Democratic Alliance
Demokratik Ittifak
AbbreviationIT
LeaderYilma Bal
(4737 - 4747)
Zehra Apak
(4748 - 4770)
Nuray Cevahir
(4770 - 4773)
Eldemir Bal
(4773 - 4790)
Safiye Aydin-Uysal
(4790 - 4801)
FoundersKhaalid al-Hashmi
Zehra Apak
Yilma Bal
Nuray Cevahir
Aytolun Toker
Founded19 May 4737
Dissolved6 December 4801
Merged intoHomeland Front
Newspaperittifak
Student wingAlliance Students
Youth wingAlliance Youth
Membership460,000 (4790)
IdeologyAhmadi democracy
Political positionSyncretic
ReligionAhmadism
Colours     Blue      Red

The Democratic Alliance (Turjak: Demokratik Ittifak), also known simply as the Alliance (Turjak: Ittifak), was an Ahmadi democratic political party in Jakania that was politically active between 4737 and 4801.

Founded as the spearhead of the pro-democracy movement in Jakania in 4737, the Alliance oversaw drafting and the adoption of the 4737 Jakanian Constitution before winning a landslide majority in the 4737 Jakanian general election. In the wake of the first multi-party elections in Jakania for decades in 4742 Jakanian general election, the party formed a coalition government alongside Birlik.

Internal policy disagreements and personality clashes within the government triggered the beginning of an extended period of rivalry between the two parties despite their shared support for Ahmadi democracy and Jakanian nationalism. For the next fifty years at least one of the two parties would remain in government and retain the presidency until the election of Mirac Çavdarlı of the United Democratic Party (Jakania) in the 4792 Jakanian general election, a period that later became known as the Ahmadi consensus.

Following the 4751 Jakanian general election, the party returned to power under the leadership of Zehra Apak and formed successive coalition governments with Umut and Kalopian Unity, a Kalopian nationalist party. In 4762, two general elections saw the Alliance in a weakened electoral position and they returned to opposition with the formation of the Birlik Basri government.

Apak returned to the Premiership following the 4767 Jakanian general election and began a period of eighteen years of Alliance government at the national level. Upon Apak's retirement in 4770, Nuray Cevahir became party leader and increased the party's legislative majority in the 4772 Jakanian general election.

Upon Cevahir's retirement in 4773, Eldemir Bal was elected party leader. Over a seventeen year tenure as party leader, Bal reshaped the Alliance and significantly reformed the Jakanian political system through the 4781 Jakanian constitutional reforms. After seven years as Premier and a five-year term as President, Bal resigned as party leader in 4790.

By the time of the election of Safiye Aydin-Uysal, the political environment in Jakania had shifted dramatically with the breakdown of the Ahmadi consensus and the rise of a number of liberal secular parties, notably the United Democratic Party. In an attempt to improve their electoral performance, Aydin-Uysal and Birlik leader Orhan Tüfekçi oversaw the formation of the Homeland Front political coalition.

In 4798, the two parties further integrated their political structures and Aydin-Uysal became the sole leader of the Homeland Front. Prior to the 4802 Jakanian general election, the two former parties were formally dissolved and succeeded by the Homeland Front. In the wake of these elections, the new party entered government alongside Union and Community.

History[edit | edit source]

4737: Formation[edit | edit source]

The Democratic Alliance emerged from a series of meetings between left-wing and liberal Jakanian political leaders in the 4737. A combination of political parties, trade unions and pressure groups held a series of meetings in the Jakanian capital in order to discuss the best approach to bring a return to democracy for the country. The ultimate decision was to merge several smaller parties, notably the Progressives of the Left and the Jakanian Greens together to form a single political entity, the Democratic Alliance.

The most prominent individuals involved in these meetings were Khaalid al-Hashmi, Zehra Apak, Nuray Cevahir and Aytolun Toker. With the exception of al-Hashmi, a union leader, all had been directly involved with existing political parties. Alongside former documentary filmmaker Yilma Bal, who they invited to become the party's inaugural leader, they are often cited as the "founding figures" of the Alliance. In the early years of the party's history, many of these figures went on to hold significant positions in party and national leadership. For example, al-Hashmi served as Jakanian Foreign Minister, Cevahir as President and Apak became the party's first elected leader when Bal retired.

Khaalid al-Hashmi speaking at a press conference

Throughout early 4737, the Alliance drafted a new constitution for Jakania with extensive input from elected citizen's assemblies. In May the newly drafted constitution was approved in a special constitutional referendum.

4737-4742: Bal government[edit | edit source]

Main article: Bal cabinet

In the first elections after the implementation of the Constitution, the Alliance won a landslide majority in the Assembly and Nuray Cevahir was elected President on the party's ticket. In the aftermath of these results, the party formed a government under the leadership of Yilma Bal, which included many of the party's founding figures in cabinet roles.

In the first half of this term, the Alliance governed without any parliamentary opposition and implemented a significant policy programme that included the nationalisation of the oil and gas industry. By the parliamentary term though, three Assembly Deputies defected to the newly formed Birlik (Luthorian: Unity) movement.

4742-4745: Coalition government[edit | edit source]

Main article: Batak I cabinet

Following the 4742 Jakanian general election, the Alliance was left as the smallest party with representation in the national legislature. In order to prevent the secularist and pacifist Umut from entering government and ensure the stability of the new Consitution, the Alliance entered into a coalition government with Birlik and Niyaz. All three parties shared a commitment to Ahmadi democracy but there was little in terms of shared policy programmes. Former Alliance deputy Baran Batuk replaced Bal as Premier of Jakania.

4745-4751: Resignation and opposition[edit | edit source]

Main article: Batak II cabinet

After a series of fallouts in the government, the four Alliance ministers resigned their positions. Two early elections followed but failed to resolve the matter of governing the country and eventually the party supported a Birlik minority government.

4751-4763: Apak governments[edit | edit source]

In the wake of the 4751 Jakanian general election, the Alliance won the presidency with the support of Umut. The two parties emerged with a significant majority over the previous governing party Birlik in the Assembly and formed a coalition government led by Alliance leader Zehra Apak. Her confirmation as Premier makes Apak the third of the party's original founding figures to serve in one of Jakania's two leading political offices.

The coalition won a reduced majority in the 4756 Jakanian general election. Following the sudden collapse of Umut, the Alliance turned to the Kalopian nationalist Kalopian Unity for government support.

4763-4767: Return to opposition[edit | edit source]

Apak continued to serve as Premier until the December 4762 Jakanian general election saw Birlik emerge as the largest political party and she was replaced by long-time political rival Ayleen Basri.

4767-4785: Cevahir and Bal governments[edit | edit source]

The 4767 Jakanian general election saw the Alliance win an outright legislative majority and Apak returned to the Premiership. Before the end of the term however, she stepped down from the leadership position and former President Nuray Cevahir took over the leadership of the party, without an election by the membership.

Cevahir continued the political programme advanced during Apak's later years and the gradual shift within the party leadership away form their social liberal roots, adopting increasingly conservative positions on gay and lesbian rights as well as the national service scheme.

Alliance leader Eldemir Bal

Despite winning the 4772 Jakanian general election with an increased majority, Cevahir stepped down in 4773. The subsequent leadership election is often cited as a turning point for the Alliance. Eldemir Bal, son of former leader Yilma Bal, won a victory over left-wing candidate Odul Sen who would later defect to Compromise.

In the 4777 Jakanian general election, the party lost their legislative majority despite increasing their votes tally following a high turnout of liberal voters for Compromise.

On a platform of constitutional reform, Eldemir Bal was elected President in the 4780 Jakanian general election. After forming a government with the Democratic Party, he lost the 4785 Jakanian general election to Orhan Tüfekçi of Birlik.

4785-4901: Political change and dissolution[edit | edit source]

The party performed poorly in both the 4785 Jakanian general election and the 4790 Jakanian general election, culminating in the resignation of party leader and former President Eldemir Bal. The young Deputy Safiye Aydin-Uysal was elected as his replacement. The political climate in Jakania change rapidly in this period and liberal secularism became an increasingly dominant political philosophy. For this reason the Alliance began to work more closely with the Birlik and eventually formed the Homeland Front coalition.

Ideology[edit | edit source]

Throughout the party's history, the Alliance was characterised as a "big tent" although the extent to which this accurately described the political ideology of the party varied significantly. In the wake of their successful movement for a new constitution and the 4737 Jakanian general election, the party was often described as liberal and centre-left.[1]

In economic terms the party adopted a form of democratic socialism that was commonly referred to by party leadership and members as "socialism with a Jakanian sensibility".[2] In practice this meant the nationalisation of various important areas of industry- especially the oil and gas sector which had been privatised in the previous centuries.[3] Under the leadership of Eldemir Bal, the Alliance adopted more liberal positions on a number of economic policy matters, notably approving a significant reduction to the corporate tax rate in 4779 during a period of economic stagnation.

Structure[edit | edit source]

Owing in part to its founding principles, the Alliance was organised as a mass-membership party. Although membership declined in the aftermath of their period in government, subsequent years in opposition as well as the development of an effective two-party system in Jakania led to a boost in numbers toward the end of the 4770s.

With significant internal democracy, party members were an important factor in determining the leadership and policy direction within the party. Like the party's national representatives, party members were often divided into various ideological factions with the "Ahmadi democrats" among the most prominent.

The most significant role of the membership was the ability to popularly elect the national party leader when there was a vacancy, or when an incumbent was challenged (which never actually happened). Prior to any election, candidates were required to earn the backing of a certain number of local party branches in order to stand. Party branches were organised approximately in line with town, city and rural councils.

Leadership[edit | edit source]

List[edit | edit source]

No. Leader (birth–death) Image Took office Left office Premier / President*
1 Yilma Bal

(4691 – 4768)

Yilma Bal.png 19 May 4737 30 November 4747 Himself (4737–4743)
Baran Batuk (4743–4751)
- Khaalid al-Hashmi

(4676 – 4753)
(interim)

Khaalid al-Hashmi.png 30 November 4747 27 February 4748
2 Zehra Apak

(4695 – 4792)

Zehra Apak.png 27 February 4748 30 May 4770
Herself (4751–4763)
Ayleen Basri (4763–4767)
Herself (4767–4770)
3 Nuray Cevahir

(4701 – 4785)

Nuray Cevahir.png 30 May 4770 27 June 4773 Himself (4770–4773)
4 Eldemir Bal

(4721 – 4810)

Eldemir Bal.png 27 June 4773 12 November 4790 Himself (4773–4780)
Mut Baba (4780–4781)
Himself (4781–4785)
Orhan Tüfekçi
(4785–4792)
5 Safiye Aydin-Uysal

(4758-4841)

Safiye Aydin-Uysal.png 12 November 4790 6 December 4801
(Party dissolved)
Mirac Çavdarlı
(4792–4801)

*From the adoption of the 4737 Jakanian Constitution until the 4781 Jakanian constitutional reforms, the Jakanian head of government was the Premier. After the reforms, the President became head of state and head of government. The table shows who held the office that corresponded to head of government at the time.

References[edit | edit source]

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