|Early Settlements BC 1000 - AD 500|
|Selucian Settlements 500 - 600|
|Holy Alorian Empire 600 - 1054|
|The Great Dark Period 1054 - 1272|
|KINGDOM OF ALORIA|
|Unification Wars 1272 - 1306|
|Building a Nation 1306 - 1700|
|Early Alorian Kings|
|Conquest of the West|
|House of Wyndhams|
|The Golden Ages 1700 - 1900|
|20th Century Aloria 1900 - 2000|
|Reign of Terror|
|Age of Decline 2000 - 2089|
|Fall of the Monarchy 2089 - 2099|
|Glorious Revolution 2099 - 2100|
|Birth of the Republic 2100 - 2150|
|Nation of Immigrants 2150 - 2250|
The Gilded Era 2430 – 2520
The Communist Era 3018-3047
The History of Aloria spans millennia from the first settlements in the region all the way to the modern-day Democratic Republic of Aloria.
Early Alorian History (until 1306)Edit
Early Settlements (BC 3000 - AD 500)Edit
The first traces of civilization in Aloria date back to around 3000 B.C. when native peoples migrated to the Kurmal Mountains and built villages in them. They lived in a peaceful clan based society and practiced what is now called Bogulism, the precursor the the modern day religion of Bogism. They used primitive stone and bronze age technology, and relied on the harsh mountain environment to ward off more superior invaders(which they did on numerous occasions). Other tribal people lived in a society based in Krentori, but ultimately their culture would be polluted and they would be conquered by the Makans.
It wasn't until the third century BC when a small group of exiles from what is now modern Quanzar ventured by boat to Aloria that the Alorian Indians had any sustained contact with other outside groups. The pilgrims, of Semitic origin, moved into the Krentori Delta Area, claimed the area as with the name Birka Maka(Majatran for Swamp Place), and called themselves Makans. The Makans initiated trade and relations with the Native Kurmali(who were wary of strangers), but cultural exchange, intermarriage, and religious melding within a relatively short time period created two intermingled and friendly societies. The Makans also brought more advanced technology, an early form of Judaism, and the Hebrew language.
Once the Kurmali and Makans resolved their differences, they agreed to a mutual protection pact sometime around the second century AD. This early agreement lasted generally unchallenged in a "Great Peace" until around 500 A.D. when a band of six hundred zealous Selucian Catholics under Caius Alorius, inspired by the tales of the Quanzaran journey, landed in Sildar and conquered the Alorian tribes there. The Birka Maka were ill prepared and was easily conquered by Caius, who then proceeded to wipe out the Makan culture.
Selucian Settlements (500 - 600)Edit
The first six hundred Alorians were nearly all men, a motley bunch of sailors and warriors binded by their faith. Their leader Caius Alorius, upon arrival, declared that the new nation would be named after him. So, he called it Aloria and declared everyone living there were Alorians.
In the year 510, after word of the successful journey reached Selucia, where the Catholic minority wanted their own homeland, a mass drove of pilgrims from all walks of life took the long and hard journey to Aloria. It is estimated that nearly three fourths of them died en route of disease, ill weather, or raiding by foreign ships, but around one thousand Selucians, on top of the six hundred already there settled the Krentori delta.
Within the century, their settlements spread up and down Aloria's western coast. Little political change was made in the nation until Caius Alorius' grandson, Cornicen Alorius, took charge of the fledgling nation after his grandfather's death in the year 548. Cornicen paved roads, conquered natives, and expanded cities using Selucian style architecture. He garnered power from leaders of local settlements, killed political opponents, and unified Aloria under his rule. He was de facto dictator, and stayed so until his death in the year 600.
Holy Alorian Empire (600 - 1054)Edit
When Cornicen Alorius died he left no heir to his powers, and many regional leaders were quick to claim it back, but loyalists to the Alorius family backed his nephew, Imperiosus Alorius, as the new dictator. With greater military advantage and direct control of Aloria's largest cities inherited from his uncle, Imperiosus was able to domineer his way into control of Aloria with minimal bloodshed. He, however, decided to grab more power from locals, and in the summer of the year 611 he declared himself Emperor in the new capital city of Sildar(now Sildar City).
In the year 843, the Empire was faced with the growing problem of Kurmali raids on the less populated inland areas of Aloria. While most Alorians lived on the western coasts, the majority of their food was raised nearer inland. This proved troublesome, as most Alorians considered the wilderness to be dangerous. Emperor Julius Alorius declared that foreigners were allowed to immigrate to the fertile farmlands, and the call was answered. By the end of his reign Dundorfian and Dorvish immigrants outnumbered the Selucian descended Alorians.
The Dark Ages (1054 - 1300)Edit
The Caliphate of Al-SildaharEdit
Precisely what happened on the Sildarian Peninsula in the early 11th century is subject to much uncertainty. What is clear is that in the early 11th century, a modest army estimated at some 10,000–15,000 Muslim combatants arrived from Majatra. It defeated the last remains of the already declining Holy Alorian empire between 1020-1054 and went on to take control of most of the Peninsula.
The conquering army was made up mainly of muslims from Majatra, probably from Quanzar, who had themselves only recently come under Muslim influence and were probably only lightly Islamised. It is probable that this army represented a continuation of a historic pattern of large–scale raids into Artania, and that actual conquest was not originally planned.
During an thirty-year campaign, most of the modern day Sildarian Peninsula was brought under Muslim occupation. After the conquest of the Holy City, the last stronghold of emperor Flavius Alorius, the emperor was deposed in 1054. This event has traditionally been considered the official end of the Holy Alorian Empire. The Muslims quickly conquered the remaining parts of the peninsula. The conquered territory, under the name al-Sildahar (green land), became the Caliphate of Al-Sildahar under the rule of caliph Khemed bin-Tariq. The invaders subsequently moved eastward across across the Kaunlaran River, but were defeated by the Ultranians at the Battle of Torum in 1126.
The period of the Caliphate is seen by Muslim writers as a golden age. Crops produced using irrigation, along with food imported from Majatra, provided the area around Al-Sildahar and some other Sildarian cities with an agricultural economic sector by far the most advanced in Artania. The City of al-Sildahar, with a population of perhaps 500,000, eventually became the largest and most prosperous city in Northern Artania.
In the wake of the breakdown of Alorian rule in the east around 900, present day Gavonshire was progressively settled by other Northern Artanian groups. Collectively known as the Gavonians, these included Dundorfians from Dundorf together with larger numbers of Anglians from the north and Mercians from what is now the Kirlawan province of Merkah
Viking raiders from the North struck the Ultranian coasts between 880 and 900. The Vikings attackers sought to capture the treasures stored at Alorian castles, forts and monasteries. The raiders killed the lords and priests and captured the valuables. This raid was called the beginning of the “Viking Invasion”, made possible by the Viking longship. There was great violence during the last decade of the 9th century on Aloria’s northern shores. The raids were carried out primarily in the summer, the Vikings spending the winter up North.
After a time of plunder and raids, the Vikings began to settle permanently in Ultrania. An important Viking centre was Alectrona, called Alektrion by the Vikings.
In approximately 911, at the Battle of Bodar's End, Alorians inflicted a severe defeat on an invading Dorvish-Lorman army which halted the westward Lorman advance for some decades.
An important development of the 10th century was the rise of the Kingdom of East Ultran. Though not without setbacks, by the end of the 10th century the West Ultran kings came to rule what had previously been part of the Holy Alorian Empire.
The county of Gavonia originates with Jacoba, daughter of King Maximilian II of Dundorf. She married Gavonian knight Balderick in 1092, and Maximilian II granted the region of Gavonia, a region between the Verita and Krentori River, to the two of them. It was one of the original lay pairies of the Dundorfian realm, the count (and later duke) of Gavonia being the swordbearer in the coronation ceremony of the kings of Dundorf . The original Gavonian county was expanded throughout the years, to the north, with the lordship of the Four Walts and the margraviate of Stewart, to the west with the burgraviate of Harrison and to the east with the shires of Astor and Steuben.
Gradual Gavonian expansion through the central lands continued through the 12th century. After the Battle of Galesbury in 1135, the counts of Gavonia also acquired the county of Anglia.
Edward the Confessor began a programme of expansion, building forts and towns in most parts of the central plains of Gavonia. In 1144, he adopted Christianity. This gave him greater legitimacy and power over his Christian subjects and gave him support from the Dundorfian king, who granted him the title of Duke of Gavonia in 1156. For the next five years he faced a series of rebellions in various parts of the country and a half-hearted Rutanian invasion, but he was able to subdue all resistance and establish an enduring regime.
The new rulers' power reached its fullest extent under Edward's grandson John the Conquerer. In 1199 John incorporated Maine (1205) and Sterling (1206) into his realm, subsequently conquering the Western Plains and advancing the frontier with Islamic Al-Sildahar as far west as beyond the plains between the Krentori and Kaunlaran River (1215).
Birth of the Alorian KingdomEdit
In 1292 Duke Charles II of Gavonia defeated Rutan leader Alaric II and annexed subsequently the area west of the Krentori River. In 1296 he reached the oceanic coast, now controlling the entire land from the Verita River in the east to the Krentori Delta and the Verranderlyke Ocean coast in the west, and the Ruts retired to the south what would become Rutania.
Charles always admired the Holy Alorian Empire in her glory days, and his dream was to recreate such a glorious empire of his own. In recognition of his successes and his political support for the Dundorfian king and for christianity, Charles was crowned King by Rudolph I of Dundorf in on 1 December 1306, and gave his kingdom the name Aloria.
Fall of the Holy EmpireEdit
In April 2, 1054, Vitulus Alorius was crowned Emperor of Aloria. Vitulus faced mounting debt and a populous in Sildar with a voracious appetite for luxuries. Aloria's position as the trading center of northern Artania had declined, and by the time Vitulus was crowned the lack of prosperity had created a rebellion in the province of Anglia.
The Anglians were almost all descended from Dundorfian and Dorvish immigrants, and used a different language than the Alorians. The Anglians, mostly poor farmers, felt that they were second class citizens in the Empire and wanted to forge their own nation. Vitulus, looking to avert rebellion that very well could have dethroned him, granted Anglia's independence in 1059 under the condition that it still export vital food supplies to Aloria; however, competing factions in the new land broke out into civil war, inadvertently cutting off food supplies in the Empire and throwing Aloria into famine.
The wars ended twenty years later with Anglia breaking up into four independent Duchies; to which the Empire lost more vital farmland and the coastal province of Ultrania.
Late Medieval Period (1300 - 1506)Edit
Kingdom of AloriaEdit
Kingdom of UltranEdit
The Fall of the CaliphateEdit
The important city of Agraba (modern day Ceres) was captured from the Muslims in 1377 by King David I of Aloria, and the Alorian victory at the Battle of Aloma in 1387 effectively marked the beginning of the end of Islamic power on the Sildarian peninsula, paving the way for Alorian expansion toward the west. The Battle of Nicopolis in 1394, widely regarded as the last large-scale counterattack of the Caliphate, failed to stop the advance of the victorious Alorians.
Things went worse for the Caliphate during the civil wars that followed after Abdallah ben Maktoum I died. By the time the civil wars had ended, the Muslims only had control over a small stroke of land at the coast, including the Caliphate's capital of Al-Sildahar. With the extension of Alorian dominion on the Sildarian peninsula, the strategic conquest of Al-Sildahar became a crucial objective.
The capture of Muhammad V by the Alorians threw the Muslims into disorder. The state fell into another civil war which lasted from 1402 to 1412, as Muhammad's brothers fought over succession. It ended when Mehmed bin-Rashid II emerged as the Caliph and restored power. But the Caliphate was already too weak to fight back the Alorian attacks.
The city of Al-Sildahar by this stage was underpopulated and dilapidated. The population of the city had collapsed so severely that it was now little more than a cluster of villages separated by fields. On 13 March 1429, King Stephen the Lion and his army of some 50,000 men and large numbers of irregulars laid siege to the city. Despite a desperate last-ditch defense of the city by the massively outnumbered Islamic forces (c. 8,000 men), Al-Sildahar finally fell to the Alorians after a one-month siege on 1 April 1429. The last Caliph, Mehmed bin-Rashid II, was last seen casting off his royal regalia and throwing himself into hand-to-hand combat after the walls of the city were taken.
The conquest of Al-Sildahar led finally led to the annexation of the complete Sildarian peninsula and the end of Islamic rule in northern Artania.
United Kingdom of Aloria (1506 - 1700)Edit
Harold III of Ultran died in 1506 without leaving any direct heirs. His closest male relative was the King of Aloria, Charles VII, who became King Charles I of Ultran in a union of the Crowns.
This event was the result of an event in August 1419: Beatrice, daughter of Robert II of Ultran, married Edward Windsor, 10th Earl of Livingston. Their son Frederick married to Margaret, the only daughter of King Richard II of Aloria. In the last decade of the reign of Harold III of Ultran, it was clear to all that Charles Windsor, the great-grandson of Robert II of Ultran and grandson of Richard II of ALoria, was the only generally acceptable heir to both thrones.
King Charles VII & I as he was styled became the first king of united Aloria, though he continued to rule the Kingdom of Aloria and the Kingdom of Ultran separately. This was merely a personal or dynastic union, the Crowns remaining both distinct and separate until the unifying of Aloria and Ultran in the United Kingdom of Aloria in 1613.
The Acts of Union received royal assent in 1613, uniting the separate crowns of Aloria and Ultran and forming the United Kingdom of Aloria, which meant in fact nothing else then the annexation of Ultran by the Alorians. King James I became formally the first occupant of the unified Alorian throne. The name United Kingdom of Aloria was changed back to just Kingdom of Aloria in 1700.
The Golden Ages (1700 - 1900)Edit
The Golden Ages were a period in Alorian history, roughly spanning the 18th and 19th century, in which Alorian trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
The Regency is the period in the history of Aloria marked the beginning of the zenith of its economic, military and political Golden Ages, which lasted allmost two centuries.
On 15 April 1700, king Richard III suddenly died childless, leaving the nation without an obvious successor. The 1700 Alorian succession crisis produced internal and external fights between several pretendents to the Throne of Aloria. A few days after the death of Richard III, a General Assembly of ministers, nobles and other influental statesmen was set up and they decided not to fill the vacancy of the throne. John Cornelius, advisor of the late king and a brilliant politician and diplomat, emerged as the dominant figure. There would be no new king for three decades to come. Instead, the Assembly decided to appoint a Regent, until a new king was found. In November 1700, Cornelius was appointed as Regent.
Due to its climate of intellectual tolerance Aloria attracted scientists and other thinkers from all over Artania. Especially the renowned University of Ultran (established in 1675 by king James III) became a gathering place for these people. For instance philosopher Ingatius Teck lived in Ultran City from 1695 until 1725.
Gustavus de Havilland (1695–1763) was a famous scientist,astronomer, physicist and mathematician, and could be called one of the greatest scientists in history. Among his contributions to the field of optics was his improvement of the microscope (opinions differ) and was the first to methodically study microscopic life, thus laying the foundations for the field of microbiology.
Alorian literature blossomed as well, most famously demonstrated in the work of Alexander Pembroke, the author of The Fisherman. Aloria's most prolific playwright, John Pierce, wrote possibly as many as one thousand plays over his lifetime, over four hundred of which survive to the present day.
Important from the standpoint of enduring political science were the key publications by the democratic republican theoriess of Ignatius Teck that were published at the end of the 1710s. Teck wrote True Freedom, published in 1719, which is one of the first systematic statements of democratic republicanism in the western world. Teck argued that government should not only be in the interest of the citizens, but should create equality of opportunity and be controlled by the people, not the aristocratic oligarchy. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. Unfortunately, Aloria wasn't ready yet for his, at that time, very "radical" ideas. Ironically, his republican and democratic ideas played an essential role in the birth of the Alorian Republic, nearly 400 years later.
Conquest of KurmalEdit
The conquest of Kurmal began in June 1720 when some 20,000 Alorian soldiers under general Alexander Concord invaded the territory of the Veritas indians by crossing the Verita river. Throughout 1721 and 1722 this force traversed the territory at the footsteps of the Kurmal mountains and subdued several indian towns.
The Kurmali indians approved the annexation ordinance in October 1733 and Polk signed the documents formally integrating the Kurmal Territory into the Kingdom of Aloria on 2 December 1733.
Age of ExplorationEdit
The Regency marked the apogee of Alorian imperial power and wealth. At the beginning of the eightteenth century Aloria had a population of ten million and an economy dependent on agricultural trade with Northern Artania. After the Regency has begun, Aloria experiences a period of unprecedented economic, cultural and scientific development. A peaceful period in Aloria started, which granted Aloria to develop two outstanding skills - seafaring and commerce.
The need for more exotic products and more (profitable) trade with other continents formed motive for Alorian merchants to enter the intercontinental trade themselves. The merchants of Aloria expanded their trading activity and network, at first in southern Artania, and from the 1710's onward into Eastern trade. Several factors contributed to Aloria's pioneering in maritime exploration. The first was its geographical position along the west coast of the Artanian continent, which allowed for the natural development of a seafaring tradition. The second was the evolution of a complex maritime economy in which the port cities of Port Aloria and Port Liberty became the commercial centres of the country. The merchant community used these port cities as their base of operations from which they financed the majority of the various exploration and trading ventures.
The third critical factor that made Aloria a forerunner in exploration was its government. Aloria benefited from a relatively stable nation whose leaders encouraged maritime trade and shipping ventures. The Regency gave every possible incentive by implementing tax privileges and insurance funds to protect the investments of ship owners and builders.
Trade monopoly in the EastEdit
see also: Alorian Protectorate of Indrala
Aloria's merchants have their sights set on the east. In 1711 the first Alorian fleet sailed to the East, beginning a lively and profitable trade in the eastern regions of Terra, and between 1712 and 1714 Alorians had made their first contacts with the kingdom of Kanjor and the empire of Hulstria. In May 1718 the first Alorian ship returned from a trip to the island of Indrala, bringing a cargo of spices and other highly priced products. The much-publicized travels of Alorian explorers piqued the Regency's interest in the island's alleged vast riches and in the value of the island as a gateway to Dovani. The Alorians gained footing in Indrala in 1722, the first permanent Alorian trading post on Indrala was established in Quibashi, and Aloria now began its lengthy presence on the Indralan island.
The trading energies of the Alorians in the East are reflected in the growing prosperity of the cities of Aloria. Wealth accumulates at an extraordinary rate during the 18th century, creating an entirely new form of society and one with great significance for later centuries.
To cover the risk of Eastern traders and to prevent ruinous competition, the Alorian Eastern Trade Company was established in 1729, which - for the next century - would dominate Anantonese Ocean trade. It was the first-ever multinational corporation, financed by shares that established the first modern stock exchange. This company received a Alorian monopoly on Eastern trade and would keep this for two centuries. It became the world's largest commercial enterprise of the 18th century.
Charles X was succeeded by his son, Peter I the Great (1741–1757). He is considered the creator of the vaunted Alorian bureaucracy and the standing army, which he developed into one of the most powerful in Artania, although his troops only briefly saw action during the Third Alorian-Rutanian War (1752-1754). He heavily invested in the army. In view of the size of the army in relation to the total population, famous 18th century Alorian writer Alexander Pembroke said later: "Where some states have an army, the Alorian Army has a state!" Also, Peter I settled more than 10,000 Duntrekker refugees from Dundorf in thinly populated western Ultran.
His brother and succesor Charles XI continued the policy of his predecesor. He gained more control over the island of Indrala when the Darnussians were droven off the island in 1756, after a short Alorian-Darnussian war.
In 1763 Charles XII became king. As crown prince he focused on philosophy and the arts; yet, in the first year of his reign he ordered the Alorian army to march into Bozarland. In the Fourth Alorian-Rutanian War, also known as the Great Artanian War (1764-1779), Charles XII succeeded in conquering Bozarland from Rutania and holding his new possession against a coalition of Rutania, Dorvik, and Luthori. Bozarland, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Aloria. By glorious naval victories on Luthori, Charles acquired the Luthori trading posts situated north of the Indralan island, which resulted in the total control of the Indralan island. Success on the battleground against Rutania and other powers proved Aloria's status as the greatest power of Northern Artania.
Charles XII was succeeded by his daughter, Isabella II. She married her cousin Prince Peter, and her husband became her co-monarch, known as Peter II, although he would only rule in name. Despite the couple being the face of the Alorian royals, King Peter II suffered from religious mania and melancholia which acute mental illness made him incapable of handling state affairs. Therefor the power was always to remain with Isabella II.
Isabella and Peter continued the work of their predecessors to create a centralized state governed from the capital in order to sweep away the remnants of feudalism which had persisted in parts of Aloria. They succeeded in breaking the power of the rural nobility. Isabella II promoted modernization though within the context of their autocratic control over Aloria. The Queen also promoted arts and culture and the enlightenment among the elite. Isabella II encouraged culture in her country as he subsidized artists and writers, and established libraries.She kept up a correspondence with many enlighted figures in Artania, like writers, philosophers and famous composers as Rembrandt Wolfe, a prolific and influential Alorian composer of the early 19th century.
Isabella II was one of the most powerful women of her era. She created a supreme court with the sole responsibility of upholding justice in her lands. These reforms strengthened the economy and the state in general. She also spent exorbitant sums of money on grandiose baroque projects like palaces and museums. Consequently, she has long been considered the archetypal absolute monarch of early modern Artania.
In 1795 Queen Isabella and King Peter instructed Sir John Penn, the Governor General of the Alorian Eastern Trade Company, to visit the Maharaja of Quibashi to arrange for a treaty which would give the Company exclusive rights to reside and build forts on the southeastern Indralan coastal area and rights to explore and to exploit the kingdom's mineral and forest resources. In return, the Company afforded the Indralan monarch Alorian protection. Simular treaties were arranged with Luratha (1806), Karula (1808) and Kathuran (1812). The monarchs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to Aloria and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than Aloria without its consent. In return, the Alorians promised to protect Indrala from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack. This in fact led to the de facto control of Indrala by the Alorians, which would result in the colonization of the island some decades later.
Isabella II was succeeded by her only child, Margaret I, who only reigned briefly. At her death, without issue, on 30 April 1824, the Alorian line of the Hohenstauffens became extinct, and the succession passed to James Theodore, the Duke of Battenburg.
James IV did much to encourage agriculture, industries and the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country. He brought economic stability and progress by encouraging beef production instead of wheat, which was much more valueble. He was responsible for the creation of the Bank of Aloria. James' decision to grant the Royal Charter in 1830 to the Bank, a private institution owned by bankers, is his most relevant economic legacy. The period saw the beginnings of industrialization: the first paved roads, the first steam-engine railway in 1837 and the introduction of the telegraph.
James V liberal policies were causing tensions within the aristocracy of Aloria and often leaving them displeased. The unexpectedly long and costly Indralan War of 1870-1885 also diminished his popularity. High costs of the war came to burden the Alorian economy, brought the nation on the edge of bankrupcy, fueling public resentment.
The nobility called for greater regional autonomy, as they .
However, the growth of a revolutionary movement to the "left" of the educated classes led to an abrupt end to Alexander's changes to reestablish great foreign relations, as he was forced to take care of the harsh internal affairs. The industrialization, which began to exert a significant influence in Aloria, was meanwhile creating forces that would finally overthrow the monarchy.
Aloria Enters the 20th Century Edit
By the early 20th century, Aloria had lost much of the greatest it had gained in previous centuries. The Alorian economy was bad, the government largely powerless, and most Alorians wished for a democratic state. To make matters worse, in 1918, Queen Isabella III signed a treaty allowing foreign merchants a virtual monopoly on the mining idustries, which at the time was the most profitable industry in Aloria. Isabella, however, remained popular with the people as she was viewed as a victim of circumstance. A year later, she set up a Parliament that, for the first time, allowed political parties to form. This proved to be as corrupt as the bureaucrats under the monarchy, and Isabella was assassinated six months later. Isabella was succeeded by her son, Charles XIV. Charles was an ambitious politician, but lacked support of the Alorian people, who distrusted him, so he constantly relied on the military and foreign companies to do his bidding. When he shut down Parliament in 1923, many considered this the last straw.
Uprising and Civil War (1924-1930) Edit
By 1924, Charles' popularity was so low that many people turned to extreme ideologies such as nationalism or communism. In July of that year, one of these groups, the Alorian Liberation Movement, had begun paramilitary operations in Krentori and Sildar under the command of a former soldier under Isabella, Richard Goodwin. A few early victories made the ALM massively popular with the people, and within two years, they captured Libertia and deposed of Charles, establishing the Republic of Aloria. However, Communist guerrillas in the north refused to acknowledge the single-party Republic, instead proclaiming their own government, the Socialist Republic of Aloria, making Felix Auvergne the Chairman of the Republic. The fighting between the two sides continued on for several years. The Republic was more popular and supported internationally, but the Communists were better trained and equipped. Then, on Christmas Day 1929, a massive Communist offensive routed Republican troops in Sildar and Gavonshire. Richard Goodwin was killed, and on January 19, 1930, Aloria was unified under the Socialist Republic.
The Monarchy Reestablished (1930-1933) Edit
It was not before long that the chaos that had engulfed Aloria would come back. In traditionally conservative regions like Ultran and Sildar, people were looking for a leader that would overthrow the Socialist regime, which was becoming increasingly tyrannical. Phillip Concord of Ultran, former general and Duke of Ultran, had a populist attitude to go with his conservative ways. A member of the Communist Party to avoid getting killed, Concord began to plan a coup. With the support of many officers and conservative Alorians, he stormed the People's Soviet Congress on March 1, 1933, executing Chairman Auvergne. By April, most loyalists had been killed or arrested, and Phillip was crowned King.
The Last King of Aloria (2089-2099) Edit
In August 22, 2089 king Charles XVII died. His just 18-year old grandson succeeded him as king Charles XVIII.
Charles XVIII had an enormous responsibility, as the government was deeply in debt, and resentment towards 'despotic' monarchy was on the rise. Charles also felt unqualified for the job. Many other Alorians felt he was too young and inexperienced, and wasn't ready for the throne yet, as well as being too much under the influence of his Prime Minister, the very unpopular John Davis Clarke. While none doubted Charles’s intellectual ability to rule Aloria, it was quite clear that, although raised as the Crownprince since 2077, he was indecisive and not firm enough to rule.
It was clear that the coronation of Charles XVIII marked the last days of the monarchy. His grandfather left him an extremely harsh political legacy. The old king had given almost all power to Prime Minister Davis Clarke, and under his regime, hostile relations with Rtania heated up. This resulted in the Alorian-Rutanian War in 2094, in wich Aloria tried to reconquer Bozarland. This war proved disastrous for Aloria, which would take Aloria's place as the major land power on Northern Artania.
Political and economical unrestEdit
In the wake of the Alorian-Rutanian War, the monarchy was seen by some to be an obstacle to modernization and economic growth. Liberals called both for greater regional autonomy. The nation was nearing bankruptcy and outlays outpaced income. Besides that, the weak king was too much under the influence of his mentors, the dicatorial Prime Minister and some highly conservative bishops. The influence of the mighty Church caused the absence of the many liberal reforms Aloria needed so much at that moment. Meanwhile, the burgouis and the lower classed citizens became a more and more larger faction in Aloria. Radical financial reforms by Finance Minister Edmund Gordonstone angered the nobles and were blocked by the Senate who insisted that the King did not have the legal right to levy new taxes. So Gordonstone was dismissed in September 2096 to be replaced by James Neville. Neville proceeded with a policy of taking out large international loans instead of raising taxes. When this policy failed miserably, Charles dismissed him, and replaced him in 2097 with Rutherford Robertson, who increased public spending to 'buy' the country's way out of debt.
Again this failed, so Charles convoked the Senate in May 2097 to discuss a revolutionary new fiscal reform proposed by Neville. When the nobles were told the extent of the debt, they were shocked into rejecting the plan. This negative turn of events signaled to Charles that he had lost the ability to rule as an absolute monarch, and he fell into depression. By the late 2090s, the Kings's control of domestic politics had started to deteriorate in the face of crises with the Church, the Army and the Landholders. The Republican movement slowly gained strength. The dominant classes no longer needed the kingdom to protect their interests.
On December 1, 2097, Charles dismissed the entire government and assumed full executive powers to quash the violent uprising. But this act only made the situation worse. The country was on the edge of a civil war outbreak. The country was now in an unbearable political crisis: cabinet-switches occured almost every month (from December 2097 until June 2098 there were 14 differenct governments). Meanwhile, the King lost support of the army.
Finally, a military coup d'etat on June 2, 2098 took place, under commandement of general Washington Ford. The king couldn't do anything else, then to support the new military junta, since the majority of the army stood behind the revolting generals. Later in the day, he went to the Ministry of Defence, where all coup leaders were gathered, and had a discussion with Ford and with leading generals. He agreed to concede to the military demands and swear the new regime in only when the junta agreed to include a number of civilian politicians, with a Royalist nominee, Wilberforce Gladstone, as Prime Minister. Charles always maintained that his brief co-operation with the coup was a tactical move that he hoped would allow him to organize a counter-coup. From the outset, the relationship between Charles and the notorious military regime was an uneasy one. The generals were not willing to share power with anyone, whereas the young king, like his grandfather before him, was used to playing an active role in politics and would never consent to being a mere figurehead, especially in a military administration.
The King's countercoupEdit
The King finally decided to launch his counter-coup on December 29, 2098. Since Charleston was effectively in the hands of the junta militarily, Charles decided to fly to the northern city of Ultran. There he hoped to be among troops loyal only to him, since the mainly conservative province of Ultran was always a huge supporter of the monarchy. The vague plan he and his advisors had conceived was to form a unit that would advance to Ultran and take it. Charles planned to install an alternative administration there. International recognition, which he believed to be forthcoming, as well as internal pressure from the fact that Aloria would have been split in two governments would, the King hoped, force the junta to resign, leaving the field clear for him to return triumphant to Charleston.
However, the King's plans were overly bureaucratic, naïvely supposing that orders from a commanding General would automatically be followed. Further, the King was obsessive about avoiding "bloodshed" even where the junta would be the attacker.
In the circumstances, rather than the King managing to put together a force and advancing on Ultran, middle-ranking pro-junta officers neutralised and arrested his Royalist generals and took command of their units, which subsequently put together a force advancing on Ultran to arrest the King. The junta ridiculed the King by announcing the he was hiding "from village to village". Realising that the countercoup had failed, Charles surrendered on New Years Eve 2098. He was arrested and brought back to Charleston, were he was grounded in the Royal Palace. With the failure of this countercoup, the hope to restore the power of the monarchy was gone. In the early morning hours of January 1, 2099 the Republic was declared, and the King boarded the Royal plane together with Queen Theresa and their 2-year old son, and they fled to Dundorf, were they went into exile. Thousands of protesters gathered to the Prime Minister's mansion. Without any protection against the assembled mob the Prime Minister was doomed. He was taken out of his home and killed on his way to the scaffold. Immediately after his death his body was mutilated and fingers toes and other parts were cut off.
Birth of the Republic (2099-2100)Edit
Abolishment of the MonarchyEdit
With the establishment of the High Council on 6 January 2099, contemporary observers might have assumed that the Revolution was finished. Citizens of the war-weary nation wanted stability, peace, and an end to conditions that at times bordered on chaos. Those who wished to restore the monarchy and those who would have renewed the Reign of Terror were insignificant in number.
The nation was now leaded by a council of 14 wise men. There was no head, everyone was equal. In the upcoming months, the council members debate endlessly to create a new Aloria, a democratic nation for everyone. Their main task was to form a new democratic constitution, with a new legislative and executive system. In the following months, the Constitution was drafted, and new executive and legaslative offices were createtd. Political parties were restored, and the most important parties became the Independent Partyof Aloria of Bill Jamison, the Social Liberal Party of Alan Belmore, the Alorian Socialist Party of Graham Freeman and the Freedom Party of James Pason.
In fact, king-in-exile Charles XVIII was still the official Head of State. After the fall of the military regime, he saw his chance to restore the monarchy and to return to Aloria. He had still support among the conservative and religious Alorians, who wanted, after the military dictatorship, a restoration of the monarchy. Charles confidently awaited an invitation to return. On 29 January 2099 the Council called for a popular referendum on whether Aloria would be a monarchy or a republic. On-the-ground campaigning on the ex-King's behalf was carried out by local monarchists. The vote to retain the monarchy was only about 28%, with almost 72% of the electorate voting for the permanent abolition of the Monarchy and the establishment of a parliamentary democracy.
The Republic of AloriaEdit
At last, in April 2100, the first democratic elections were held. Bill Jamison, leader of the Independent Party of Aloria, became the winner with 62% of the votes. On 26 June 2100 the Republic of Aloria was founded, and the new republic's Senate, five Governors that lead the five provinces, and a President that lead the central government — Bill Jamison — took office in August 2100.
The Republic of Alora(2099)Edit
REMINDER: Follow the in-game history from here on out, we have record in game just look at the nation's message board.
Founding of the RepublicEdit
Confederate States of AloriaEdit
Slave Uprising in KrentoriEdit
The Capitalist Age (2427-2445)Edit
Early 25th century Aloria was characterized by a laissez faire, free market Economy and domination by a wealthy, business elite. The government stayed out of the affairs of business, and indeed the interests of the two were often one and the same.
The a member of the Rockyfeller Family, the wealthiest family in Aloria at that time, was a man named Joe F. Rockyfeller, brother to the owner of Rockyfeller Incorporated. The Rockyfellers had long been active in politics, funding the efforts of the powerful Constitution Party(which originally started as a family values party) to keep the government out of its affairs. The CP was more or less the political front of the Rockyfellers and their business interests, working alongside the more powerful Moderate Libertarian Party (which was independent of the Rockyfellers, and different from the CP on a few political matters, most notably being less militaristic) to keep Aloria's economy largely laissez faire. The two political parties very well completely dominated the politics of those times and Joe Rockyfeller was President of Aloria from 2427 to 2445. Government spending was extremely small, as was the role of government in Alorian Life. What Alorians can attribute to these political giants is the current seperation of the Head of State and Head of Government, and thus the current Alorian political system.
The Big Deal (2445-2484)Edit
In 2445, Helmut Helmut was elected President. A member of the Democratic Rationalist Party, previously in the opposition, he campaigned on the promise of a Big Deal with the working people of Aloria, and was helped by the numerous scandals then surrounding the Rockyfeller Administration, significantly damaging Joe Rockyfeller's reputation and popularity which was very high in his first few terms.
A minimum wage was established, and government spending increased, though still remaining markedly low. Helmut was later followed by fellow Democratic Rationalist Solomon Kane, who continued his Big Deal policies and was President from 2450 to 2474 (on and off with MLP candidate Silvio Bento). Throughout his presidency however, there was much resistance from the largely Libertarian Parliament, and ultimately the Big Deal was not fully implemented. Still, the election of Helmut Helmut and Solomon Kane, and the era of the Big Deal in general, gave greater strength to a political movement whose goal was to increase the role of government in Alorian life.
The Mansfield Era(2484-2520)Edit
The longest serving President in modern Alorian History was Libertarian Newspaper editor and College Professor, Daniel Mansfield. He was first elected in 2484. His election signaled the end of the Big Deal, as government expansion ceased and in some respects was even scaled back.
Meanwhile, the Liberal/Progressive bloc remained in the minority opposition in parliament. Thus, the Libertarian Agenda remained the rule of Alorian Governance. Meanwhile, the Rockyfeller Family withdrew from politics, seeking instead to become purely private citizens and disbanding the Constitution Party, many of whose constituents simply shifted to the MLP.
After a 21 year near continuous presidency, Mansfield was defeated for reelection in 2505 by Jerome Resso, a candidate from the Progressive League for Advanced Nation (now the Genuine Progress Alliance), at the time a minor party in parliament. Just three years later however, after an uneventful first term, he was defeated in a rematch with Mansfield. Still, it proved that the powerful Moderate Libertarian Party and their leader Daniel Mansfield could be defeated, and the liberal progressive movement was once again inspired. Claiming a mandate from the people, Mansfield led the still Libertarian Parliament in making massive cuts to the already thin budget including a complete defunding of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The move was strongly opposed by the liberal progressives in parliament.
The Progressive Renaissance (2520-2535)Edit
Colton White of the Democratic Rationalist Party and Nelson Cudderboard the Alorian Public Union together started the Progressive Coalition, a multi-party coalition with the intention of gaining a parliamentary majority and the Presidency in the election of 2520. The radical spending cuts Mansfield had made to the budget, along with public perception that he was becoming senile (he was in his 90s) and a personal tragedy with his family that made him personally unwilling to run again, all came together to help elect Colton White as President in 2520. The Progressive Coalition also gained control of Parliament, who elected to appoint Nelson Cudderboard as Prime Minister. The election of 2520 was a major turnaround in Alorian politics, with the Progressives winning big everywhere and pushing the Libertarians into the minority.
This began the Progressive Renaissance. Unlike the Big Deal of half a century ago, this time a clear parliamentary majority of the Progressive Coalition led to the passage of much on the progressive agenda, including a a public health care system, public education, and more funding for both those ministries as well as infrastructure and a refunding of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. After Colton White's two terms as President, he stepped down to become Prime Minister, while Cudderboard soon after won election and became President, so that the two switched roles. For 15 years, the two were partners in their leadership of Aloria during the Progressive Renaissance. After Cudderboard's second term however, the Progressive Coalition fell apart over internal conflicts. Moderate Libertarian Party candidate Vincento Vanzetti V was able to win election to the Presidency in 2535, and this ended the Progressive Renaissance.
The Politics of Polarity (2535-2558)Edit
For 19 years, the MLP controlled the executive branch with President Vanzetti, but Parliament controlled the appointment of cabinet ministers, and parliament remained under the control of the Progressives. The result was a political system characterized by polarity, with parliament appointing APU's Hartsen Caddy, in the words of one member of parliament a "fire breathing partisan" to the head of government position of Prime Minister. Little movement was made in either the Libertarian or Progressive direction, as while the left had control of parliament, they failed to unite together on a presidential ticket, and Vincento Vanzetti was, throughout his multiple terms, a very popular President.
Vanzetti was not popular with everyone, however. A mass demonstration against his governance in the capitol city of Libertia in 2540 ended in what demonstration leaders called a "police riot," with capital police attempting to break it up once it got close to the Presidential Residence. The leaders of the demonstration, Utilities Union leader Thomas Fenwick and leftist economist Samuel Went, founded the Socialist Alliance, in order to expand the protest more into the political arena. While at first a very minor party, it eventually grew into a strong political faction, the first strong socialist party in Alorian politics in centuries. Vanzetti eventually retired from politics and the MLP candidate was defeated that next election (2554), not by a Progressive but a more centrist/center right candidate, Albert Mora. Mora sought to curb the polarity of Alorian politics of the time, but to little avail. Even though Vanzetti was gone, and a more centrist candidate was President, and even though Hartsen Caddy had since stepped down from the Head of Government, politics became even more partisan. Mora ended up being a one term, three year president, and the MLP briefly regained the executive office with President Jack Vincent Jr.
The Return of the Progressive Coalition and the Intervention in Luthori (2558-2570)Edit
Eventually, the Progressive Coalition reunited and was reborn as the Second Progressive Coalition. The Socialist Alliance was welcomed into it, and became the left wing of a leftist coalition. Libertarian Jack Vincent Jr. was a very unpopular president, and the Progressive dominated parliament voted for early elections, giving him only a one year term. The Coalition fielded candidate Ben Thompson for President (from the coalition's more centrist wing), who won in 2558, marking the beginning of a government completely dominated by the Progressive Coalition. Parliament appointed William Fletcher, a Socialist Alliance Member, as Prime Minister.
The War of Luthori Succession soon after came to Aloria's attention. The Luthori Imperial Diet had voted to amend its constitution to abolish the country's entrenched monarchy. Imperial forces rebelled, enlisting the aid of fellow monarchist governments from around Terra. As it appeared Republican forces would be defeated, talks began in Alorian leadership circles of a possible intervention to "promote democracy abroad." Aloria's covert agency, DRACO, began operations in Luthori, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent weapons and aid to the Republican Militias, and 1,000 Alorian Advisors were sent as well. The Moderate Libertarian Party was the biggest opponent of the intervention in Luthori, sharply protesting any Alorian involvement. Much went into the next elections of 2565. The election would decide what action Aloria took with regard to the war in Luthori. Socialist Prime Minister William Fletcher, a big proponent of intervention in Luthori, ran as the candidate of the Progressive Coalition. The MLP ran former one-term President Jack Vincent Jr. as the anti-war candidate. The election was a big win for Fletcher, who soon after sent 150,000 Alorian Troops to Luthori. The country was currently in a cease-fire and Fletcher's intent was to strengthen the Republican side of the peace talks. Eventually, the war came to an end, the peace talks successful. While throughout their deployment there was a cease-fire, 548 Alorian soldiers were killed in guerrilla raids.
Economic Prosperity and the Pinnacle of Progressive Control (2570-2587)Edit
The next decade saw unprecedented economic growth in Aloria. This helped the popularity of the Progressive Coalition, as well as President Fletcher and Prime Minister, Democratic Rationalist Millicent Smith. Fletcher's presidency ended in 2577, and the coalition ran Prime Minister Smith to succeed him. She ran in 2577. That year saw the pinnacle of Progressive Coalition control, with Millicent Smith getting a majority of the vote in the first round of voting (which had not happened since the 23rd century) and the coalition winning a total of 446 seats in the 750 member parliament.
The first issue facing President Smith was a second Civil War in the Luthori. Smith, espousing the principles of the "Fletcher Doctrine" of Alorian intervention on behalf of Artanian self-determination, sent a naval task force. The action was meant to send a message to Alduria, who were threatening to send a ground force to the country. Fortunately, Alorian intervention was never escalated, and despite heightened tensions, the issue was resolved and Alorian military forces returned home. While Smith also was an enormously popular President, her two terms were not without controversy. The Minister of Justice, Horatio Riley Herman, was much criticized for pursuing a policy of political repression for the MLP. The Progressive controlled parliament helped him, voting on numerous occasion to censure the party because of his accusations that they were uncooperative in his numerous investigations, much of which were frivolous anyway. Parliament even voted to appoint Herman Prime Minister. This was controversial, as to many he was a figure of political repression
The Libertarian Revolution (2587-2623)Edit
The economic boom created more wealth for many Alorians, and soon many of these now prospering Alorians wanted the government to lower the high taxation on those upper middle and wealthy incomes, to cut spending to achieve that, and to stop redistributing wealth. This, along with the controversy associated with the Progressive Coalition, led to the Libertarian Revolution.
The Libertarian bloc once again gained control of parliament, the MLP fielded Jose Alvarez for President in 2587, and Alvarez won a resounding victory. From then until the 2620's, the libertarians and conservatives controlled parliament and the executive branch. The Second Progressive Coalition collapsed. The size of government was cut dramatically. Whereas government spending once accounted for 22% of GDP, after the cuts made in the Libertarian Revolution, it decreased to less then a percent. Taxes were brought down, the income and corporate taxes completely cut.
Rise of Nationalism and Populism and the Kurmal Civil War (2623-2633)Edit
While the Libertarians remained in control of government, the 2620s saw the emergence of new political alignment, a triple partisan political system of Marxists on the one end, who sought to radically overthrow the capitalist system taken to its maximum by the Libertarians, the Nationalists on the other side who sought to throw out and keep out immigrants from abroad, as well as to isolate Aloria from the rest of Terra and turn it into a near Theocratic state, and the Libertarians in the midst of it all, attempting to maintain their control of the government.
The Marxists saw little success in mounting serious opposition to the Libertarians on a national level. The Nationalists however, were able to. Unpopular MLP President Carla Franco was defeated by Nationalist candidate Bernard Rosenberg in 2626. While at first it seemed that the triple partisan alignment in parliament facing Rosenberg would keep him from creating an effective government, he was able to effectively compromise with the MLP of the Libertarian bloc, and gain ground on a number of issues, including appointing a new cabinet, with MLP billionaire playboy Pierce Farnsworth as Prime Minister. The Nationalists and Marxists (led by the Communist Party of Aloria) were deeply opposed to one another, and the latter was completely left out of governing in any way, shape or form, even though they had control of a quarter of parliament. The Rosenberg government sought to further expel the Marxists from any sort of political, public, or civil involvement. Communist Party leader Lucien Kannaly gave a speech in protest against the Nationalist/Libertarian government, and against capitalism, calling for the overthrow of both. Rosenberg and the Nationalists accused Kannaly of treason and sedition for having given this speech, and called for his arrest. He was detained, but was broken loose by armed Communist militiamen, and he fled to the mountains of Kurmal in northern Aloria, a Communist militia accompanying him, launching a rebellion against the government of Aloria. The Communists overthrew the local government of Kurmal, with a last ditch effort to evacuate the civilian population funded by the private fortune of Prime Minister Pierce Farnsworth launched in response to this. This began the Kurmal Civil War. The initial military response made by the Alorian government was largely ineffective, and President Rosenberg was blamed for it. And so while Carla Franco's popularity had previously been at an all time low, she was able to defeat Rosenberg in a rematch. Around this time, the Communists also sent pleas of help to their former Marxist allies, the Revolutionary Socialist Part, but the RSP refused to organize a paramilitary force, instead holding ineffective labor strikes
The head of state and head of government positions then switched parties, as the MLP gained control of the presidency, Nationalist John Cassidy was appointed Prime Minister by parliament. Franco then ordered the bombing of communist military positions in Kurmal, and soon after a skirmish between communist and government forces ended in the capture of Lucien Kannaly, soon after sentenced to life imprisonment, though not before a peace deal and ceasefire was agreed to and the war ended, the Communists achieving very little except a guarantee of a negative stigma in Alorian Politics that would seemingly remain for a long time after.
The Mid War Period (2633-2653)Edit
In the election of 2633 the Alorian people, tired of last decade's triple partisan system that had led to a violent civil war, voted to elect Gene Hamshee, neither a Nationalist, Marxist or Libertarian candidate. Relatively inexperienced in politics and in holding public office, Hamshee campaigned as the alternative candidate. He relied much on the more experienced Nationalist Prime Minister John Cassidy to implement many of his goals once elected. The government now firmly anti-libertarian, Cassidy and Hamshee sought to restore government activity into the economy and Alorian National life. Their program was called the "New Society", and together they established a central bank and Public Pension System. The biggest rival of the New Society was former MLP Prime Minister Pierce Farnsworth, who said that the New Society Hamshee/Cassidy were trying to create was really the "old society of big government that had existed during the high tax era of Progressive domination." Still, the New Society had the support of most Alorians, as vindicated by Hamshee's several re-elections. It fell apart however over disagreements between Cassidy and Hamshee over the role that National government should play as opposed to the role that should be played by the local, provincial government. Hamshee supported devolution, and on several key issues, Cassidy felt cheated by the President, eventually resigning. Whether or not Hamshee could govern without a Prime Minister was the big question of the day. Without the support of the Nationalists, Hamshee sought new allies in parliament, eventually enlisting the aid of the Communists. Parliament refused to appoint a new Prime Minister, however, leaving Hamshee on his own in the executive branch. Seeking much advice from his son, Minister of Internal Affairs Todd Hamshee, he was able to pass key pieces of legislation providing for the complete subsidization of college education and pharmaceuticals, proving his ability to work on his own. This came at a cost, however. By the end of his 8 years in office, rampant Communist influence on his administration was apparent to all, at a time when the communists were still blamed for the violence of the Kurmal War. Not seeking office again in 2641, Hamshee even pardoned Communist rebel leader Lucien Kannaly, citing the need to move on from the divisive days of the past decade.
Pierce Farnsworth, critically objecting the largely unpopular move, ran in opposition, and won popular election to the Presidency in 2641. He tried to cancel Hamshee's pardon of Kannaly, but was prevented by the courts. Meanwhile, he at first was unable to restore and implement the libertarian agenda in Aloria, due to resistance from parliament, who appointed Todd Hamshee Prime Minister to lead an opposition against Farnsworth. Then the Rockyfeller Family, still after many years the wealthiest family with ownership of the most powerful corporation in Aloria, once again got involved in politics, this time throwing their clout behind a new Constitution Party(eventually to be renamed the Industrialist Party of Aloria during the early years of NWO domination), led by the young upstart Wes Rockyfeller. They had great success in the parliamentary elections of 2645, and later that year, Wes Rockyfeller became Farnsworth's Prime Minister, kicking Hamshee out. The two worked together to scale back many of the programs implemented in the New Society. The two seemed to push too hard however, as in the next elections they were defeated. The first front runner in the opposition against them was Todd Hamshee, however, the unpopularity of his father in the waning days of his administration, coupled with his loss of the Head of Government were problematic enough to instead push the Populist Party (at the time leading the opposition, the Populists were the legacy party of Hamshee's New Society) to instead nominate Minister of Health Craig Joseph Leif for President. Leif defeated Farnsworth for President in the election of 2649, and Rockyfeller also was defeated for parliamentary reappointment to Prime Ministership. That post was eventually filled by the resurgent Socialist Alliance member, Henry Lewis Canning.
War and Occupation: The New World Order (2653-2672)Edit
Leif was popularly reelected with the support of the Alorian left in 2653. His Prime Minister, Socialist Henry Canning, meanwhile toured Terra, coming back to Aloria and informing parliament of the ongoing events of the archipelago nation of Al-Badara. A new regime had taken over, the Soviet Reich, and was tyrannically repressing its Arab and Jewish minority populations, to the point of genocide. The Soviet Reich was a member of the so called "New World Order" International alliance, one of the most powerful and militaristic the world had ever seen. Canning argued for a multinational, humanitarian intervention on behalf of the country's persecuted peoples. General Patrick Kannaly, a nephew of the former rebel leader Lucien who had fought for the Alorian Army during the Kurmal War, former the Alorian Expeditionary Brigade towards that end. The AEB was all voluntary, and was recruited for by the Populists, Socialists, and Industrialists. Volunteers came from nations abroad as well. A total of 2.5 million volunteered for the AEB. The fact that it was started and led by a Communist helped to mainstream that party back into Alorian politics.
The AEB never served its intended purpose. Before it could take action, Craig Joseph Leif was assassinated by a terror cell operating in Aloria with connections to the New World Order. Canning then succeeded Leif to the Presidency. Then, the New World order declared war on Aloria and launched a nuclear bombardment of the country, crippling its infrastructure and destroying its cities, murdering millions of Alorian civilians in the process. Then, the NWO ground force invading, quickly conquering making progress in land from the beaches Sildar and Ultran. Foreign volunteers of the AEB came to the rescue and landed on the beaches behind NWO front lines, meanwhile the Alorian divisions of the AEB and the Alorian Regular Army regrouped, and fought back against the NWO Armies, which greatly outnumbered and outgunned them. Still, the the new President, Henry Canning, remained defiant, continuing the fight against the NWO. The war waged on, battle after battle waged in the rubble of destroyed Alorian cities and her torn up countrysides, a country already destroyed by nuclear attack became a battlefield between a nation holding onto its life versus a foe that outnumbered them 3 to 1. In the Alorian lands occupied by the NWO, the populace was virtually enslaved and forced to work in labor camps. Millions had already been killed in the nuclear attack and in the cross fire of the ensuing war. Millions more died in the inhumane enslavement of the NWO. Distraught over the war, the Alorian people left in Free Aloria (not occupied by the NWO) voted in and out a whole string of leaders, Canning, Rocyfeller, Stanhope, Hoover, none were able to find an end to the war. Meanwhile, more and more Alorian land was taken over by the NWO.
Their were various ceasefires between the opposing sides, where Aloria would try to negotiate for peace and meanwhile attempt to regroup its forces. When peace plans were drawn up by the foreign ministry of Aloria, they were often turned down by the NWO. A few proposals were made that would have essentially made Aloria a puppet of the NWO. Orion Patrick, a veteran of the war, founded Veterans for Victory, to protest any such proposal that would submit Aloria to virtual NWO rule. Massive protests were often led by Patrick in Libertia. Similar protests were led by former president Canning and former Prime Minister Todd Hamshee. On the other side of the spectrum, the IPA began to support joining the NWO to save Aloria from total annihilation. Former Prime Minister Wes Rockyfeller led the movement, and himself joined the NWO. The NWO then installed him as the occupational governor of Aloria. Rockyfeller was treated as a traitor by the Alorian government, a warrant for his arrest (which was impossible due to him being in the NWO occupied side of Aloria by this time) was put out and all of his assets nationalized. However, he was viewed as a savior by many in occupied Aloria, as once he was made governor, the labor camps were closed, the enslavement ended, the massacres ceased.
The war continued, and Aloria lost more and more ground. Finally, all of Aloria was taken over by the NWO, who gave it to Rockyfeller and the Industrialists in the form of the The Industrialist Governorship of West Aloria and the Alorian Communist Party (who had independently worked a deal out with the NWO) created the Worker's State of East Aloria. Wes Rockyfeller created a massive corporation, named Rockygroup, that virtually privately owned all of Aloria, He was the richest man in all of Alorian History. The Communist NWO backed government, led by Patrick Kannaly, meanwhile was clandestinely working against the NWO, secretly giving sanctuary to the now underground, legitimate Alorian government.
War and Occupation: Aloria's Liberation ( 2672-2678)Edit
In 2675, after three years of rule by the Rockyfeller government backed up by occupying NWO soldiers, the elderly Todd Hamshee led a march, accompanied by Henry Canning and most members of the underground parliament, as well as thousands of others. The goal of the march was to force the Rockyfeller government to hand over domestic control to a democratically elected government. The march grew exponentially after a stirring speech by Henry Canning in Concordia, clandestinely published throughout Aloria and considered one of the best in Alorian history. From Kurmal, to Ultran to Sildar to Krentori to Gavonshire, from city to still destroyed city, across a land still devastated by war, they marched. They faced repression, arrests and police brutality in all places. Then they came to Pax, a mere miles away from the capitol in Libertia (where the Rockyfeller Government was now based). There, they were accompanied by a rebel militia assembled by Orion Patrick, called Comrades for Freedom, Victory, and Democracy, or Comrades FVD (the whole march has come to be known as the FVD March). Todd Hamshee had died of heart attack along the way. Now leading the march was former minister of finance Harry Harpe, who had overseen the nationalization of Rockyfeller's property. There, numerous speeches were given by the march's leaders, a march now numbering half a million, including Comrades FVD. They demanded a resolution from Rockyfeller, for him to at least allow parliament to have control of domestic affairs.
The next day, Rockyfeller appeared on Television. He told the people of Aloria that his intention was never to sell Aloria out, but to save it. He joined the New World Order because in doing so, he was able to stop the persecution of Alorians and save lives. He said that he would support a "Pax Resolution" that restore a parliament with limited powers.
For about a year, negotiations between the FVD leaders and Rockyfeller were conducted. Then, in 2677, the NWO collapsed. The occupation ended, the NWO armies gone. Alorians rejoiced and took pride in the fact that they may have been the straw that broke the camel's back. Indeed, while the NWO was fighting in Aloria, a rebellion in Al Badara had thrown out the Soviet Reich Regime, and end the genocides taking place there. Meanwhile, the NWO had fought war after war in many places at a time since it had existed, and the resulting attrition took its toll. For whatever reason though, the NWO was gone. Comrades FVD then went through all of Aloria, liberating city after city as they came to them (a campaign characterized more by parades then combat, as the occupational government did not have the strength to resist). Libertia was liberated, and Harry Harpe temporarily made President (Aloria's first democratic elections were to take place a few years later). Wes Rockyfeller went into exile before he could be captured by the new, restored government. The was had ended, and the Reconstruction of Aloria, a land still devestated by war, was to begin.
As soon as the legitimate government of Aloria was restored, Wes Rockyfeller and other officials of his occupational government fled. Patrick Kannaly and other officials of his occupational state was pardoned by President Harpe on the basis that his government had provided sanctuary to the underground government and to NWO resistors.
The restored government was dominated by Populists, Socialists, and Communists, who were allied with one another in the 4th Progressive Coalition, led by former President Henry Canning. Harpe, with the backing of the Progressive dominated Parliament, began his project of national reconstruction, Aloria in ruins, still devastated by nuclear bombardment and 25 years of war. Massive infrastructure spending was passed, to rebuild the country, as was massive spending for Health and Human Services (to help people recover from the past war torn 25 years) and massive spending for Agriculture (to restore the country's agricultural sector). Government spending grew to about 50% of the nation's GDP. Meanwhile, all industries were nationalized. This was the most state control the Alorian economy had ever seen. Harpe did this not because he favored permanent state control, but because he thought that temporary control was needed to put the economy and the country back on its feet.
One area of government that decrease was military spending, the rationale being that with the war over it was not as necessary. This helped led to a big resurgence of nationalism of Aloria. War hero George Peron called for more defense spending, saying that never again should Aloria leave its self so vulnerable to foreign attack. He started a new Nationalist Party, which called for a bigger military, anti-immigration laws, and and isolationist foreign policy.
While Harry Harpe easily won reelection to the presidency (Aloria's first legitimate democratic elections since the NWO took over), the Progressive Coalition lost its control of parliament while retaining a large plurality. The Nationalist Party turned out to have a program that was very popular to many Alorians in the post-war period. While the Nationalists were unable to pass most of their proposals, they did recreate many of Aloria's symbols to something more to their tastes, such as a new flag featuring the Alorian lion and a new anthem, Aloria's Triumph, referencing Aloria's ultimate victory in the NWO war (the song had been written by a socialist, but its militant and somewhat jingoistic lyrics appealed to the Nationalists).
Meanwhile, the Industrialist Party and the Rockyfeller family began a public relations campaign to rebrand their image, which had been tainted by the past few years of New World Order cooperation. While the IPA opposed many of Harpe' reconstruction programs, the Rockyfeller family and all of their businesses fully cooperated with the reconstruction policies, including their nationalization by the government. Meanwhile, the idea of Wes Rockyfeller as a pragmatic savior who closed down the death camps (as opposed to a Wes Rockyfeller who selfishly betrayed his country) was pushed. Wes Rockyfeller was still, and would throughout his life remain, a condemned man, a war criminal and fugitive from the Alorian government.
Still, the campaign was successful. So successful that in 2684, the IPA candidate for President was able to win the executive branch. Vera MacRam of the Industrialist Party was elected (Harry Harpe had decided not to run for a third term) on the promises of restoring capitalism to Aloria. Her party made an alliance with the Nationalist Party, and the Progressives became a minority opposition in the legislative branch. Most industries were denationalized, and government spending was cut, as were all taxes. Reconstruction continued under MacRam, but it was being slowly phased out. Rockyfeller prominence returned both in the business and political realms, and capitalism was restored to Aloria.
This time also included a brief period where the threat of a monarchist Restoration where Joseph Concord, former Communist Matthew Kannaly, and one time President (as well as another former Communist) Stephan Duchard led the People's Imperial Alliance. While the Imperialists managed to get Duchard elected President, they lacked the Populist support they were counting on for an Imperial restoration, and as such, disbanded when left-wing anarchists known as the Red Star Movement began a terror campaign that started with Duchard's assassination.
28th Century AloriaEdit
New Constitution and Conservative Control (2695-2711)Edit
In 2695, the Centre Democrats became the largest faction in parliament. Their leader, Charles Renaldi became president. His campaign was based on a program with both left and right influences, and a promise for large devolution, constitutional changes and more international alliances on the Artanian continent. Renaldi formed a centrist government with both the conservatives and the socialist parties in it. His most glorious achievement during his first term was the installment of a new constitution. By the new amendments, Presidential power was heavily increased and Aloria was turned into a more federalist state, decreasing the influence of the national government. The amendments passed parliament, with support of the Industrialists and the Conservative Union in April 2698. The New Constitution was installed on the first of January 2699.
The new constitution led to a new governmental structure in Aloria: first, only the Head of State could propose a cabinet. This decreased parliamentary powers and gave more power to the President, but also created a system with more stability and stronger governments. By this, and in the second amendment, he also increased Presidential powers by making the President both Head os State and Head of Government, dismissing the post of Prime Minister. With this act, the President had more political and executive powers, instead of the more ceremonial role they had before. In fact, the President became the real political leader of the nation. The third amendment was devolution: a new federal system was drafted, in which Provinces became States. The federal states each had their own government with more executive powers, and less dominance from the national government, with a Minister-President as head (instead of governors). Every state had his own legislature, and the national government would only direct foreign affairs, defense and the most important national issues if needed.
While the new constitutional changes had support from the conservatives, the socialists were absolutely against the new constitution. During the last months of Renaldi's first term, the SA heated up parliamentary speeches by calling the Centre Democrats anti-democratic and racists (for wanting to devolve civil rights laws). Renaldi was re-elected in August 2699, with 69% of the votes, defeating socialist opponent Contadino in the second round. After his re-election, Renaldi dropped the socialists out of the government and continued his centrist cabinet with the conservatives. In 2703 he was re-elected for a third term.
Renaldi adopted far-reaching market-based policies, dismantling protectionist barriers and business regulations, while accelerating privatizations. These reforms contributed to significant increases in investment and growth with stable prices through most of the late 2690s and 2700s. Renaldi's successor, Martin Grant, continued this neo-liberal, conservative course. The sense of stability and well being which had prevailed during the 2690s and 2700s eroded quickly, when in 2710 Aloria's Gross domestic product dropped 4% and the country officially entered a recession.
With the 2711 elections, the Alorian electorate turned back to the leftists and removed the centre-right Congressional majority. A new Progressive Coalition took control of the Congress. Martin Grant was elected out of office. While the left, a 4th Progressive Coalition of Socialists, Populists, and Liberals, gained the majority of the Congress and thus claimed a mandate from the people, the extent of the mandate was limited as former Minister of Sildar Richard Johnson, a Centre Democrat not on the left, was elected President. Thus, Congress and the Presidency were in opposition to one another, and were unable to agree on a cabinet while having differing views on how to deal with the recession.
After Johnson's second term started in 2715, he faced a country where unemployment had risen to a critical point, and the undesirable effects of the fixed exchange rate were showing forcefully. Johnson had been reluctant to act, though the Progressive Congress was not; they demanded that his cabinet implement far reaching policies. Johnson did eventually implement both economic stimuli and industry bailouts; the effect of these was measured.
In 2719 (after a short, what at least seemed like a rebound), things get even worse. A decline in world prices for farm products, and the global economic slowdown of recent months, caused a huge decline of Aloria's export. Meanwhile, the inflation has risen. As a result of the falling prices of wheat and beef, as well as the high debts of the banks and other large companies, coupled with falling currency valuation, the stock exchanges dropped dramatically. In May 2719 the federal stock exchanges dropped to the lowest point in history. Many investors worried over their stock investments. People fearing the worst began to withdraw large sums of money from their bank accounts, turning aloriks into foreign currencies and sending them abroad, causing a run on the banks. As a result, many Alorian companies went bankrupt, and thousands lost their jobs.
Newly elected president Richard M. Thompson called upon a doctrine of "Country before Self-Interest", and ended the right-wing controlled cabinet, despite being a member of the Conservative Union. He involved every member of the Progressive Coalition, along with the previous members of the cabinet; all parties in congress but the communists were in the cabinet. President Thompson described the new cabinet, "One of the only ways to solve our problems in the economy". He stated in the second Walburg Conference that Aloria would welcome help from other countries, and some did, while others rejected Aloria's plea.
But even still, tensions around the now decade in decline economy continued. The most apparent discontent was expressed by labor. The number of strikes skyrocketed, and union membership soared. In 2720, a number of unions representing workers in various Rockygroup enterprises united to form RockyLabor, a union representing all employees of the mega-corporation. Eventually, RockyLabor was able to, with the help of the federal government (whose Congress was still dominated by the Progressives) buy control of 1/3 of Rockygroup's stock, as several members of the Rockyfeller family were beginning to fear the economy's decline. A couple years later, a general strike in Eqalite was held, shutting the Kurmal city down for months. The government instituted a policy of voluntary workplace democratization, whereby businesses would be encouraged to democratize through an exemption from a punitive 60% (later 55%) corporate tax.
Communist Insurrection in SildarEdit
In 2727, Roger Geranome, the Populist Minister President of Sildar, was elected President. He was the first Progressive President of the 28th century as well as the first President to have been born after the NWO war. Soon after he was elected, the economy began to improve. On the right they claimed it was because of income tax cuts that had recently been passed, the left claimed that it was economic stimulus and workplace democratization that had brought the economy back up. Whatever the reason, after around 15 years, the economy was starting to look up.
But just a few months into Geranome's first term, the Communist and Socialists Party demanded even more change and revolted against the government of Aloria. The URA, a Communist/Socialist Paramilitary, took up arms in Sildar, and took by force the cities of Ceres, Sildar City, and Sildar Beach. They took much more of Sildar initially, however, the Alorian Army launched a counteroffensive limiting URA control to the metropolitan, coastal area of Sildar. The army was reluctant to advance any furthey though, as they were wary of having to many civilian casualties.
In 2747, former actor Paul Reagan was elected president. His main goal was to recreate the conservative government as it was at the beginning of the century under his Centre Democratic predecessors. With support of the GPA and the AP, budgets where adjusted, taxes were cut and several special programs to promote Alorian tourism and industry (the "Awesome Aloria" programs) were started in 2750's by GPA Minister of Tourism and later Prime Minister Robert Gurdon. But while Aloria experienced continuous economic progress since the 2740's, Alorian economy was being undermined by constant devaluation of the alorik and emission of excessive amounts of high-interest treasury bonds, so that, between 2743 and 2763, the excessive budget deficit build half of the deficit still plaguing the country for years.
The Neptune ScandalEdit
The Neptune Scandal was the largest corruption scandal in Alorian history. It resulted from the purchase of military submarines from the Kirlawan submarine manufactorer Neptune Inc. by the Alorian in 2755, where Neptune bribed various office holders. Several politicians had to resign along the investigation into the purchase.
The investigation into the purchase was started by the investigative team looking into the 2762 mysterious death of Albert Conrad, the chairman of the Centre Democrats who was found death in his appartement in February 2762, when it turned out that Conrad had knowledge about the Neptune deal. An official investigation into the deal was started in January 2763, by judge José Ramirez, when a search warrant was issued for Neptune. In the upcoming months, many members of the Centre Democratic party resigned as they were involved in the bribery scandal: John Carter, Minister of Defense for the Centre Democrats (CD) resigned on 21 March 2763. Robert Reagan, Minister of Finance, resigned from his post on 9 April 2763 and Jackson Brown, former Minister of Defense resigned on April 23th, 2763.
The scandal even harmed incumbent President Benigno Arroyo (CD), who was leader of the CD shortly after the submarine purchase. Although he became leader after the bribery, he still was a MP in tat time and insiders say that he knew about the bribery. Conflicting statements in which he first denied any knowledge of the payments, then acknowledged that he was at a meeting where they were discussed, have led to massive street protests erupted demanding Arroyo's resignation. Faced with street protests and cabinet resignations Arroyo was impeached by Parliament and forced to not run for re-elections.
After the 2763 elections the CD had lost a major part of its stranglehold over Alorian voters, but suprisingly the Centre Democrat presidential candidate, former federal bank governor James Washington, was elected President. In the successive 2767 general election the CD suffered one of its largest decrease in term of votes so far, receiving only 13% of the votes, becoming the fourth party in Aloria. Most of the votes went to the newly formed Conservative Party
The Communist EraEdit
With the fall of Liberal partys in Aloria the newly formed Communist Democrats Party started taking massive reforms. Starting with early success as only one party was left to oppose them they quickly rose to power implimenting a new flag, the title of Commisionar and General Secretary, and renamed States Soviets. It was not till the rise of the United Independant Party, Democratic Party of Aloria, and People's party that the Communist Democrats had trouble. However the Alorian Workers Party joined in the defense of communism. It would not be till the historic election of 3048 that everything changed. With the collapse of the UIP from internal corruption, the Democratic Party of Aloria called for immediate elections. The notion passed, with the communists thinking their hold over the people was still firm. However, the communist age ended from this election when the DPA grabbed almost every seat the UIP had with 293 seats, only 8 seats away. The People's Party grabbed the Head of State and to this day they are changing the nation back to its former economic glory.