|Geography of Istalia|
Istalia is located in the south-eastern part of Majatra, and it is divided into two natural regions: the Sarrentina Peninsula and the island of Alaria, which are respectively the southernmost as well as easternmost point of the Majatran continent and the easternmost land part of Majatra.
Istalia present several variety of terrains, climates and environments thanks to its geographical position which make the island and the peninsula probably the most pleasant lands of the eastern Majatra, especially in regard of climate and fertility of the land and this can also make understand the high population density of the Country.
The Sarrentina Peninsula, also known as Istalian Peninsula (Istaliano: Penisola Sarrentina-Penisola Istaliana), is the continental part of Istalia, colloquially known as the Mainland (Istalian: il Continente).
Geographically and historically the Peninsula is divided in three regions: Trivendito to the north-east, Padagna to the north, and Mezzodiurno to the south-east.
Trivendito is mountainous to the north where arise the Nayar Range (Istalian: Catena dei Nayar) while the cwnter is occupied by a hilly region and thw south by the larger plains of Istalia, the Teracche Plain (Istalian: Pianura di Teracche).
Padagna is more montainous then Trivendito, being occupied in the north and all alongside the coast in the west by an another mountain range, the Alkhayl Mountains (Istalian: Montagne o Monti Alkhayl, gli Alkhayl) which encircle the Feiran Plains (Istalian: Piane di Feirano). The plains instead to the south fall in the central depression called Basin of Pehykran (Istalian: Bacino di Pheykran), occupied by the arid namesake desert and which reach -258 m.
Mezzodiurno to the north is occupied by the southern offshoots of the Basin of Pheykran and by the southernmost part of the Teracche Plain, while the rest of the region rises gently to a large plateau, the Southern Plateau (Istalian: Altopiano del Meridione), delimited to the south-west by the last offshoots of the Alkhayl.
Island of AlariaEdit
The Isle of Alaria (Istalian: Isola di Alaria, in ancient times also known as Estalia, from which derives the name Istalia) is as large as 2/3 of the peninsula and is separated from the latter by the wide Straits of Ingris (Istalian: Stretti di Ingris), in the north called Missena Channel (Istalian: Canale di Missena),named after the port city on the west coast of Silicia, which connects the Basin of the Sea of Lost Souls into the north with the Antarctic Ocean into the south.
Alaria is partaged by the regions of Sarregna, to the south, and Silicia, to the north, and is occupied in large part by the fertile Nicomese Plain (Istalian: Piana Nicomese), the second largest of Istalia rich of rivers among them the Adise, the second longest of the country, plain which becomes more bumpy and hilly as one moves northward to the borders with Silicia.
In Silicia, these hills rise up even more becoming mountains, the Arasclari Mounts (Istalian: Monti Arasclari), which in the center of Silicia gives way to a large wooded and uneven plateau going to rise rather along the coasts all around the region, taking the shape of a C facing the south.
Istalia, finding itself in the middle of the temperate zone, can boast a good and mild temperate climate, in the east warmed by the Aldunt Stream, an ocean current which passes from the South Ocean to the Sea of Lost Souls and which then is channeled in the Strait of Ingris which brings warm tropical water to the southern-east regions of Majatra and southern-west of Seleya assuring the condition for a majatranlike climate.
The southern south-eastern shores instead are much more influenced by the clod stream from the Perarctic Ocean (Istalian: Oceano Perartico) and the damp Antarctic cyclone which brings heavy rainfall and cools the region at the south of the Alkhayl mountains.
In general, therefore, the Istalian climate is the result of the interaction between the abundant hot flow coming from the north and the cold which comes from the south.
The mountainous regions in the mainland are obviously charaterized by a High Mountain Climate, thanks to the average altitudes around the 2900 m which allow the permanent presence of snow-cap and glaciers. The Ascalari mounts indeed have more moderate altitude with the highest peak at 2100 m, and so only in winter appears snow-cap and the forests reach almost all the eroded peaks.
Istalia presents also an arid region, the already mentioned Desert of Pheykran, which lies into the namesake depressed Basin where the rain shadow of the Alkhayl generate a very dry region. The desert however is relatively cold with temperatures which don't overcome 40° in the summer.
The average temperature of Istalia in summer (21 december - 21 March) is around 23° with peaks of over 30° in some zone of the island, everage warmer than the mainland, while in winter (21 June - 21 September) is around 5° with negative peaks of over -15°, more at the higher altitudes.
MountainsEditIstalia geologically is part of the so called Alarian Plate, which collide to the Majatran continent 46 million years ago circa: from this collision arise the Nayar Range. Geologically both the mountains in the north of Trivendito and Padagna are part of the same geological system but the Padagna section is considered indeed part of the eastern Alkhayl Mountains.
The latter originated not due to the collision between the two tectonic plates but arise due to the subduction of the Perarctic Plate under the Alarian Plate. The subduction began shortly after the Alarian-Majatran collision and this explain why the Alkhayl and the Nayar present similar age and similar height. The subduction under the Alarian Plate, however, generates an important volcanic activity under the Alkhayl which for this reason presents numerous volcanos and is interested by sismic activity.
The Nayar Range stretches for about 650 kilometres from northeast to southwest and constitute a natural boundary between the Istalian region of Trivendito and the Solentian regions of Shinatawa and Tesuhen.
The mountains are heavily forested (deciduous forest up to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft), coniferous forest up to 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) and alpine meadows above the tree line) and the protected valleys of the eastern part allowed the formation of the Eastern Temperate Rainforest or Nayar Rainforest, very attractive destination.
The Nayar Range is relatively young as mountain range and this explain the hight of its peaks among them the higher is Mount Tonante which reaches 4697 m. The Nayar in fact present extensive glaciers and permanent snow-capped peaks.
From the Nayar flow several rivers, divided between those which reach the eastern shores of Trivendito and those which flow in the Merevino River. The Nayar Range is a renowned destination for the invernal turism and sports activity.
The Alkhayl Mountains are traditionally divided in Lesser Alkhayl and Greater Alkhayl. The former is also called the Northerner massif and geologically is part of the same range of the Nayar from which is diveded by the large Sarrentian Pass or Sarrentian Valley, which was formed during a most recent ice ige by an impressive glacier which dug this large valley, but due to the similar age, aspect and height of the two ranges, the western portion of the Nayars is always been considered instead as part of the Alkhayl.
The Greater Alkhayl rise along the south-eastern coast of the Peninsula from the south-westernmost point of the Lesser Alkhayl to the southern plateau of which constitute the south-western border.
The southern slopes of the Alkhayl host one of the most impressive natural beauty of Istalia, the so called Great Coastal Rainforest of the South, due to the cold Perarctic current, which is populated by several giant tree which attract thousand of turists each years and is protected by the higher number of natural reserves of the Country.
These monts are older than the ranges on the mainland being the last vestige of the so called Alarian Craton, the core of the Alarian Plate which arose its altitude when the western bord of the Plate collided against the Majatran Plate. The Ascalari arose along the coast of Silicia presenting a C shape facing the south and encircling a central large plateau. Here the highest peaks are above the 2100 m and this allow the forests to cover totally almost all the mounts and also the central plateau which despite is moderate more arid presents numerous little lake which contribute to defuse it. This area in past was renowned for the large gold deposits heavily exploited until 20th century.
Istalia due to its impressive mountain ranges, the temperate climate and the influence of the Perarctic Current, is a land crossed by numerous rivers.
The larger and longest are situated in Trivendito and Sarregna, while those which cross Padagna flow in the western Trivendito's rivers or into the Central Lake. The rivers in the southern plateau are more modest and from the Alkhayl cross the region to reach the Straits of Ingris. All the rivers which flow from the southern slopes of the Alkhayl finally are the shortest of the Country but also the most dangerous, annualy engorged by the heavy rains and able to produce great damages.
- Merevino, it is the longest river in Istalia which has its source in the western Alkhayl in Padagna from which flow to south-east close to the border between Trivendito which is crossed in the south until the Strait of Ingris. On its shores rises Milona, the larger city of the north.
- Adise, second longest rivers of the Country, its source is in the Mount of Idols, the only mountain massif of Sarregna, indeed it doesn't overcome 1000 m, from which flow with large loops into the Nicomese Plain until the Sea of Lost Souls.
- Sala, it is the largest river of Mezzodiurno and on its shores rises Romula. From the Alkhayl to the west, it flows east until the Straits of Ingris, in the middle of the Sala Valley, dug by the river at the western and northern foot of the southern plateau.
- Acquachiara, it is the longest river of Trivendito, flowing from the Nayars until the Strait of Ingris. On its shores are sitting the cities of Bunogna and Vinesia, the latter on its mouth.
- Ombroso, the larger but not longer river of the southern slops of the Alkhayl, is renowned for its waterfalls and the namesake pleseant valley.
- Risodor, it cuts from west north-west to east south-east the Padagna regions and on its shores rises Turrino. It flows Into the Sovrano Lake.
- Tanallo, longest river of Silicia, it flows from the eastern Arasclari into the central-southern hilly zone and then continue in Sarregna until the eastern shores.
- Bellavista, is the sourthernmost river of Padagna and before to flow into the Nomads Lake marks the northern limit of the Desert of Pheykran. Its name, in luthorian beautiful view, was given in ancient time by the nomads which after crossed the desert finally found fresh water.
Istalia is rich in Ponds and bodies of water, numerous seasonal ones into the silician plateau, but the larger are the ones called Great Central Lakes (Istalian: Grandi Laghi del Centro), four large lakes located approximately in the area of the common border between the three region of the Peninsula.
Most notable lakes in Istalia:
- Sovereign (Istalian: Sovrano), the largest lake of the Country, it is formed by two basin connected by a narrower passage in the middle. The northern basin is also called Verunia Lake.
- Firmament (Istalian: Firmamento), it is to north-west of the Sovrano. It's the second largest lake but the one with the lower volume. It's very shallow and lays into an roughly oval basin. Very quiet, its name derives by the fact that the reflection of the stars into the lake has been a very suggestive view well known since antiquity.
- Nomads Lake (Istalian: Lago dei Nomadi), it is the southernmost lake of the Central group and is connected by the Frusta River with the last of the great lake.
- Inferior (Istalian: Inferiore), it is the smallest and the lowest of the four central great lakes whose waters flow to the sea thanks the Silistro River.
- Counts Lake (Istalian: Lago dei Conti), is the largest lake in Silicia, to the east of the Silician Plateau. It is the deepest occuping a pit at the foot of the Arasclari.
- Malaqua, it is the second largest lake into the Silician Plateau and its name is a dialect form which can be roughly translate as bad water: it is due to the fact that it is encircled by vast swamps which in the past were haunted by the malaria.
- Phantom (Istalian: Fantasma), it is the third largest lake in Silicia, in the north of the Plateau. It is a seasonal lakes which changes greatly its shape and dimension between summer and winter.