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Elections in Kalopia are held to elect, on the national level, the Parliament of Kalopia and the President of Kalopia. Additionally, elections to the political leadership of the Kalopian regions are held every few years.

Kalopian electoral law of 4065Edit

During the presidency of Ekmeleddin Denktaş Atatürcak, a new electoral law was established, through a series of bills and resolutions passed in the 4063–4065 period. The law established the Parliament of Kalopia as a bicameral legislature, with an upper house (the Senate) and a lower house (the Grand and General Council). The runoff system used to elect the President of Kalopia was retained.

PresidentEdit

The President of Kalopia is directly elected every 5 years, on the first Monday of the election month, using the runoff system, also known as the two-round system. Any citizen aged 25 or over may file a candidacy for the Kalopian presidency, provided they have obtained the signatures of at least 2% of the number of people that voted in the last presidential election. For example, when 11,457,273 people voted in the 4063 elections, a total of 229,146 signatures were required to run in the 4065 election two years later. In the event that a single candidate secures 50%+1 of the total valid votes cast, he or she is declared elected. Should no candidate reach this threshold, a runoff is held between the two most-voted candidates from the first round. Whoever obtains the most votes in the runoff is declared elected. The president is always sworn in on the last Monday of the election month.

Lower houseEdit

The lower house of the Parliament of Kalopia is called the Grand and General Council (informally Meclis) under the 4065 electoral law. It consists of 300 members, of whom 250 are elected in multi-member districts, consisting of between 3 and 5 members. These deputies are elected using the single transferable vote (STV) system, and the Droop quota. As a counterweight to the low district magnitude in lower house elections, an additional 50 seats – 'compensation seats' – are reserved for under-represented parties, in order to ensure overall proportionality. For example, should a party win 10% of the vote, but only 6% of the seats, then additional seats are awarded to the party until it holds 10% of the total seats. There is no formal electoral threshold in elections to the Grand and General Council.

Upper houseEdit

The upper house of the Parliament of Kalopia is called the Senate under the 4065 electoral law. It consists of 113 members, of whom 100 are directly elected, and 13 are appointed by the executive. The 100 elected senators are elected from each of the country's five governorates; each governorate has 20 senators, regardless of population size. All senators, regardless of selection method, ordinarily serve six-year terms. The Senate employs a form of staggered election, under which half the senators (excluding the 13 appointees) from a state are elected in each election, and the other half three years later.

Unlike in elections to the lower house, parties are required to cross a 5% national threshold, and a 10% regional threshold in order to take Senate seats. For every 10% of the vote that a party wins in a given governorate, it gains one seat there. For example, a party that scores 22% of the vote is given two seats. Controversially, in the event that a party wins, for example, 39.9% of the vote, it is awarded only three seats rather than four, due to the rounding-down of party vote shares. Any remainder seats are automatically given to the party that obtained the most votes, without regard to proportional distribution. Additionally, if a single party takes 50%+1 or more of the vote in a governorate, it wins every seat up for grabs, with all other parties excluded.

Kalopian electoral law of 4092Edit

President Binali Kırmızıgül promised an overhaul of the Kalopian constitution ahead of his 4090 re-election. These reforms were passed in 4092, and included significant changes to the country's electoral system.

PresidentEdit

Under the 4092 law, the president is no longer elected directly by popular vote. Instead, the new unicameral, 450-member legislature is granted the power to do so. After each legislative election, the largest party is handed the task of forming a new government; its leader becomes the formal formateur. As a result, the largest party is typically given the presidency. Additionally, the premiership was abolished in 4092, with its powers being fused into the presidency. As a result, the president's powers increased significantly overall with Kırmızıgül's 4092 reforms.

Lower houseEdit

Under the 4092 system, the Grand and General Council (colloquially referred to by its Kalopian Turjak name Meclis) became the sole chamber of the Kalopian legislature. It absorbed most of the powers of the former upper house, the Senate. Furthermore, the single transferable vote (STV) system for electing deputies was abolished, and replaced with a mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) system. Under the new law, 225 of the Meclis' now 450 members are elected in single-member districts by plurality vote, with the remainding 225 being elected in a single, nation-wide, multi-member district, to ensure national proportionality.

Upper houseEdit

The Kalopian Senate was abolished altogether in 4092, with most of its powers and duties being transferred to the Meclis, and some to the presidency and the courts.

Elections Law 4608Edit

ParliamentEdit

The Parliament consists just one body which is elected by the Kalopian people every 3 or 4 years (except the cases of snap elections). The number of the Parliament members can be from 200 to 300. They are the only ones responsible for the voting of the bills that can be proposed by the government and any political party.

PresidentEdit

The President is elected directly by the people every 3 or 4 years on the same day as the Parliamentary election occurs. His role is mostly auditory and institutional, but he can express his political opinion and advise any government.

Parliamentary Elections history 4608-todayEdit

(Metarithmistiko Kinima or MEK: center-right Dimokratikos Synaspismos or DI.SY. or Koinonia Axion: center-left Dimokratiko Aristero Metopo or D.A.M. or D.A.S. or Dimokratiki Aristeri Symmahia (Kalopia) : center-left to left-wing Enosi Kentrou (EK) : center Ethniki Anagennisi: center to center-left Ethniki Elpis or Nea Kalopia: right-wing to far-right KKK : far-left E.P.A.M. : center)

4608

Party Votes Result Seats % change Seats change Government
     Dimokratikos Synaspismos 55,563,922 99,94% 300 Decrease0.06 - YES

(PM)

     Dimokratiko Aristero Metopo 31,517 0,06% 0 Increase0.06 - NO

4609

Party Votes Result Seats % change Seats change Governemnt
     Dimokratikos Synaspismos 35,719,791 72,09% 218 Decrease27.85 Decrease82 YES

(PM)

     Metarithmistiko Kinima 8,889,545 17.94% 54 Increase17.94 Increase54 NO
     Dimokratiko Aristero Metopo 4,937,815 9.97% 28 Increase9.91 Increase28 NO

4613

Party Votes Result Seats % change Seats change Government
     Metarithmistiko Kinima 22,340,586 41.17% 121 Increase23.23 Increase87 YES

(PM)

     Dimokratiko Aristero Metopo 17,580,565 32.40% 99 Increase22.43 Increase1 YES
     Dimokratikos Synaspismos 14,343,450 26.43% 80 Decrease45.66 Decrease138 NO

4616 (July)

Party Votes Result Seats % change Seats change Government
     ME.K. 16,078,017 26.33% 54 Decrease14.84 Decrease67 NO
     Ethniki Elpis - MP 10,276,448 16.83% 34 Increase16.83 Increase34 NO
     DI.SY. - K.D. 8,417,025 13.78% 28 Decrease12.65 Decrease52 NO
     D.A.M. 7,351,057 12.04% 25 Decrease20.36 Decrease74 NO
     Ethniki Anagennisi 7,360,085 12.05% 24 Increase12.05 Increase24 NO
     Enosi Kentrou (EK) 6,530,096 10.69% 19 Increase10.69 Increase19 NO
     KKK 5,055,831 8.28% 16 Increase8.29 Increase16 NO

4616 (September)

Party Votes Results Seats % change Seats change Government
     ME.K. 13,741,964 24.46% 51 Decrease1.87 Decrease3 NO
     Nea Kalopia 9,236,298 16.44% 33 Decrease0.39 (as Ethniki Elpida - MP) Decrease1 NO
     DI.SY. 8,550,781 15.22% 30 Increase1.44 Increase2 YES

(PM)

     Ethniki Anagennisi 6,986,041 12.43% 26 Increase0.38 Increase2 YES
     D.A.S. 7,231,434 12.87% 25 Increase0.83 (as D.A.M.) - YES
     Enosi Kentrou (EK) 5,976,595 10.64% 20 Decrease0.05 Increase1 YES
     KKK 4,467,272 7.95% 15 Decrease0.33 Decrease1 NO

4619

Party Votes Results Seats % change Seats change Government
     ME.K. 19,792,863 34.41% 104 Increase9.95 Increase53 YES

(PM)

     Ethniki Anagennisi 9,302,319 16.17% 50 Increase3.74 Increase24 YES
     DI.SY. 7,220,604 12.55% 38 Decrease2.67 Increase8 NO
     Nea Kalopia 7,108,301 12.36% 37 Decrease4.08 Increase4 NO
     D.A.S. 6,924,481 12.04% 36 Decrease0.83 Increase11 NO
     Enosi Kentrou (EK) 4,338,532 7.54% 21 Decrease3.10 Increase1 NO
     E.P.A.K. 2,841,044 4.94% 14 Increase4.94 Increase14 NO

4622

Party Votes Results Seats % change Seats change Government
     ME.K. 24.22% 14,291,884 74 Decrease10.19 Decrease30 NO
     Koinonia Axion 19.71% 11,629,164 59 Increase7.16 Increase21 YES

(PM)

     Nea Kalopia - EE 18.81% 11,095,497 57 Increase6.45 Increase20 YES
     D.A.S. 18.20% 10,737,508 54 Increase6.16 Increase18 YES
     Enosi Kentrou (EK) 12.03% 7,100,022 35 Increase4.49 Increase14 NO
     Ethniki Anagenisi 6.94% 4,092,564 21 Decrease9.23 Decrease29 NO
     E.P.A.K. 0.09% 51,250 0 Decrease4.85 Decrease14 NO

4625 (January)

Party Votes Results Seats % change Seats change Government
     ME.K. 12,688,507 22.36% 66 Decrease1.86 Decrease8 NO
     Koinonia Axion 11,205,466 19.75% 60 Increase0.04 Increase1 NO
     Nea Kalopia - EE 10,397,718 18.32% 56 Decrease0.49 Decrease1 NO
     D.A.S. 10,230,297 18.03% 55 Increase0.17 Increase1 NO
     Enosi Kentrou (EK) 7,984,423 14.07% 41 Increase2.04 Increase6 NO
     Ethniki Anagennisi 4,243,910 7.48% 22 Increase0.54 Increase1 NO

4625 (September)

Party Votes Results Seats % change Seats change Government
     ME.K. 21,786,153 38.26% 112 Increase15.90 Increase66 NO
     Koinonia Axion 12,982,607 22.80% 69 Increase3.05 Increase9 YES

(PM)

     D.A.S. 11,846,581 20.80% 63 Increase2.77 Increase7 YES
     Ethniki Anagennisi 10,331,643 18.14% 56 Increase10.66 Increase34 YES

4628

Party Votes Results Seats % change Seats change Government
     ME.K. 22,730,969 40.60% 123 Increase2.14 Increase11 NO
     D.A.S. 13,439,427 24.00% 72 Increase3.20 Increase9 YES

(PM)

     Koinonia Axion 10,839,474 19.36% 58 Decrease3.44 Decrease11 YES
     Ethniki Anagennisi 8,981,697 16.04% 47 Decrease2.10 Decrease9 YES

4631

Party Votes Results Seats % change Seats change Government
     ME.K. 21,902,886 39.03% 117 Decrease1.57 Decrease6 NO
     D.A.S. 14,145,058 25.21% 76 Increase1.21 Increase4 YES

(PM)

     Ethniki Anagennisi 9,902,384 17.65% 54 Increase1.61 Increase7 YES
     Koinonia Axion 10,161,590 18.11% 53 Decrease1.25 Decrease5 YES

4633

Party Votes Results Seats % change Seats change Government
     Koinonia Axion 18,911,586 51.97% 156 Increase33.86 Increase103 YES

(PM)

     D.A.S. 17,478,982 48.03% 144 Increase22.82 Increase68 NO
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