|Dovani, Central Seleya, Indrala|
|Linguistic classification:||One of the world's major language families|
The Gao-Indralan language family is one of the largest and geographically most widespread language families of Terra. It consists of four language groups: Cental, Northern, Southern, and Western. The Gao-Indralan languages occasionally go by the term "Gao-Showan languages", since they are spoken by the Gao-Showan peoples. The speakers of the Proto-Gao-Indralan language, the hypothetical Proto-Gao-Showans, are usually associated with the 1st millennium BCE cultures of North Dovani. Their expansion towards the South of the continent is believed to have occured around the 1st century CE. Most of these languages have been strongly influenced by Classical Kunikata, the official language of the Empire of Gao-Soto, and the oldest attested Gao-Indralan language.
Subdivisions[edit | edit source]
- South Gao-Indralan Languages
- Central Gao-Indralan Languages
- North Gao-Indralan Languages
Characteristics[edit | edit source]
Characteristic of most Gao-Indralan languages is a particular syllable structure involving monosyllabic morphemes; phonemic tone; a fairly large inventory of consonants, including phonemic aspiration; few or no clusters at the beginning of a syllable, other than clusters ending in a glide consonant; and a small number of possible distinctions at the end of a syllable, including no clusters, no voice distinction and unreleased stops. Phonemic tone is one of the most well-known of Gao-Indralan language characteristics. Indralan and Đinh, as well as Classical Kunikata, are tonal languages. Kyo and modern Kunikata do not have phonemic tone, but they do have a pitch accent.
Gao-Indralan languages are highly analytic languages. Words are not obligatorily marked or inflected for gender, number, person, case, tense, or mood. Instead, these properties can optionally be indicated by adding independent, invariant modifier words and particles that are sometimes not even bound morphemes. Central Gao-Indralan languages do have suffixes for properties of the verb itself like aspect, mood, and tense, but agree with South Gao-Indralan languages in not marking gender, number, or any other properties of the verb arguments on the verb itself. A quite specific feature of the Gao-Indralan languages is the existence of a well developed system of classifiers or measure words, used to classify the referent of a noun according to its meaning.
Personal pronouns in most Gao-Indralan languages are open class words rather than closed class words: they are not stable over time, not few in number, and not clitics whose use is obligatory in grammatical constructs. New personal pronouns or forms of reference or address can and often do evolve from nouns as fresh ways of expressing respect or social status. Another way of viewing this phenomenon is that these languages do not have personal pronouns in the Western sense. This derives from the complex politeness system typical for most of the languages of this family. Linguistic systems of politeness, including frequent use of honorifics, with varying levels of politeness or respect, are well-developed in these languages. Gao-Indralan speakers may use different words with the same meaning, but with varying degrees of politeness, in different contexts. For example, bác, chú, dượng, and cậu are all Đinh terms that all refer to different statuses of "uncle".
Writing systems[edit | edit source]
With the adoption of Classical Gao-Showan as a literary language, the areas that were under the cultural influence of the Empire of Gao-Soto, which include most speakers of Gao-Indralan languages, adopted the Gao script to write their own languages, thus influencing the development of a national written language based on the previously unwritten local language. The Kyo have created their own (phonetic) writing system, partially derived from Gao Characters, called Kyogul. Starting with the 16th century, when Gao-Showans first entered contact with the West, the Selucian script has been adapted for writing Gao-Indralan languages. Today, Đinh is entirely written in Selucian script. Kunikata also uses two syllabary scripts called karina.
OOC:[edit | edit source]
Gao-Indralan languages are the Particracy equivalent of East Asian languages. Although in real life these languages form a linguistic union and belong to several unrelated language families, here they are considered to be genetically related, and to form a single language family. Here they are grouped in three subdivisions based on several common elements shared by their RL counterparts. If any of this does not make sense, please feel free to modify.
|Peoples||Central: Kunihito • Sekowans • Kyo | Northern: Utari • Welang | Southern: Indralans • Đinh • Phra | Western: Tukarese • Mu-Tze • Bianjie|
|Languages||Gao-Indralan: Kunikata • Sekowan • Kyo • Indralan • Đinh • Phra • Utari | Jelbo-Tukaric: Panmuan • Bianjie|
|Regions||Dovani • Seleya • Gao-Soto • Sekowo • Dankuk • Indrala • Tukarali • Jinlian • Dalibor • Great North Dovani Plain • Kalistan • Bianjie|
|History||Empire of Gao-Soto • Kingdom of Sekowo • History of Sekowo • History of Indrala • History of Dranland • History of Tukarali • Great Sekowian War • Southern Hemisphere War|
|Religion||Gao-Showan Religions • Daenism • Mazdâyanâ • Zenshō • Kamism • Guidao • Jienism • Kanzo|
|State of Indrala
|History|| Historic Events: Blue Lotus Rebellion - Dawei Miracle - Southern Hemisphere War - War of Independence - Yu Restoration|
Historic Periods: Mesing - Gemu-Teng - Qin - Talmu - Great Xinhan - United Commonwealth - Alorian Protectorate - Gongchang - Mingzhi - He - Yu
Important Sites: Heavenly City - Mengmai - Temple of Ten Thousand Bidars
|Geography||Natural Features: Anle Range - Baitian Valley - Fehua Bay - Ma-Gan River - Tebie Desert - Shengo Rock|
Provinces: Han - Jiaozhi - Min - Anle - Shu
|Politics||Chief Minister of Indrala - Grand Assembly|
Political Parties: Republican Party - Yu Imperial Union - Worker's Party
|Demographics||Ethnic Groups: Indralan - Kyo-Indralans - Dinh - Bianjie - Kunihito |
Religion: Jienism - Guidao - Daenism (Mazdâyanâ, Zenshō) - Seodongyo
|Culture||Monarchy - Nobility - Sport|
|Economy||Agriculture - Banking - Caizu - Industry - Jiaozhi Miracle - Mining - Tourism|
|Union of Communist Councilist Republics|
Seongtaek (Central Capital)
|Geography • History • Culture • Economy • Government|
|History||Baekgu Dynasty • Beonyeongsalm Palace • Dranland • Dranian Zenshō Revolution • Egelian Drania • Flag of Dankuk • Great Kyo Revolution • Federal Park Service • House of Ryeo • House of Santiago • Kyobando Manifesto • Kyo-Indralan Revolutionary War • Timeline of Dranian History • August Revolution • Dranian Civil War|
|Subdivisions||Republics: Kyo CCR • Draniano CCR • Draddwyr CCR • Kazulian ACCR|
Provinces: Eljang • Reuni • Myeoggi • Eurbrak • Hyonggi
Hyeokjin • Iglesia Mayor • Llwybr Hawl • Taeyang
City of Labor: Seongtaek
|Politics||President of the Rowiet Union • Chairman of the Council of Workers' Commissars • Supreme Rowi|
Political Parties: CPRU
|Demographics||Religion: Aurorian Patriarchal Church • Daenism • Seodongyo • Sindo • Zenshō|
Ethnicity: Draddwyr • Dranianos • Kazulian • Kyo