| Istalian Republic|
Flag Coat of Arms
|Government Presidental Republic|
Head of the State
First Michele Appiano De Borromei
Last Michele Appiano De Borromei
|Legislature National Congress|
|Area 669.600 km²|
|Population ~ 99,8000,000 (2575)|
The Fifth Istalian Republic, officially known simply as Istalian Republic, was the Istalian republican democratic regime existed since 4554 to 4571. The Fifht Republic was founded by the second provisional government established after the defeat of the Thallers, led by the Glory and Rebirth, the party founded by General Michele Appiano De Borromei. Appiano De Borromei was also the only Head of the State of the Fifth Republic: re-elected three times, in 4571, after 15 years of great economic and social achievements by part of his leadership, the National Congress, confirmed by a national referendum, enthrusted the Guide of the Country in perpetuity to Appiano De Borromei, acclaimed first Emperor of the Istalians and founding thus the Istalian Empire.
Background: the Thallerist Revolution and the fall of the Fourth RepublicEdit
The first half of 46th century was a period of great difficulties for Istalia, which experienced another decline after the reprisal of the end of 45th century due to a general political decadence, economic contraction and decrease of the presence on the international market, social unrest due to the spreading of Metzist ideologies, in a period which saw the establishment in Majatra of socialist regimes, like Deltaria and Jakania which joined the social nationalistic Barmenistan.
The first decade of the 46th century Istalia saw the leftists from the Democratic Front gaining three presidential elections but the center-rightist majority controlling the Parlament. The austerity politics adopted by the center-rightist governments to contrast the economic decline, united to several hazardous deregulations, pushed many istalians to go closer to leftist ideologies and in fact, the following two decades saw only socialist governments. These governments they undertook several large socialist-inspired reforms and didn't dislike to approach new partners in Majatra. Around the end of the 30's there are open debate about the establishment of a veritable socialist republic: this pushed many within the Armed Forces to begin to plot against the Institutions even more controlled by the socialists. To reinforce their lines, the anti-socialist putschists brought in a large number of mercenaries: the golpe would have been persued just after the elections of 4546.
However, the putschists didn't was aware that they were Thallerist mercenaries and in fact Julius von Thaller anticipated the putschists' leaders leading an uprising before the elections using also istalian soldiers who believed to receive orders by their superiors.
Julius Thaller was able to took the control of the Capital and many other centers, immediatly starting what he called the Thallerist Revolution. Julius von Thaller declared himself President of the Revolution and created his prime minister, the Secretary of the Thallerist Revolution, to whom enthrusted the task to arrest all the political dissents and to crush the oppositions. Immediatly many "voluntary" forces from thallerist or friend regime were invited in Istalia began a period of terror.
The Armed Forces suffered a lot from the aborted coup, divided due to clashes between loyalist and putchists, the emergence of a socialist wing and obviously the aggression by part of the mercenary forces.
But not all had gone to waste: a clandestin resistence started to organize and to contrast the Thellers, led by persecuted politicians among which arose Giulio Appiano De Borromei, a local romulan politicians, whose son, Michele Appiano De Borromei, started instead to gather once again together the Armed Forces. Giulio Appiano De Borromei, however, was captured and executed by the Thallerist force, but his efforts was not futile: Julius von Thaller pursuing the uprising were able to count on the surprise effect and to use many men of the Army deceived if not even confused by the aborted coup organized by their superiors, but at that point, even with further forces, he was not able to contrast the entire Nation. After two years of clashes the Istalian forces finally deafeated the Thallers in 4548 but Julius von Thaller fled desappearing.
A provisional administration was established just to organize new elections which were contested, however, by few parties in an Istalian still under shock and the big-tent Liberal Party thus get sufficent preferences to seize the parliament in 4551. The provisional government established, however, was plagued by contrast between the members, focused more on accusing each other for what was happened in the Country. It this climate, Michele Appiano De Borromei, catapulted to the national glory as son of Giulio Appiano De Borromei and considered as the one who reunited the Armed Forces, decided to found a new political movement Glory and Rebirth, taking personal the field to pull the country from such a abyss.
The Fifth RepublicEdit
Despite the Parliament was totally in the hand of the Liberal Party, Appiano De Borromei gained quickly an unexpected as much as strong pupular support of such magnitude that many deputies started to declares their support for the proposal of the new istalian rising leader. In 4554 President Caiola appointed Admiral Filippo Sartori, former Chief of Defence Staff and right-hand of Michele Appiano De Borromei, as Head of a government formed by Liberals and extra-parliamentary members of Glory and Rebirth, among which also Alessandro Appiano De Borromei, nephew of Michele, as representative of the young officers of the Armed Forces, being Alessandro a captain of the Air Force.
The new Government with resolutness reorganized the State into a Presidential Republic founding the Fifth Istalian Republic.
The first elections of the new republic, in 4551, were won thriumphantly by Michele Appiano De Borromei while his party seized the control of the Parliament. The new leader years after years increased his appreciation between the People, conquested by his charisma as well as thanks to the important and vigorous reforms as never seen for decades. Furthermore, he fascinated the population with his vision of the future for Istalia, a vision of glory and prosperity, a vision of renaissance, a vision of a democratic state that will never will allow to fall under who wants exploits the democratic freedoms for his interests and against the democracy itself, he fascinated the Istalians with his idea of Militant Democracy.
The enforcement of several laws inspired by the defensive democracy philosophy, allowed the Government to crack down many extremist movements and also some terroristic organizations, among which a far-rightist group which attempted a series of attacks.
But not only the national security concerned the first years of the Fifth Republic, but also a new increase in the social unrest caused by the decisively liberals politics against which the trade unions organized large demonstrations and strikes became frequent.
The liberal-leading government was willing to not give concessions, also due to the pression by many within the Armed Forces who were decised to canceed any space to socialistic ideas or compromises. However, they were took by surprise by Michele Appiano De Borromei when through an official speech expressed his comprension for the workers' issue and promoted a more cooperative way to go towards demands which he considered as fully legitimate by part of honest workers. For this reason he promoted several laws in favor of workers and trade unions, but this put in alarm several high ranks of the Armed Force
August 21th 4558, a coup d'état was attempted by some officers of the Armed Forces supported by Liberal exponents of the Government and more than 40 members of the at the time 125-member National Congress. Furtunately the attempt didn't survive to the night and the putchists were defeated by the loyal Forces and also by the partecipation on many civilians.
Michele Appiano De Borromei, however, immediatly was forced to face a new menace, the rising fascist movement of the Nationalist Workers Party which, despite the laws against anti-democratic parties, was able to organized many apparent indipendent civic lists in reality linked to the leadership of the party. The NWP focused his electoral campaign towards all those movements opposed to Appiano De Borromei, but the NWP was also able to manipulate the informations and to spread disinformation and false news.
Filippo Sartori, former Head of Government, who was ready to contest the elections leading his new party Guard of Democracy, decided to counteract the fascists convincing all the other parties accepted by the National Electoral Committee to reunite themself in a common national list, the Coalition for the Democratic Cooperation and it was a success: the Coalition defeated the lists led by the fascists and Michele Appiano De Borromei was re-elected. The Head of State was the real commander of this Government, made approve important increase of the funds for research and education, underligning the important of such matter for a develped society full of opportunities, promoting also an international research project on fusion energy.
Within the majority, instead, the liberals profited of the large victory by part of Guard of Democracy to make pass a national welfare reform which however was contrasted by the Social Democrats who threatened the Government to left and gaining several concessions approved in the following years.
It was the truly apotheosis of Michele Appiano De Borromei, saw as a savior by an Istalia frightened by so many events, upheaval and menaces but also fully of hopes for the future depicted by Appiano De Borromei.
The fascist in less then two years lost most part of their previous support and finally was the Constitutional Court to definitively disband the party, leaving the Coalition as sole organized political force of the country. The parties who decided to join the Coalition to contrast the NWP contested the elections of 4567 in separate lists but as parented lists of the Coalition, agreeding in continue to form national unitary government and support the Head of the State, but enthrusting the people to determinate the influence of each party, and under the Coalition at the time there were both the New Liberals and the Social Democratics.
The new term saw Michele Appiano De Borromei more active internationally, visiting Ladomun, with which he agreed an industrial partnership and other friend nations to strengthen the relations of Istalia, but he also supported with force a new modernization program of the Armed Forces, aimed to complete and expand the last great modernization program started at the end of the previous century which was not fully accomplished due to the economic crisis and the general decadence.
The Imperial ReformEdit
In 4569, despite the next elections were sceduled only for 4573, many started to feel somehow uncormfortable with the idea to see Michele Appiano De Borromei retiring from the politics, the one who, like no one in centuries, had succeeded in inflaming the hearts of the Istalians and creating such hopes and expectations, reinforced by the great performances of the nation which was raising its slope with exceptional rapidity, had entered the heart of the population, also thanks to the initiatives of the Guard of Democracy which lavished its energy on the exaltation of the Head of the State and his figure. Damiano Valenti, right-hand of Sartori and leader of Guard of Democracy, which was seizing the control of the Coalition, decided the next year to propose something of totally radical to honor Michele Appiano De Borromei and to reassure the population that its savior, who was reviving the fortunes of the country with such brilliance, would remain a timeless figure always keeping watch over the country's destiny, he proposed the most radical democratically implemented constitutional reform ever seen since the beginning of the country's democratic history. In fact, he proposed, using the words of Valenti himself, to enthrust the perpetual guide of the Res Publica to an Emperor, which Imperial Dignity was vested in Michele Appiano De Borromei. At the beginning of 4571 a specialized committee formed by the Congress on initiative of the Government began to develop the reform which was presented in July and finally approved by the National Congress as the Imperial Constitution. The reform was then submitted to a national referendum the last day of August which saw the population confirming the reform with a positive plebiscitarian response for the new Emperor: 1th September 4571 the Fifth republic was officially superseded by the first Istalian Empire.
The Fifth Republic was a democratic, secular and unitary republic which worked since the foundation in the framework of a presidential system of government in which the Head of the State, which was the role as well as the official title, was directly elected by the citizens with a two round majority system to led the Government, represent the Nation, preserve its unity and integrity and act as guarantor of the Consitution and of the Democratic regime.
As head of the executive, in leading the Country the Head of the State was assisted by the Cabinet, appointed by the Head of the State but subjected to a vote of confidence by the national legislature, the National Congress.
The Parliament of Istalia was an unicameral legislature which detained a strong influence into the political system, dictating also the executive's agenda due to the fact that the Congress had to approve any decree, bill or resultion (unless are in place special measures, usually during very emergency situations).