The history of Aldegar is related to the history of the surrounding region and neighbouring modern states. For much of the pre-modern period, it was the centre of successive continental empires as well as being under the influence of empires centred elsewhere. Aldegar is often cited as being one of the world's oldest permanent civilisations alongside Yingdala, Vascania, Gao-Soto and various regions in Majatra.
In contemporary literature, Aldegarian history is divided into four broad "eras": prehistoric, ancient, middle and modern. The four periods mirror similar divisions in various other countries in Seleya and further afield. The distinctions in Aldegar differ slightly from elsewhere and the modern era is usually cited as starting later in Aldegar with the foundation of the First Aldegarian Republic.
- 1 Prehistory
- 2 Ancient history
- 3 Middle history
- 4 Modern history
Until relatively recently it was widely held, particularly in mainstream Aldegarian society, that the Aldegarian people were the region's original inhabitants. The scientific and historical evidence suggests this is probably not the case and that Aldegarians likely arrived in the region from Majatra sometime during the ancient era.
Despite this it is not clear who occupied the modern territory of Aldegar prior to the arrival of the Aldegarians though they were probably related to the Ikpi people of modern Saridan or the various other indigenous peoples of Central Seleya.
In the context of Aldegarian history, the ancient period is usually said to begin with the creation of the Kemokian Empire. For millennia the Empire has been perceived as a foundational point in the history of the country (and the nation) and almost every subsequent Aldegarian state traces continuity with the Kemokians.
In common parlance, it is sometimes referred to as the "first empire" in reference to a succession of Aldegarian empires in the region. The end of the ancient period is almost universally considered to be the fall of the Phraatid dynasty in 263 and the incorporation of the region into the territory of the Mu-Tze Khanate.
Kemokian Empire (699-465 BCE)
One of the numerous small Shahdoms in the 8th century was the Shahdom of Kemoku. It was in this region that one of the most significant events in Terran religious history took place. Around 710 BCE, a young shepherd named Shapur claimed to have received revelation from the god Yazdān, according to which there is only one god of the light, in a never-ending battle with the evil spirit, and that humanity plays a central role in this battle. The young prophet found his protector in the person of Kurosh Shah, the king of Kemoku. Following the sudden death of Shapur, presumably murdered by the traditional priestly class of Kemoku, Kurosh used the new religion of Yazdism as an ideological basis for his emerging empire. Motivated by the new faith, the Kemokian empire extended, through force and diplomacy, over a much of the continent of Seleya. By the time Kurosh died in 665 BCE, his empire more than doubled in size. His successors extended Kemokian rule over all of today's Saridan, Gaduridos, and Tukarali, and parts of Valruzia, Baltusia, and Mordusia.
From 574 BCE, the Kemokian Empire was engaged in consistent conflict with its southern neighbours including a variety of tribes and petty kingdoms. After a major defeat in 513, their enemies were organised into a single organisation. Mehrdad Shahriar managed to reverse these defeats and reassert Kemokian hegemony around 467 BCE. Mehrdad Shahriar subsequently attempted an expansion south that dramatically failed. Caught in an ambush in modern Mordusia, his armies were destroyed.
After the death of Mehrdad and with no clear successor to the throne, the empire was once again plunged in civil war. Taking advantage of this, the southern neighbours conquered the Aldegarian homeland, while the empire's border regions became independent. In 465 BCE, the Kemokian Empire was destroyed, survived only in the islands of Somasi and Surtilati by the Somasian Shahdom, ruled by a cognate branch of the Ashkan dynasty.
Varigosian Kingdom (465-322 BCE)
As the Varigosians conquered the Kemokian Empire, their king, Friedhelm I, took on the title of King of Kings, claiming continuity with the empire he conquered. The new Varigosian Shahdom did not attempt to impose its customs and language on the conquered Aldegarians, instead leaving local government to continue largely as it had been during Kemokian rule. Although the Varigosians attempted to regain the former territories of the Kemokian Empire, their rule was limited to the Aldegarian homeland. The Varigosian Kingdom was to last until its overthrow following a rebellion of local nobles in 322 BCE.
Phraatid Dynasty (322-BCE-263 CE)
Due to the descentralized organization of the Varigosian Kingdom, the old Kemokian nobility was largely left intact. One local noble, Bahram, grandson of Farhād (Phraates), after killing his brothers, demanded the allegiance of the neighbouring nobles, and proclaimed himself Shahanshah. With his seat of power in the newly built fortress of Timārestān in Amuro, the expanding power of the Phraatids was not unnoticed by the Varigosian King Wendelin. Initially, Wendelin ordered the Satrap of Hikirena to wage war against Bahram in 325, but the battles were victories for Bahram. In a second attempt to destroy Bahram, Wendelin himself met Bahran in battle at Lājvardi, where Wendelin met his death. Following the death of the Varigosian ruler, Bahram I went on to invade the southern provinces of the now defunct Varigosian Kingdom.
The new Phraatid Empire went on to reestablish Aldegarian rule over central Seleya, reconquering Tukarali to the North, and attempting to reassert Aldegarian control over Saridan and Gaduridos. Although the Phraatids did not reach the territorial extent of the Kemokian Empire, their rule was one of the most peaceful and prosperous in the history of Aldegar. The Phraatid era is also notable for its philosophical and religious developments; it was under Phraatid rule that Shahriar, the founder of Zamānism, and Bahram Bidar, the founder of Daenism, created and preached their new ideas, and both new religions often received royal patronage.
Beginning during Mu-Tze rule, the Aldegarian Rostamid had already taken control of parts of the country before eventually founding a continental empire. Eventually the Rostamids saw their influence reduced until they were replaced by the Shahnazid dynasty. By the end of Aldegarian middle history, the Shahnazid dynasty had lost much of its territory and authority and was overthrown with the creation of the First Aldegarian Republic.
Mu-Tze rule (263-719)
The Mu-Tze tribes, originating from the Cubla tribes of Ananto, began a slow process of expansion throughout northern Seleya beginning with the first century. In 218, these tribes were unified by a strong Khan named Bat-Erdene, founding an empire that within just a few years would conquer much of the continent. In 241, Bat-Erdene sent a trade mission to the Phraatid Empire, but at the town of Sāhebnazar the governor, suspecting the Khan's ambassadors to be spies, confiscated their goods and executed them. Bat-Erdene demanded reparations, which the Shah Khodadad refused to pay. Bat-Erdene retaliated with a force of 200,000 men, launching a multi-pronged invasion. In 242 the Mu-Tze army began the invasion of Aldegar. The Mu-Tze stormed Sāhebnazar, Lājvardi and the Phraatid capital Timārestān. The Shah fled and died some weeks later on Somasi.
The son of Khodadad, Daryush, became the new Shah. He attempted to flee to Saridan, but the Mu-Tze caught up with him before he got there, and he was defeated at the Battle of Kasād. He escaped and he gathered an army and re-established a kingdom. He never consolidated his power, however, spending the rest of his days struggling against the Mu-Tze and pretenders to his own throne. He was eventually defeated in 263, bringing about the end of the Phraatid Dynasty and the conquest of Aldegar.
Rostamid Dynasty (674-1512)
Mu-Tze rule was characterized by a significant level of decentralization. The Khan would often reward local landowners with provinces and titles as a reward for their loyalty. One such landowner was the Hikirenian Rostam, who in 674 was rewarded the towns of Pākize and Tamaddon for putting down a revolt. The domains of Rostam grew significantly under the rule of his descendents, leading to the birth of a new dynasty. When the Mu-Tze Khanate collapsed in 719, the Rostamids already controlled most of Aldegar.
The Rostamid Shahdom saw a revival of Aldegarian culture and further expansion of Aldegar's rule. In 912 Hosianism was introduced by the Badaran Saint ʻAlāʼ ad-Dīn of al-Buqiyya, and in 924 it was officially adopted by the Rostamid court under Shah Zartosht. Through Hosianism came heavy Majatran and Cildanian cultural influence, and the Aldegarian language was heavily influenced by Majatran. The Aldegarian alphabet was also born in this period, derived from the Qedarite script from Cildania.
Rostamid control of Aldegar lasted for almost a thousand years until it was eventually overthrown in 1512 by Shahnaz Mirza Abbas. Shahnaz was a general of modest Mu-Tze origin and he led a rebellion against the government over their perceived embrace of the "foreign influence" of Hosianism.
After the coronation of Shahnaz as shahanshah, Yazdism was restored as the official national religion. During this period, Hosians were heavily persecuted and the phenomenon of "hidden Hosians" developed for the first time as adherents were forced to adopt Yazdist iconography to avoid detection. At the same time the Shah pursued an aggressive foreign policy to assert control over the wider region.
By the late 19th century, demand for political change in Aldegar emerged. In 1893, a form of limited constitutional monarchy was established that granted significant power to the Court Minister. For around a century this ensured a period of relative stability within the country however discontent re-emerged in the early 21st century fuelled by the writing of figures like Farrokh Hajar. Eventually a violent revolution overthrew the Shahnazid dynasty and replaced it with a republican government.
The foundation of the First Aldegarian Republic after the overthrow of the Shahnazid dynasty is conventionally regarded as the beginning of modern history in Aldegar. Farrokh Hajar was incredibly influential in this transition period and much later political thought is based on his ideas and writings.
Aldegar's first period of republican was among the longest in its history lasting from the creation of the First Republic in 2042 to the establishment of the Aldegarian Empire with support from the priestly class in 2535. During this period, Aldegar was governed as almost exclusively as as semi-presidential republic with the position of Court Minister remaining but responsible to an elected president rather than a monarch.
With support from the institutional leadership of Yazdism in the country, the republican system of government was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 2535. During this period the monarch used the style of padishah in contrast to the historically more common shahanshah. In comparison to the rule of previous historical Aldegarian empires, the rule of the Ghaffari dynasty was relatively short. Republican parties won a supermajority in elections and created the Second Aldegarian Republic in 2615.
List of Padishahs
- Ghaffari (2535-2585)
- Ghaffari (2589-2593)
- Ghaffari (2597-2615)
By the early 2700's, however, a new era was ushered in with the formation of the National Populist Party by a 20 year old young man named Joshua Snyder. At the time of the NPP's creation in 2720, Aldegar was, for the most part split between the far right wing, semi-dictatorial National Party and the far left, pacifist Green Party of Aldegar. The National Populist Party was founded on a more moderate, but still distinctively right wing political platform but more of a left-leaning economic platform.
The National Party held an obvious majority of the nation, but by 2730, the leadership of the party divided and the entire party ceased to exist almost over night. In the void that followed, the Berosian Party, Traditionalist Party, and the National Populist Party gained ground, with the Berosian Party holding the majority of the nation. The Green Party of Aldegar had the perfect chance to become the head of the nation with the National Party's fall, but due to an increasingly right wing Aldegar, as well as the formation of the People's Self-Defense and the New Whig Party as strong moderate contenders, the party began to lose ground.
Another 10 years passed with steady growth by the National Populist Party. Joshua Snyder kept his party greatly organized. This would prove to be essential in projecting the NPP to power. By 2740, the Berosian and the Traditionalist Parties fell apart, with the majority of their followers creating the Christian Democracy Party. This new party would command a vast following in Aldegar, but only for 5 years.
In 2745, Joshua Snyder was finally elected as President of Aldegar, and 3 years later in 2748, he oversaw the appointment of loyal members of his party as Premier, head of Foreign and Internal Affairs, as well as the head of the Ministry of Defense. Joshua Snyder and the National Populist Party became the most powerful machine in Aldegar since the old monarchy. In the same year, President Snyder successfully changed the national animal to the Aldegarian Eagle, which lead the way to Aldegar adopting the National Populist Party's flag and motto in 2752. That year, with the dissolution of the Christian Democracy Party and the weakening of the Green Party of Aldegar, the National Populist Party had enough power to control all legislation and usher in any law, save for constitutional amendments, that it wanted. And it did. The only parties that could even begin to stand in it's way were the People's Party for Progress and Justice (The successor party to the People's Self-Defense), and the New Whig Party, and even those two parties together couldn't stop the NPP from voting in their laws.
In 2755, however, the battle for dominance of the government was turning to the favor of the rest of the parties. Two new leftist parties, the Aldegarian People's Party and the militant communist All Aldegar Worker's Unity Front were formed, and after making alliances with the Green Party and the People's Justice Party of Aldegar (The People's Party for Progress and Justice), they took the majority of the votes from the National Populists. Not even the National Populists' close partnership with the New Whig Party could give them the majority to prevent a slow turn back towards a leftist government, but it never stopped the NPP founder Joshua Snyder from being elected to his 5th term in 2757 by the people. 5 years later, however, in 2760 the disorganization that had been plaguing the leftist parties in Aldegar for decades had proven once again to favor the National Populists, and the two new parties, the Aldegarian People's Party and the All Aldegar Worker's Unity Front began to loose their voices. Slowly but surely, the National Populists began to reenact the laws that the leftists had done away with in the past 5 years.
Third Nation of Aldegar (3047-3059)
- Röstäm Manu (3047-3059)
- Republican rule (third and forth?) (3059-3547)
- Hirinid dynasty (3547 - 3550)
- Socialist rule (3550 - 3572)
- Savaranid dynasty (3572-3603)
- Fifth Republic and Aldegarian Empire (3603-3714)
- Duchy of Phoenix (3714-3746)
- Rowshani Theocracy (3746-3763)
- Unclear history (3763 - 3768)
- Sixth Republic (3763 - 3806*)
- Anushiravan dynasty (3788 - 3796)
- Communist rule (3796 - )
- Republican rule (- 3853)
- Hirinid dynasty (3853 - 3865)
- Anushiravan dynasty (3865 - 3891)
- Unclear history (3891 - 3964)
- Seventh Republic (3964 - 4007)
- Tawanid dynasty (4007 - 4102)
- Republican rule (4102 - 4137)
- Pesuna dynasty (4137 - 4163)
- Unclear history (4163 - 4246)
- Pesuna dynasty (4246 - 4259)
- Elective monarchy (4259 - 4308)
- Vaez dynasty (4308 - 4328)
- Unclear history (4328 - 4339)
- Bahramid dynasty (4339 - 4348)
- Unclear history (4348 - 4377)
- Kasidid dynasty (4377 - 4393)
- Unclear history (4393 - 4439)
- Conservative republic (4439 - 4484)
- Pesuna dynasty (4484 - 4535)
In 4535, the monarchy was overthrown for the last time with the support of conservative members of the clergy and the armed forces. For many conservatives, the Shah had become too weak and was perceived as a threat to the Aldegarian national interest.
The overthrow of the Pesuna dynasty triggered a long period of dictatorial rule in Aldegar that lasted over two hundred years before the brief restoration of republican rule in 4765. The initial right-wing dictatorship that seized power in 4535 was replaced with an explicitly theocratic regime in 4549. Theocratic rule lasted barely a decade though before a long period of left-wing dictatorship between 4558 and 4644.
After over a century in power, the left-wing dictatorship was replaced by the Hedayati dictatorship. Despite lasting only until 4668 itself, this period continues to be romanticised among conservatives and ultra-nationalists within Aldegar for its expansionary and defiant military and foreign policy.
Eventually Davoud Hedayati was replaced by a more radical, fascist dictatorship that lasted until 4694. Political change came again in 4694 with the creation of the nationalist dictatorship. Economic considerations led to the downfall of the nationalist dictatorship and the creation of a new regime that was self-defined as more "pragmatic" and open to capitalist organisation.
After almost a century of constantly changing right-wing dictatorship in Aldegar, the Student Revolution in 4724 created a new regime that was ostensibly left-wing and claimed to be more responsive to public opinion. Once again though the regime hardened into dictatorship before being overthrown with the support of the country's conservative elements and a "new republic" being declared. After a period in power the new republican dictatorship was overthrown in a communist takeover that established yet another dictatorship between 4753 and 4765.
In 4765, liberals, moderates and conservatives came together to form the Aldegarian Republican Congress and re-establish democratic rule in the country after over two centuries. For a brief period they were successful and the country operated as a functioning democracy for several years before far right elements of the clergy and the military once again orchestrated the creation of a dictatorship in 4772.
- Right-wing dictatorship (4535 - 4549)
- Theocratic dictatorship (4549 - 4558)
- Left-wing dictatorship (4558 - 4644)
- Hedayati dictatorship (4644 - 4668)
- Fascist dictatorship (4668 - 4694)
- Nationalist dictatorship (4694 - 4719)
- Right-wing dictatorship (4719 - 4724)
- Student dictatorship (4724 - 4739)
- New republican dictatorship (4739 - 4753)
- Communist dictatorship (4753 - 4765)
- Republican rule (4765 - 4772)
- Right-wing dictatorship (4772 - 4853)
Return to democracy
After several decades, protests against the dictatorship resulted in the emergence of the Freedom movement calling for a restoration of democratic rule and a project of widespread national renewal following centuries of authoritarian rule. Eventually the movement was successful and the first democratic elections were held in 4853 with success for candidates associated with the movement (which has by now been endorsed by the clergy).
Over the following two decades, partisan division threatened the future of the democratic system once again. In order to avoid a return to dictatorial rule, major political figures led by Shahram Jafarnejad formed the non-partisan republic in which all political officials pledged to renounce ideological commitments and work "for the good of the Aldegarian people". In comparison to many previous efforts, the non-partisan republic has been relatively stable.
- Republican rule (4853 - 4872)
- Non-partisan republic (4872 - present)