The history of Barmenistan is believed to begin with the settlement of Qedarite (OOC: Semitic) speaking tribes on the territory of today's nation. A distinction is typically made between the history of the Jelbic peoples, who today form the majority of the population, and the history of the territories that form the territory of modern Barmenistan, which includes non-Jelbic polities such as the Sacred Monarchy of Beiteynu and the Kingdom of Arakhim, which had a significant influence on Barmenian culture.
Overview of BarmenistanEdit
|c. 350 BCE - 13 CE||Cildanian Hegemony||Province of oligarchic republic|
|13 CE - 921 CE||Jelbic and Qedarite tribes||Tribal polities|
|921 - 1154||Sacred Monarchy of Beiteynu||Yeudi theocratic monarchy|
|1154 - 1435||Kingdom of Arakhim||Monarchy|
|1186 - 1486||Ahmadi Empire||Ahmadi theocratic monarchy|
|1486 - 2142||Bunjamínid Caliphate||Ahmadi theocratic monarchy|
|2142 - 2287||Democratic Republic of Barmenistan||Democratic republic|
|2287 - 2338||Traviscist Dictatorship of Barmenistan||Military dictatorship|
|2338 - 2779||Democratic Government of the Barmenians||Democratic republic|
|2779 - 2791||Ahmadi Government of the Barmenians||Ahmadi theocracy|
|2791 - 2806||Socialist Union of the Barmenians||Socialist republic|
|2806 - 2872||Barmenian Commonwealth||Caliphate & Shahdom|
|2872 - 2951||Federal Republic of Barmenistan||Federal republic under Vanukean occupation|
|2951 - 2956||Grand State of Barmenia||Selucian monarchy|
|2956 - 3134||Sultanate of Barmenistan||Caliphate|
|3134 - 3389||Feline Homeland of Barmenia||Felinist theocracy|
|3389 - 3435||Sacred Feline Empire of Barmenia||Felinist theocratic monarchy|
|3435 - 3497||Barmenistan Caliphate||Ahmadi theocratic monarchy|
|3497 - 3542||Felinist Republic of Barmenia||Felinist theocratic republic, constitutional monarchy|
|3542- 3561||People's Democratic Republic of Barmenia||Socialist republic|
|3561-3638||Felinist Republic of Barmenia||Felinist theocratic republic, constitutional monarchy|
|3638-3645||Khanate of Barmenia||Temrkaid vassal|
|3645-3677||Felinist Republic of Barmenia||Felinist theocratic republic, constitutional monarchy|
|3677 - 3738||Republic of Barmenia||Republic|
|3738 - 3743||Felinist Shahdom of Barmenia||Felinist theocratic republic, constitutional monarchy|
|3743 - 3788||Felinist Republic of Barmenia||Felinist theocratic republic, constitutional monarchy|
|3788 - 3811||Shahdom of Barmenia||Absolute monarchy & part of Khaganate|
|3811 - 3820||Genzid Caliphate||Ahmadi theocratic monarchy|
|3820 - 3862||Democratic Republic of Barmenistan||Kathuran apartheid republic|
|3862 - 3869||Ahmadi Republic of Barmenistan||Confessional republic|
|3869 - 3878||Republic of Barmenia||Kathuran apartheid republic|
|3878-4015||Kingdom of Barmenia||Hosian, Kathuran centered Monarchy|
|4015 - 4016||People's Republic of Barmenia||Socialist republic, military dictatorship|
|4016 - 4160||Kingdom of Barmenia||Hosian, Kathuran centered Monarchy|
|4160 - 4180||Qedarite Kingdom of Barmenia||Secular nationalist dictatorship, monarchy|
|4180 - 4204||Kingdom of Barmenia||Hosian, Kathuran centered Monarchy|
|4204 - 4220||Eternal Sultanate of Barmenistan||Constitutional monarchy|
|4220 - 4262||Kingdom of Barmenia||Hosian, Kathuran centered Monarchy|
|4262-4266||Republic of Barmenia||Republic|
|4266 - 4284||Thallerid Ahmadi Sultanate of Barmenistan||Thallerid monarchy, Ahmadi and Felinist theocracy|
|4284 - 4300||Twin Thallerid Sultanates of Ahmadi and Felinist Barmenistan||Thallerid monarchy, Ahmadi and Felinist theocracy|
|4298 - present||Federal Republic of Barmenistan||Federal republic|
The first recorded events in Barmenian history are the settlement of Qedarite tribes during the Qedarite Migrations. Later, the western coasts of Barmenistan were colonized by Cildanian and Selucian city-states, most of which were in the 4th century BCE brought under the rule of the Qedarite Empire. In Barmenistan, the Qedarite tribes became differentiated from the other Qedarites, with Kathuran becoming the dominant language in the region.
The Qedarite Empire collapsed in 22 CE as a result of the Jelbo-Tukaric migrations. The Jelbics settled Barmenistan in large numbers, leading to the emergence of the Brmek people as a separate Jelbic ethnicity. Most of the Barmenian territory was brought under the rule of the Sacred Monarchy of Beiteynu in the 9th century CE. In 1154 the Sacred Monarchy collapsed, and the territory of Barmenistan was left divided into a number of statelets and petty kingdoms, the largest of which was the Kingdom of Arakhim.
Emergence of Ahmadism and CaliphateEdit
In the aftermath of the collapse of the Sacred Monarchy of Beiteynu, a new religion was founded in the nation. In 1186, Prophet Ahmad emerged in Sisula to spread his message of the impeding Armageddon, founding Ahmadism. The new religion quickly spread, peacefully or by force, to the Eastern parts of the continent, and after the death of the Prophet, the Ahmadi Caliphate was established in 1233. Most of the Barmenian territory was united under the Caliphate, but the Kingdom of Arakhim successfully resisted conquest, leaving it independent for the next three centuries. Meanwhile, the Caliphate quickly conquered most of the continent of Majatra, reaching its apogee at the middle of the 15th century.
The Kingdom of Arakhim finally fell to the Caliphal armies in 1432. As Arakhim had been supported by the Principality of Ylrith in Cildania, with which it had strong religious and dynastic ties, the Caliphate decided to invade Ylrith. Strengthened in his zealous devotion, Caliph Ibrahim landed on the Principality of Ylrith in 1433. However, this time the Caliphate was faced with much stronger resistance as the other Cildanian principalities of Akildar, Akinawa, Gilzon, and Hebilon all came to Ylrith’s aid. The Caliphate therefore ordered the Ahmadi sultanate of Al’Badara to join the invasion but was politely rebuffed as Al’Badara worried it might be next. Consequently the Caliphal army departed from Ylrith in 1438.
The defeat of the Caliphate in Cildania marked the beginning of the collapse of the Empire. After the death of Caliph Azi Bünyamin the Al-Majali Sultan of Badara and Kafuristan, citing old arguments over Ahmad's succession, proclaimed himself Caliph. The loosely linked Caliphate subsequently broke apart into its separate independent dynasties, while the Bünyamin Caliphate continued to govern Barmenistan.
Duntrekkers & religious tensionEdit
In the 17th and 18th centuries many Confessional Hosians from the state of Dundorf, called Duntrekkers, found refuge in the Caliphate from persecution by Aurorian Hosians. They were invited to settle in Ikegaru and Murdhild to decrease the proportion of Yeudis there and quickly prospered as they were granted many privileges otherwise only granted to Ahmadis.
When the World Yeudish Council was established in 1864 to re-establish a Yeudi state some persecution of Yeudis began in the Caliphate, causing many Yeudis in Ikegaru and Murdhild to convert to Ahmadism. In 1966 Pontesi withdrew its forces from Beiteynu and forty years later the independent Beiteynu retaliated by persecuting the growing number of Ahmadis in its southern region of Padrilka. Many were massacred and more fled to the Caliphate, thus halving the Ahmadi population in Padrilka. The Caliph was however unwilling to commit his troops to defending his religious subjects despite massive Ahmadi demands in both the Caliphate and abroad to do so. Instead he put Hosians, mainly Duntrekkers, in charge of the security forces to safeguard his rule against disgruntled Ahmadis, and under his successors the Duntrekkers managed to expand their political and economic influence greatly.
End of the Barmenian CaliphateEdit
In 2150 the Caliphate and Pontesi jointly invaded Beiteynu, officially to force its retreat from the state of Darnussia which it had invaded 26 years earlier. With most of the army fighting in Beiteynu the Socialist Guild in November 2142 managed to overthrow the Caliph and instead proclaim the Democratic Republic of Barmenistan and soon after the Sultan of Al’Badara proclaimed himself Caliph.
Early modern eraEdit
Groundwork for a republicEdit
Immediately on taking power the Socialist Guild began nationalising most of the country’s industry. The following month William Morriss of the Socialist Guild became the first democratically elected head of state in Barmenistan when he was elected president, though the Barmenistan Nationalist Unity became the largest party in parliament. The first coalition government was appointed in December 2145 which with one exception became the norm for almost 138 years.
The nationalisation of industry was abandoned in May 2146 but social reforms continued none the less such as introducing compulsory primary and secondary education, welfare payments, public higher education and public housing. In December 2147 homosexual couples were granted the same rights as heterosexual couples and in February 2148 foreigners were allowed to apply for citizenship.
In August 2148 the Barmenistan Liberal Party won the Presidency and the Barmenistan Freedom Party became the largest party in parliament. This signaled the beginning of a long era in Barmenian politics dominated by laissez-faire liberalism as opposed to the socialist ideals which had brought down the Caliphate. The Barmenistan Liberal Party triumphed in the elections of August 2151 when it also became the largest party in parliament and in November of that year it formed a government on its own.
Immediately after its election victory the party set in motion a massive liberalisation programme. Beiteynu was finally defeated in 2154 and while Pontesi and Darnussia occupied the rest of the country the Democratic Republic of Barmenistan occupied Padrilka and the neighbouring region of Quo’gün.
In 2173 the Democratic Republic of Barmenistan, Pontesi and Darnussia all withdrew their forces from Beiteynu as they failed to agree on a strategy to fight the Free Beiteynu! Organisation which had carried out frequent terrorist attacks against them since the 2160s, and in November 2174 the Democratic Republic of Barmenistan and Beiteynu recognised each other when the latter ratified the Barmenistan Free Trade Agreement.
The Modern Intellectual Party, the Free Collective Party and the Libertarian Communists formed a new coalition government in November 2175, and two years later the Libertarian Communists even won the Presidency, and the new government quickly resumed the massive liberalisation programme.
The elections of March 2241 marked a significant shift in Barmenian politics when the Barmenistan Communist Party (formerly the Communist Refoundation Party) became the largest party in parliament and remained so for more than 15 years, and in April 2248 it formed a new coalition government with the Nationalist Party and the New Democratic Initiative of Barmenistan which began a comprehensive socialist programme. Over the next five years the defence industry and energy sector were nationalised and the compulsory state pensions, minimum wage, public housing and welfare payments were re-established. Most socialist policies were however abolished by September 2260 under the Barmenistan Liberal Party.
In October 2259 the Insurgent Tendency, demanding radical socialist autonomy for the Kathurans, began a campaign of terror against both government and civilian interests in Uthena and Sisula. Three month later the Barmenistan Communist Party, which supported the cause but not methods of the Insurgent Tendency, became the largest party in parliament but in August 2262 the liberal-led government accepted military advisors from the state of Kafuristan to help defeat the Insurgent Tendency. Dundorf responded in November by sending its own military advisors to assist the Insurgent Tendency and in July 2264 the Barmenistan Tory Party disintegrated over internal disputes about the government’s handling of the crisis. Several months later the Barmenistan Communist Party also disintegrated due to internal disputes regarding its position towards the Insurgent Tendency. In June 2269 the Barmenistan Liberal Party ushered in a new era in Barmenian politics when it formed a coalition government with the Barmenistan Traviscist Party which primarily opposed religion and male homosexuality.
The government launched a major military offensive against the Insurgent Tendency in May 2270, almost immediately forcing Dundorf to withdraw its military advisors from the country, and in October 2272 the Insurgent Tendency was finally defeated in a battle north of Sisula City.
During the year of 2287, under the leadership of the charismatic Marcus Travist ousted the democratically elected government and took absolute power. From 2288 to January 2290 the government withdrew the Democratic Republic of Barmenistan from all international agreements, banned open homosexuality, effectively prohibited immigration, and reintroduced the death penalty. The country was renamed the Traviscist Dictatorship of Barmenistan, with Marcus Travist as Emperor. The capital city Kathura was renamed Travtopia.
The Dictatorship ended in 2338 through a mostly peaceful democratic revolution. The Democratic Republic of Barmenistan was renamed the Brmék’oék Nrzipntakmojad (Democratic Government of the Barmenians) under a Pntak’o (Governor).
Democratic Government of the BarmeniansEdit
Under the Democratic Government of the Barmenians Barmenistan joined the rest of the Jelbosphere in adopting the cultural and linguistic reforms of the Nrljogad (Jelbic Enlightenment). Classical Brmek, until then the lingua franca of the Jelbic peoples and the language of religion, academia, and government, was thoroughly reformed and modernized by adopting a simplified grammar, pronunciation, and spelling that closely matched those of the Jelbic vernacular spoken in Jelbania, laying the foundations of Old High Jelbic. Politically, the Nrljogad in Barmenistan was coupled with the emergence of pan-Jelbic nationalism, the liberalization of religious legislation, and the empowerment of the Brmek people after 199 years of marginalization. In April 2338 the last of the major Traviscist reforms were abolished when religious evangelisation and religious schools were again allowed.
In September 2347 the Brmék’oék Rímsaé Lofrkadék Prta (Just Freedom Party of the Barmenian People) narrowly won both the presidency and the parliamentary majority but initially refused to form a cabinet until it had completely reformed the Barmenian laws according to its party programme. It nonetheless had to in June 2350 after the Ám'ádsrlji Knstaték Jajogad (Ahmadi National Congress) cabinet’s resignation the previous month.
The impotence of the Ahmadi National Congress, despite its massive popular support, led to civil unrest in Kanos in August 2354. Five months later the party split into the Lofrkadé Knstaték Jajogad (Liberal National Congress) and the Staté Knstaték Jajogad (Fascist National Congress), the latter beginning a campaign of terrorist attacks in October 2356 to destabilise what it viewed as the failed democracy. An investigation into the attacks revealed that the split had not been as complete as it was meant to appear, and so in May 2359 the activities of the Lofrkadé Knstaték Jajogad were suspended by the government – thus leaving the Brmék’oék Rímsaé Lofrkadék Prta as the only legally active political party in the country.
The Lofrkadé Knstaték Jajogad continued to enjoy the support of the majority of the electorate, though, and beginning in March 2362 their frustration turned into widespread violence in the south and west of the country. Acting on its own and in violation of the law the army ceased control of those areas, but fearing a complete military takeover 53.61% of the electorate voted in favour of the Brmék’oék Rímsaé Lofrkadék Prta in the parliamentary elections six months later. In the meantime a new political party had emerged which ended the political monopoly of the Brmék’oék Rímsaé Lofrkadék Prta.
In September 2365 the army was replaced in the areas of unrest by a newly created gendarmerie not under military command, and a large contingent of the Barmenian military was dispatched to Wantuni where genocide was being perpetrated by the Solentian military. Thus President Müller effectively thwarted a military coup and simultaneously strengthened his own control over the armed forces. Two years later the Barmenian military and the Wantunian resistance together recaptured the Wantunian capital city of Helios, but despite the victory the Barmenian electorate did not support the war effort and so in September 2368 again voted mostly in favour of the Ahmadi National Congress. The third party had in the meantime disintegrated due to lack of electoral success.
In recognition of popular opinion President Leon Müller finally lifted the suspension of activities against the Ahmadi National Congress in November 2368 and called for the latter to form a new cabinet. After eight months of negotiations the Ahmadi National Congress complied, and in February 2370 the offices of head of state and head of government were once again separated to prevent future monopolisation of power. President Müller resigned in favour of his fellow partisan Azi Wrntukaidrsme.
As part of the reconciliation the Ahmadi National Congress chose not to challenge her subsequent re-elections, but the following July it officially reunited with the Staté Knstaték Jajogad as the Krsyiji Mrjogadé Prta (United Conservative Party). A comprehensive national-conservative reform was initiated nine months later with the withdrawal of Barmenistan from all of its international agreements and the banning of homosexuality and women in the military, abortion, prostitution and the reintroduction of compulsory national service. In September 2374 this was followed up with the reintroduction of the death penalty and six months later with the banning of sexual education in schools.
However, the unity of the United Conservative Party was at best precarious with the liberals and fascists constantly vying for power against each other. The party finally disintegrated when it failed to agree on its candidates for the October 2380 parliamentary election – which was consequently won by the Just Freedom Party of the Barmenian People with 100% of the popular vote – and in August 2382 its last remnants disappeared when the Brmék’oék Rímsaé Lofrkadék Prta formed a new cabinet.
The previous month the Barmenian military was withdrawn from Wantuni following the complete defeat of the Solentian military there. Being now the only political party in Barmenistan –a first in the country’s history – the Just Freedom Party of the Barmenian People soon implemented a major reform programme which included abolishing the previous national-conservative reforms between July 2383 and August 2388 as well as introducing constitutional reforms in March 2383.
Luthorian and Vanukean occupationEdit
In 2768, the Luthori monarchy attempted to reinstall the House of Bünyamin and Yišsérles, after centuries of republican rule. An expedition was sent under Luthorian Prince Morgan, and won a great victory at the gates of Brme Jeztad in 2770, restoring monarchic rule in nearly all parts of the country. The Ahmadi Caliphate was reestablished under the Caliph's personal army, the Grmsko Brme. The Caliph, lacking support in many parts of the country, invited Osean refugees from Beitenyu to settle the northern provinces. The Caliph would rule undisputed until ousted by a number of republican organisations in democratic elections. However, following pressure from the International Monarchist League and the continued presence of the Luthorian army, monarchy was restored in 2804, and Hulstrian Emperor Alexander I was temporarily placed on the throne, until a formal compromise allowed for the crowning of Azi Bünyamin as both Caliph and Shah.
Barmenistan's souther neighbour, the Republic of Vanuku, had became a hotbed of militant republicanism on the continent. The continued presence of Luthori armies at its northern border managed to unite a formerly deeply divided people. The Vanukeans used the Luthori intervention as a casus belli against Barmenistan. Lacking any substantial support from the International Monarchist League, Barmenistan was forced to agree to expel the Luthori presence and the Caliph abdicated.
The Barmenian nation had to suffer the legacy of an alien elite ruling them one way or another. However, in the 31st century, Rebeca I of the Selucian House of Victoria was allowed to be elected Queen, peacefully replacing the Vanukean collaborators. Together with the Libertarian Selucianist Party that supported her, the new administration was responsible for heavily discriminatory measures against the majority Israi and Jelbic population, instead favoring the small Selucian Patriarchal Church. The Selucian monarchy was consequently short-lived, and Queen Rebecca was dethroned in 2956.
Holy Terran CaliphateEdit
Feline Homeland of BarmeniaEdit
During the resurgence of the faith under Lady Ershébef and the Sacred Feline Cult, all cats were considered parts of the Feline Divinity, but the one worthy of special reverence was Bastet, who was said to be the Goddess of the Moon worshipped in ancient times. The constitutional cat monarch, the Felis Supremis, was believed to be the latest incarnation of Bastet, establishing Barmenistan as the only nation in history to officially have a non-human head of state.
The government of the Feline Homeland, while being theocratic in nature, is generally seen as a period of noticeable tolerance and liberalism in Barmenistan. The Cult highly emphasized social equality and environmental sustainability, giving birth to a pastoral and naturalistic nation that shunned mass-production and industrialization. As a result of the Cult's religious values, women were also greatly empowered in Barmenistan, to the point of Barmenistan being labeled a "matriarchy" by the government of Luthori.
Reign of the Galt FreyjasEditThe downfall of the Sacred Feline cult led to the rise of a dynasty called the Galt Freyjas. Little is known of their background, including their origins. What is known however, is that the first Galt Freyja was an unrivaled mystic and theologican of his time, and gathered a sizebale following that recognized him as Felis Supremis, despite his apparent human nature. On July 24th 3179, Galt Freyja and his followers walked into the Grand Cat Parlour, as the country's national legislature was called at the time, and declared that:
"Whereas the Cat Gods have sent one of their ilk to our Planet Cats in the form of one GALT FREYJA.
Let it be resolved that,
GALT FREYJA can speak with cats, as such he is best fitted to be he who guides the people, so as to best follow the desires of the cats.
All former statues, laws, and constitutions shall be considered null and void until they are given their approval by GALT FREYJA."
The following centuries saw Barmenistan emerging as an important player on the world stage. Galt Freyja allied himself with the Alliance of Terran Republics and eventually became chairman of the organization, and tirelessly fought Luthorian and Hulstrian imperialism on the world stage. This led the International Monarchist League, the Alliance's main rival power bloc at the time, to fund Ahmadi Mujahedin fighters in Barmenistan, who fought to restore the Caliphate of old, however, they were ultimately unsuccessful. Galt Freyja II also intervened in the Pontesian Civil War and welcomed the exiles of the Crimson Crusade into Barmenistan after these had been defeated.
His successor, Galt Freyja III would incite the Davostag-Barmenian Debt Wars, over the collection of debt incurred by the defunct Davostani Satanic Republican regime. When the royalist coalition of House of Thor, House of Zachary, and House of Strom defeated the SRP in the Davostag Civil War in 3296 the Barmenians demanded repayment for debts. The royalist coalition refused citing that it was the SRP regime that incurred the debt and that the Davostag people would not suffer for it. Davostag also felt slighted by Barmenistan's support of the SRP regime hoping it would return to power in the near future.
Most legendary of the Galt Freyjas, however, is probably Galt Freyja IV, who became the last of his family to rule over Barmenistan. Obsessed with the idea of giving Barmenistan a colony of its own on the Dovanian continent, Freyja embarked on a quest to find lands to the east, along with his wife, Rodentia Hunter. He departed from Barmenistan in his private ship on September 9th 3399 and was never heard from,
Sacred Feline Empire of BarmeniaEdit
Later, the LSS Crusaders Council under the leadership of Livius I Mede, succeeded in gaining almost three quarters of the electorate on their side. The lionist crusaders went on with writing a new constitution, reorganising the Felinist Homeland into an elective monarchy and Empire. This was the begining of what would later be known as House Mede. The Emperor (or Empress) was the Master of the Sacred Felinist Heart, and was a spiritual leader as well as a political one, being elected through the General Felinist Will for being closest to the mystery and sanctity of her heart.
Return of the CaliphateEdit
The Lionist rule over Barmenistan eventually saw its popularity decline rapidly, thanks to aggressive policies pursed against the Empire's neighbours as well as ideological dissidents at home. The eventual decline would lead to the rise of the Pantherists, another Felinist sect who held Polm to be the perfected incarnation of the Felinist Divinity. In 3406, they installed their leader Malik I as “Black sacred emperor”.
Internal strife among the Felinist forces eventually resulted in the return of the Ahmadi Caliphate under the House of Bünyamin and Yišsérles. They would rule Barmenistan for almost a century, slowly turning the country back on its Felinist past
Felinist Republic of BarmeniaEdit
In the midst of the chaos of the era after the 3497 elections, were the nation found itself without both a working Melsis (parliament) and a government, local magnates or warlords gained momentum. The power vacuum effectively abolished both democracy and the rule of law - but anarchy did not result in chaos, but rather in wardlordism and the fragmentation of the Barmenistanian Caliphate. Though private militia groups formally remained illegal, the "Claws of Azarean" were considered as such by most by all but a few. The group would probably be margin if it wasn't because of Eyaan Banehawk, their Wrntuhiko (leader). Declaring himself "Atabék of Murdhild" and working toether with forces loyal to the Mede Dynasty, he would gain total control of the country, forming the Felinist Republic of Barmenia, a mildly theocratic republic with Juliana I of the Mede Dynasty as Queen and Jezmrjkai (Great Protector) of the Felinist Republic.
The republic would eventually take control of Vanuku thanks to forces inside that country, annexing it as the March of Vanuku, Greater Barmenia South, under the control of native pro-Barmenian forces. In November 3529, as a result of the incorporation of Jelbic nationalism into the official ideology of the Deltarian Czardom, Barmenistan (together with its March of Vanuku) joined the Deltarian Empire as an Imperial Realm.
People's Democratic Republic of BarmeniaEdit
Owing to the corrupt policies of the Felinist Republic and disatisfaction with membership in the Deltarian Empire, in December 3538 protests erupted in several cities throughout Barmenistan. The protesters demanded better working conditions, better living standards, and independence. The government reacted harshly, declaring martial law and ordering the armed forces to assist local riot police in enforcing a national curfew and clearing the streets. The Communist Party of Barmenia took a lead role in organizing the protests. On February 5, 3540, the largest protest ever was recorded - over 6 million people flocked to the capital of Varishehr, essentially shutting down the entire city and city streets filled with people. On February 7th, 3540, the government abandoned the capital and established themselves in a small village named Inja in the north. Throughout the rest of February, the Communist Party assumed the levers of power through the nation. The Imperial Palace in Varishehr was occupied by the Communist Party and their supporters on February 10th and all ministries and various other power centres came under the control of the Communist Party by February 15th. A few weeks later, taking advantage of the chaos in Barmenistan, Vanuku declared independence.
The Communist Party upheld the Monarchy's order for elections and won them singlehandedly in elections that occurred in January, 3541. By this time, however, the Communist Party had been in de facto control over the nation for nearly a year. In February 3542, the monarchy was fully abolished, Barmenistan's membership in the Deltarian Empire was terminated, the Constitution was declared null and a People's Democratic Republic was declared with a new constitution based on socialist and republican principles.
The Communist Party held power until 3561, when they were ousted by a massive democratic revolution led by the Justice Party. Barmenistan was reformed as a Felinist Republic, however the first elections were once again won by the Communist Party (known simply as "The Ruling Party of Barmenia" after they solidified their hold), which held power until late 3599. With the ousting of the unpopular communist regime, the people of Barmenistan began to re-build the government from the ground up. Starting off with the structure left over from the Felinist Republic, the people created several new political parties from ones that had been repressed under the former rulers. The National Conservative Party (NCP) was formed out of repressed right-wing groups that had been brutally repressed under the former regime. The Centrist Coalition was fromed by several smaller parties, who had managed to escape the notice of the Communist party leaders due to their single-issue nature and the relatively small areas that their influence existed in. The Socialist Worker's party was formed by former members of the Communists who wanted "true" socialism, as opposed to the Communist's idea of socialism.
The Justice Party would, with the support of Mede Queen Nour, soon return to power once again.
Return of the Mede DynastyEdit
In 3561 the Justice Party succeeded in overthrowing the People's Republic and, receiving wide popular support, managed to arrange for the coronation of Queen Nour of the Mede Dynasty. The new Felinist Republic of Barmenia differed from previous Felinist regimes in that it openly embraced Jelbic nationalism, and Barmenistan would soon join the Suadmjekestijogad (Jelbic Renaissance), a cultural movement in the Jelbic world advocating the rediscovery of ancient Jelbic traditions. Under Queen Nour pan-Jelbism became official government policy, and the (re)annexation of Vanuku was once again the main goal of Barmenian foreign policy.
Seeing that Barmenistan could not resist the Augustan invasion and wishing to avoid the fate of Jelbania, Princess Dina, the heir to the Barmenian throne, negotiated a ceasefire agreement with Emperor Theodosio IV. The latter agreed to put an end to the invasion and recalled the Army of the North from Barmenistan. Nikandro Heraklito however refused and continued his invasion. Tried in absentia by a military tribunal and sentenced to death, Heraklito formally renounced his allegiance to the Augustan Empire and reformed the Army of the North as the Black Horde. After conquering Varishehr, Heraklito converted to Ahmadism, adopting the Jelbic name Temrkai, and demanded the submission of all of Barmenia. Queen Nour and Princess Dina were also captured by the Black Horde as they were fleeing Varishehr, becoming the personal prisoners and concubines of Temrkai. In January 3638 the Treaty of Barmenian Submission was signed, formalizing Temrkai's position as the overlord of Barmenia.
Barmenistan thus became a part of the Jelbic Khaganate, a political entity created and ruled by Temrkai Khan and his Black Horde after his official recognition as Great Khan and Khagan of All Jelbics by a Kurultai in Jelbania in November 3637. Under Temrkai's rule Felinism was outlawed and Ahmadism imposed as official religion in the newly constituted Khanate of Barmenia. Temrkaid rule would however prove to be very brief, as after the Khagan's death in 3645 his empire disintegrated in a power struggle between the warlord's generals and governors.
Mede and Temrkai-Mede ruleEdit
The collapse of the Black Horde plunged Barmenistan into chaos, allowing for a resurgence of the Mede Dynasty. Taking advantage of the chaos, the Imperial Revolutionary Committee, comprising various Mede loyalist factions, seized power in Varishehr and other major cities soon after news of Temrkai's death reached Barmenistan. Branding Princess Dina a traitor to the Felinist Republic due to her negotiated surrender to Augustan Emperor Theodosio, the Mede loyalists instead chose Set I, the youngest son of Queen Nour I, to be the new monarch of Barmenistan, claiming adherence to an ancient Jelbic practice of succession by ultimogeniture. The Imperial Revolutionary Committee was however not able to take control over the entire nation, with rival warlords controlling various territories and Sisula remaining under Vanukean occupation as mandated by the Treaty of Sebasto. Following the death of Set I Kalopian adventurer Kostaq Fisnik briefly gained power in Barmenistan. Fisnik arrived in Barmenistan with 2,000 retainers and a pretender in tow, Nour Temrkaidsrme Mede, who claimed to be the heir to Temrkai Khan and his concubine, Princess Dina. Fisnik wed 'Nour' and together they claimed Barmenistan, Zardugal, Jelbania and Vanuku. Fisnik's army of some 220,000 men arrived in March of 3682, landing on the isle of Kathuristan, and swiftly took over most of Barmenistan, save for occupied Sisula. Fisnik and Nour ruled for a year and fled Barmenistan following a popular (republican) uprising in July 3683 that established the Republic of Barmenia. For his short reign, he was ridiculed as the Summer Shah by the Barmenian populace.
The new Republic of Barmenia would rule for several decades, although towards the end of its rule it was plagued by instability and corruption, allowing for the return of the Temrkai-Mede Dynasty. Siblings Azi and Tri Temrkai-Mede, grandchildren of Kostaq Fisnik and Nour Temrkai-Mede, were crowned Shah and Shahbanu in 3738, and as per Lionist custom they were symbolically married. The return of the Temrkai-Mede dynasty coincided with the development of new Felinist sects as well as religious syncretism, whereby adherents to other Barmenian religions would adopt elements of Felinist belief and practice and even, in some cases, identity.
The legitimacy of the royal couple was however soon questioned, as the family's claim of succession from Princess Dina was rejected by the Felinist religious establishment. Azi and Tri were eventually dethroned, and Alexia Mede-Jubilee and Justinian Mede-Jubilee, grandchildren of Set I, were recognized by the government as rightful Shah and Shahbanu of Barmenistan in 3743. The remainder of their reign was marked by ideological and military struggles against Temrkai-Mede loyalists as well as Ahmadi Mujahedin, who had retained control over the island of Kathuristan since the fall of the Kostaq Fisnik regime.
The ongoing civil war between the Felinist monarchy and the Mujahedin would bring the Felinist Republic to an end. In 3777 the Jelbic Khaganate was founded by Vanukean Prince Laurens-Wrntukai, and all Jelbic nations save Barmenistan immediately joined the pan-Jelbic union. The Mede monarchy was thus left isolated and no longer able to count on foreign support in its war against the Mujahedin, leading to an Ahmadi-led peaceful revolution that in 3788 led to the fall of the Medes. Days after the overthrow of the Mede dynasty and the founding of the Shahdom of Barmenia, the new government initiated the process of joining the Khaganate. Not long afterwards Barmenistan outlawed Felinism, leading to the end of Felinist syncretism and reducing the faith to its most devoted followers, who continued cat worship in secret; known as crypto-Felinists, those that retained Felinist practices were reduced to the status of second-class citizens. The Shahdom also achieved a religious and military agreement that brought the ongoing Jihadist uprising to an end. In January 3804 representatives of the Shahdom government and leaders of the main religious militias in Barmenistan met in the Kathuran city of Ur Bahra, adopting an agreement that implemented a system of confessionalism, whereby all recognized religious communities were to be proportionally represented at the central level according to their respective demographic weight. Apart from the confessionalization of Barmenistan, the government also agreed with the Jihadists to petition for the Khagan to place a Kamék, a member of Prophet Ahmad's clan, as the Yabek (Viceroy) of Barmenistan, a request that was granted in September the same year when Abdlmecid Ám'ádsrmko Kamék, descended from the Prophet's uncle Genzi, was named the new Viceroy.
In 3805 Barmenistan joined the other nations in the Khaganate in declaring war against Zardugal, sparking the Jelbic War. In spite of early Jelbic successes, Zardugal soon regained momentum and ground the invasion to a halt, partly as a result of Barmenian betrayal. In the midst of the successful Jelbic invasion of Zardugal Barmenistan seceded from the Khaganate after Viceroy Abdlmecid Ám'ádsrmko Kamék was proclaimed Caliph of all Ahmadism, renouncing his submission to the Hosian Khagan and declaring war on the Khaganate. The new Caliphate also signed a separate peace treaty with Zardugal, granting the latter the right to represent and protect the Terran Patriarchal minority in Barmenistan and forming a temporary alliance against the Khaganate by the terms of which Zardugal could not make peace with the Khaganate until the latter's recognition of Barmenian independence. The war thus ended in July 3814 and Barmenistan became an independent Caliphate.
Eager to establish its legitimacy over Barmenistan and to find a source to recover its massive war debt, the Caliphate adopted the controversial decision to expel the remaining Felinists and confiscate their property, sparking the Barmenian Refugee Crisis. In February 3818 Caliph Abdlmecid signed the Edict of Expulsion, ordering all crypto-Felinists to leave Barmenia within a year with all those remaining in the nation after the deadline to be executed or enslaved, and mandating the forfeiture of all properties they left behind.. As Felinists had lost most of their political and economic heft in Barmenistan during Jelbic rule, they had no means to resist, so the exodus of Barmenian Felinists began long before the deadline mandated by the Edict. The fleeing Felinists started flowing towards two main destinations, namely Pontesi and Selucia; it is estimated that more than ten million Barmenians left the country within a year. The Caliphate, although it managed to repay its war debt, had its economy crippled by the large loss in workforce, and the Ahmadi government was soon overthrown.
Two years after the Edict of Expulsion, the Caliph was overthrown and killed, and Barmenistan was brought under the rule of a Kathuran minority government, known officially as the "Democratic Republic of Barmenistan". Relying on the Apostolic Army in Majatra, the Democratic Republic introduced heavily discriminatory measures against the majority Ahmadi and Jelbic population, however the Kathuran regime never controlled much more than the capital and the island of Kathuristan. For the next decades, Barmenistan was left in a state of chaos and anarchy; rival warlords and militant groups carved their own territories in Barmenistan, some pledging allegiance to the Kathuran government in Varishehr, some aiming to overthrow it, and the others, aligned with the National Socialist warlords in Vanuku, content with maintaining their own slice of land. All participated in piracy around the Majatran Sea, attracting the ire of nations like Selucia, affected by the decline in trading on the continent's inland sea. Reacting to the chaos in Barmenistan, in 3862 a coalition of democratic political parties and organizations, under the leadership of an Ahmadi Democratic organization, seized power in Varishehr, forming a provisional government known as the Ahmadi Republic of Barmenistan. In a radical departure from standard Ahmadi rhetoric in Barmenistan, the provisional government did not see Felinists as an enemy, instead integrating them into its coalition. The Kathuran regime, at first hailed by the persecuted Felinists as a liberator, had proved unsympathetic to their demands, given that Eastern Hosians had the most to gain from the forced conversion and expulsion of Felinists, as the increase in their demographic weight was much more to their advantage than to that of Ahmadis, who were already the majority before the Edict of Expulsion.
The Ahmadi Republic however failed in its goal of reunifying the nation and establishing a working government. As part of Selucian assistance in the Pirate War, the Republic was forced to transfer sovereignty over the island of Kathuristan to Selucia, leading to Kathuran nationalist protests against the regime. In mid November 3869 Kathuran activists, led by political leader D'yaequob Eabaa, seized control of the capital and established the Republic of Barmenia. All acts of the previous regime were nullified, and a system of drastic persecution against Ahmadis was implemented. Although the persecution was somewhat eased in the following decades, Barmenistan would find itself under Kathuran minority rule for centuries.
The Kathuran regime in Barmenistan would soon find itself searching for foreign support, given its international isolation within the Jelbosphere. That support was to come from the fellow Qedarite nation of Cildania, where, during the Cildanian Civil War between the Selucian minority regime and a coalition known as the Interim Government, the Cildanian House of Thomas was placed on the throne and was itself looking for foreign support. As a consequence, Barmenistan joined the civil war on the side of the Interim Government, and in May 3877 the Cildanian Queen Sarah III bitt Taʾōm was placed on the throne of Barmenistan and crowned as Queen by the Patriarch of Kathura. Henceforth Barmenistan became a constitutional monarchy under Kathuran rule known as the Kingdom of Barmenia, which would rule, with interruptions, for centuries. In 3899 Queen Sarah was overthrown in favor of her Barmenian husband Eksandr of House Nasir, establishing the Nasir dynasty as the royal house of Barmenistan. Claiming descent from the ruling family of the old Kingdom of Arakhim and related to the Yišsérles-Bünyamin Dynasty as a result of marriage to Queen Sarah, the Nasirs would become one of the longest-ruling dynasties in Barmenian history.
The Nasir dynasty would also embark on an ambitious project of religious reformation. Between 3878 and 3890 a number of items of legislation were introduced, reorganizing the administration and theology of the Barmenian Apostolic Church and founding the Barmenian Church. Although the new Church was eventually reunited with the Eastern Hosian communion as a result of the Synod of Qart Qildar, many elements of its theology were adopted by the wider Apostolic Church, further formalized during the subsequent Synod of Kathura.
The House of Nasir's rule over Barmenistan would however continue to be contested. In 4012, a few years after the end of the World War, a number of violent anti-Nasir protests were initiated, mostly affiliated with pan-Jelbism and leftist ideologies. The protests received the support of a number of low-ranking officers in the armed forces known as the Young Officers, who in May 4015 launched a coup and installed the People's Republic of Barmenia. A year later however a royal counter-coup succeeded and restored the Nasir regime, while the "People's Republic" continued to exercise control over Murdhild. The Kingdom would be reunified in 4034, after a few years of Nasir-sponsored Abadi and Halawi rebellions crippled the breakaway republic.
A different challenge against the Nasirs emerged in the 42nd century, when Pan-Qedarism and Phalangism experienced a strong resurgence in Barmenistan, coalescing under the Socialist Phalanx Party, a far-right organization opposed to both monarchy and Felinism. Riding on a wave of popular discontent with aristocratic rule, high unemployment, and Jelbic immigration from Beiteynu and Pontesi, the Phalangite party gained an almost constitutional majority in the 4160 elections, and its leader, Khammo Qasyounan, was victorious in the head of state election. Although King Constantine II was initially reluctant to appoint an SPP cabinet, the threat of violence posed by a large organized march on the capital forced the King to enter negotiations with Qasyounan and form a power-sharing agreement. A draft constitution was presented, according to which the King would keep his throne, while Qasyounan would be recognized as the "President" of the "Qedarite Kingdom of Barmenia". But due to the Phalangist party's introduction of a number of discriminatory policies aimed at Jelbic-speakers and Felinists, Khammo Qasyounan was overthrown and executed by forces loyal to the monarchy, sparking a brief but violent insurrection led by the Hawks of the Whirlwind, the paramilitary branch of the Socialist Phalanx Party. Although the rebellion was swiftly defeated, the Hawks reportedly relocated to Beiteynu, from where they would continue to conduct guerilla operations against the Kingdom for years. The brief Qedarite regime and its violent methods did leave one lasting impact on Barmenian culture, namely a convergence of interests between Felinists and Ahmadi Jelbics, who had come to realize that joining forces would be the only way to end their discrimination.
The instability caused by the guerilla war against the Hawks of the Whirlwind and the continued persecution of Israis and Jelbic-speakers sparked another revolt against the Nasirs. The elections of September 4200 brought an overwhelming victory for the Justice and Freedom Party, a pro-Felinist and pro-Jelbic political party, who in 4202 overthrew the Nasir monarchy and established a republic. In 4204 Grand-Vizier Süleyman Aslan revealed his descent from the Mede dynasty, and was subsequently proclaimed Sultan of the Eternal Sultanate of Barmenistan. Opposition to the overthrown Nasirs further increased when it was revealed that the royal family, upon its departure from the nation, also transferred a substantial amount of money from the national budget to their private accounts, effectively erasing the collective budgetary surplus of the Barmenian state dating all the way back to 3870. Although the Nasir dynasty was eventually restored in 4220, its legitimacy was lost forever. The Eternal Sultanate, in spite of its brief existence, would have a major influence on religious policy in later years, as the Aslan-Mede regime would prove to be the first time in Barmenian history when Felinism and Ahmadism were jointly recognized as official religions, creating a precedent that the subsequent Thaller monarchy would soon follow.
The popular resentment against the Nasirs would mark the remainder of the dynasty's rule over Barmenistan, and in 4262 the dynasty was overthrown for the last time and a republic established instead. The Republic of Barmenia was a temporary arrangement until a suitable dynasty could be found to replace the Nasirs, and in 4266 a prince of the Thaller Family from Narikaton named Jens V ascended to rule in Barmenistan after his election by a synod of Felinist and Ahmadi holy men tasked with finding a stable ruler for the nation. Jens took the regnal name Jens I of Barmenia and converted to Ahmadism.
During the rule of Jens I as Sultan of Barmenistan (Brmek: Brmestánék Sltn), a revival of Jelbicism took place in Barmenistan, spurred heavily by active involvement from the monarchy. In the early years of the Sultanate, non-Felinists and Ahmadis were heavily persecuted, and for a time profession of Ahmadi or Felinist faith was mandatory. Following pressure from Beiteynu and Vanuku, this requirement was lifted, though public profession of 'cults' remained banned. During Sultan Jens I's reign a new religion emerged in Barmenistan, the Ruhi Faith, founded by self-proclaimed Muntadhir (OOC: Mahdi) Ismail Rabban. After a period of imprisonment under the religious persecutions, Ismail Rabban gained favor with the Sultan and was named his advisor.
As the result of increased Jelbicism, Jens I and Juhn VIII, King of Vanuku, undertook the creation of the Union of the Jelbic Peoples (Brmek: Jelbijékaiék Krsyjogad) under the leadership of Juhn and Vanuku. Barmenistan became a constituent nation of the Union in 4275.
In 4284 Sultan Jens I died and was succeeded by his twin grandsons, Intrsmor and Jemrkai, who had been raised in the Ahmadi and Felinist faiths, respectively. Their joint rule saw a radicalization of religious sentiment, spurred by a rise in militancy from the terrorist Apostolic Army in Majatra. The Twin Sultans also reversed the favorable view of the monarchy towards the Ruhi Faith, and in 4285 Ismail Rabban was publicly executed by crucifixion and his successor, Caliph Nasiba Rabban, was imprisoned. Under the Twin Sultans the conflict between the three main Barmenian religions escalated, culminating in a revival of anti-monarchist Orthodox Felinism and Hosian militancy. In October 4297 Felinist Sultan Jemrjkai was assassinated by unknown assailants, plunging the nation into chaos. A few months later a Federal Republic was proclaimed in the Felinist capital Varishehr, contesting the continued rule by the Ahmadi Sultan in Sekhmet. Ahmadi Sultan Intrsmor would hold on to power for two more years, until Barmenistan was united under the Federal Republic in 4300.