan for Irkawan, Ancient Mallan for Mallan, Old Tokundian for Tokundian, and Classical Majatran for Majatran) although no longer spoken, are sometimes used as languages of prestige and high culture by their respective ethnic groups
Even though Standard Augustan is spoken by allmost all Augustans, Cobura has its own dialect called Ĵino. It is widely spoken in Egato and Dilganato, with significant speakers in Domale, Irkawa and Tokundi. The dialect differs from Standard Augustan in terms of grammar and certain vocabulary, and is informally referred to as ''Coburan Augustan''.
The most recent census in Cobura reported the following religious beliefs among the people of Cobura:
- Coburan Apostolic Tewahedo Church: 31%
- Arkhē: 23%
- Terran Patriarchal Church: 16%
- Irreligious: 20%
- Ahmadiyya: 9%
- Other: 1%
The vast majority of Coburans are Patriarchal Hosians. For a long time, the dominant Hosian denomination in Cobura was the Coburan Patriarchal Church, until it was forcefully rejoined with the Terran Patriarchal Church in 3526. The latter church was almost exclusively followed by Tokundians, while the CPC was a primarily an Augustan denomination. Now the Terran Patriarchal Church is the primary religion of both groups. The Coburan Apostolic Tewahedo Church, an autocephalous member of the Apostolic Church of the East, is predominantly followed by Irkawans and Mallans, and was granted autocephaly in 3527. The Majatrans of Cobura are mostly Ahmadis, and both Queranzariah and Abadism are present in the nation. A large number of Coburans are also irreligious.
All Coburans have the option of utilizing public health care, which results in a high standard of health. Quality of health is further augmented by Cobura's abundance of natural beauty and pristine environments, encouraging many citizens to spend copious amounts of time out-of-doors hiking, swimming, and engaging in other physical activities.
Coburan health care is not without its challenges, however. In the North and Tokundi, the emphasis on industry has resulted in the presence of a thick smog in many cities. Furthermore, Cobura suffers from the same sedentary habits and unhealthy foods as other industrialized nations, which has impaired the health of many citizens and driven health care costs upwards. These obstacles are fortunately conquerable, though, and Coburan health remains generally good.
Cobura has a very high standard for education, as the national culture values it highly and one of the government's prime responsibilities is to ensure that all have access to adequate learning.
Primary and Secondary EducationEdit
All Coburans must attend school until the age of 17, and have three options before then:
- Attend a public school, which is the most common choice.
- Attend a private school, which is relatively uncommon, likely due to the high cost of a private education.
- Be home schooled, which is rare in urban areas but popular in rural regions such as Domale.
Coburan schools are regulated to ensure that they meet strict standards set by the national government. Cobura's schools are well known for their rigor and difficulty, which has varyingly met with praise or petitions to ease the demands placed on students. At the moment, however, academics are far from being lenient, and as a result Coburans tend to fare well on international standardized tests.
In the last census, it was revealed that a full 63% of citizens hold a degree from an accredited university -- one of the highest rates in Majatra.
Tokundi and Irkawa possess their own regional university systems which supplement the National Universities, but the other three States rely entirely on the national system. The national system is as follows:
- First Level Universities, which are found in the capitol of each region. These universities are the most prestigious public schools, and perform most of the research.
- Second Level Universities, which are found in the most populous non-capitol cities. These are of medium rigor.
- Third Level Universities, which are built in cities and towns based on the area that may be served rather than population of the area. This the lowest level, and the typical student is in the bottom third of his or her class.
- Community Colleges, low-budget facilities built to provide basic education. No research is performed.
- Speciality Universities, which are usually rigorous and prestigious, built to advance the study of a specific field. Examples are the School of Oceanography in Toklinn and the School of Agriculture in Nova Roma.
In addition to the public schools of Cobura, multiple private colleges exist, generally serving the wealthiest of Coburans and providing an exceedingly prestigious education. The premier private school is the University of Irkawa in Rio Irkawa, closely followed by Augustus University.
Another category of university, which cannot be included fully in the private or public sections, is the International University, which maintains a large campus in Hudson.
Most of Cobura's major cities are situated closely to the ocean or Lake Majatra. Due to the widespread conservation zones, settlement in Central Cobura is limited.
Social Security Edit
Those with No ReligionEdit
More than a fifth of Coburans do not belong to any religion, many describing themselves as atheist or agnostic. This is a large factor in Cobura's largely secular society and state. Coburans are generally suspicious of evangelists of any type, and foreign missionaries are usually double-checked or subject to regulation.
- Main Churches: Terran Patriarchal Church, Coburan Apostolic Tewahedo Church
- Notable Others: Coburan Patriarchal Church (defunct), Apostolic Church of the East, Theognosian Church
After the Coburan Patriarchal Church split from the Terran Church, it experienced a surge of popularity within the populace. At one point, there was a great deal of political and social turmoil as Patriarchal and Secular forces vied for power in the legislature. The conflict eventually tapered off, but Patriarchalism was left with great influence in the country for years afterward. Eventually, the Coburan Church was forced to rejoin her mother Church, thus ending more than a millenium of schism. The Apostolic Church of the East is the traditional denomination followed by the Irkawans and Mallans, and the Coburan branch of the Church gained autocephaly (independence) as the Coburan Apostolic Tewahedo Church.
Ahmadism has never dominated religious sentiment in Cobura. However, it is quite popular across the continent of Majatra, and approimately 1 in 10 Coburans, almost entirely Majatrans, are Ahmadis. Ahmadis are primarily concentrated in the east and some coastal cities.
Yeudism has never been able to gain the influence and stature enjoyed by Hosianism or Ahmadism. Despite this, however, Yeudism enjoyed a period of power by virtue of the Modern Economic Party. The majority of the party's followers were members of some Yeudish sect, and as a result the party pushed Judaism onto the national stage. Since the Modern Economic Party's collapse, Yeudism has gradually faded to its current state, one of little influence on national affairs.
Literature, Art, and Philosophy EditCobura has a long and proud history in the arts. Painting is a treasured pastime in much of country, particularly in Domale and Irkawa, which enjoy an abundance of natural beauty. Despite the popularity of painting, few Coburan artists have become well known in the world as a whole, which may be attributed to the strong culture of Cobura's neighbors and the nation's traditional isolationism. Among the few that have acheived international prominence is Paul Hursey (2872-2941), who became famous for his gorgeous, realist depictions of Cintra Forest.Music, too, has enjoyed popularity in Cobura. The ancient Tokundi Empire used to employ various forms of music extensively in order to enhance strength in combat. As a result, modern Tokundi culture values music immensely as a tool to enhance or alter moods and a plethora of musical styles have sprung up, many of which have become quite popular across Majatra.
Coburan literature has often been drowned out by that of foreign neighbors. Those few pieces of domestic writings that have become important have tended to be written with the intent of exploring and promulgating various philosophical outlooks, resulting in the grouping together of literature and philosophy. Indeed, to many Coburans the sole purpose of literature is to further philosophy. In the early days of the Republic, influences derived from the Augustanii Empire dominated the philosophical scene. These were supplanted by writings focusing on social injustice and advocating leftist worldviews, which were in turn replaced during the Middle Republic by the strong influence of the Coburan Catholic Church. In more recent centuries, the influence of the Church has waned, opening the door for a wide spectrum of philosophies to occupy the national stage. At the moment, no philosophical tendency has won dominance over the others, resulting in healthy, spirited debate.
The national sport of Cobura is Kabado, which is the most widely watched and played sport in the country. The Coburan Kabado Championship, a professional tournament in which the majority of professional players are active, is a regular topic of discussion amongst all Coburans. The sport is managed primarily by the Coburan Kabado Association, which organizes the Annual League and Cup Tournaments.
Boxing is also a popular sport in Cobura. The city of Princeps, Egato, is known for its boxing matches and the astonishing number of great boxers who have been born in the city.
Food unique to Cobura tends to be rather bland but high in protein and fortifying nutrients, a reflection on the warrior cultures from ancient history. The Celts were more adventurous, exploring the culinary arts as a way to satisfy taste and bring pleasure rather than just as a method of ensuring physical strength, but their propensity for using organ meat has inhibited the spread of Celtic food. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the foods of the ancients tend to be unpopular in modern, industrial Coburan society. Most nationals prefer instead pleasant foreign foods, typically from Cobura's neighbors. As such, the cuisine of Cobura today can generally be called an amalgamation of the foods of Jakania, Zardugal, Deltaria, and Jelbania.
Throughout Majatra, Coburans are known for their high quality tv shows and talent shows. Most of the Coburan movie industry is located in Augusta, in the Southern area of the metropolitan city, often reffered to as ''Collywood''. Famous Coburan television programmes that became an international hit include Vojo al Stadio, Super Artisto and Kiu havas talenton?
Public Holidays Edit
|New Year's Day||January 1||The commencement of a new year|
|Liberation Day||March 29||Celebration of the Peace Proclamation after the Augusta Rebellion in 3621|
|Labor Day||May 1||Nationwide celebration of the workers of Cobura|
|Independence Day||June 6||Celebration of the Coburan proclamation of independence from the
Augustan Empire in 3673
|Constitution Day||June 14||Celebration of the foundation of the United Governorates of Cobura in 4317|
|Armed Forces day||October 6||Celebration of the Coburan Armed Forces and commemoration of fallen
25 - 26
|Celebration of Christmas|
|Nations of Majatra|