The Birth Of Yeudi CivilisationEdit
The Yeudi people are part of the Qedarite (Semitic) group of ethnicities, and they trace their origins to the Qedarite Migrations (c. 3500 BCE - c. 500 BCE). The Yeudis became a separate ethnic group with the founding of Yeudism in Cildania in c. 500 BCE. Spurred on by their new religion of Yeudism they had left in search of the promised land eventually arriving in Beiteynu. The idea of a promised land had come from a revelation had by a young boy in which he claimed Elyon spoke to him the following words;
«Go West to the promised land of olives and meadows and there you will find the home of the Qedarites»
It is unclear about whether Beiteynu was their planned destination especially seeing as olive trees are only prominent on the eastern side of the nation. This had led many recent historians to claim they were actually searching for what is now Pontesi. As the journey was done on boats via Malivia and Darnussia is quite likely they would have simply bypassed Pontesi and arrived in Beiteynu with it being their first experience of Western Majatra.
Whether the arrival in Beiteynu was planned or not the travellers arrived in approximately 484 BCE and quickly began settling down. The Yeudi tribes were soon afterwards brought under the political authority of the Qedarite Empire, but the Yeudi religion continued to thrive under Qedarite rule. Tribal groups soon began appointing high ranking members as High Priests. One such High Priest was Eliyahu, who was considered heretical by the Yeudi establishment, and deposed and exiled, leading to the creation of Hosianism as a distinct religion.
After the fall of the Qedarite Empire the Yeudi tribes regained their independence, and were brought under the rule of Rebbes, replacing the High Priests as the leaders of the Yeudi religion. In the west of Padrilka large groups began uniting under the banner of the recently pronounced Ishmael I and started consolidating power over the region. By the 900's they had secured all of what is now Beiteynu as well as a large part of northern Barmenistan and western Pontesi. In 908 the Chief Rebbe of Padrilka proclaimed Ishmael I to be Sacred Monarch of the Kingdom of Beiteynu.
The 1st Yeudi Homeland (The Sacred Monarchy)Edit
Following the coronation of Ishmael I as King he proceeded to invoke his beliefs in the "Divine Right of Kings" and proclaimed himself a Sacred Monarch with rule over a Sacred Monarchy. Additionally to satisfy religious demands and to garner the support of the Rabbinical community for his new title he declared the nation to be a Yeudi Homeland. Following later events in the history of Beiteynu the Sacred Monarchy has come to be known as the First Yeudi Homeland.
Ishamael I reigned for 12 years until he died of old age and was replaced by his son Ishmael II. Ishmael II has in time come to be known as the great architect of the nation as it was under his 66 year reign that much of the nations infrastructure of future years was built. His crowning achievement however was the expansion of the city of Bira on the coast of Padrilka, the sacred city in Yeudism. This soon became the largest city in Western Majatra and a major trading port for Artanian merchants.
Following the death of Ishmael II the Sacred Monarchy was governed peacefully by four subsequent Kings. In 1131 and following the murder of Ezekiel III by a bandit Ezekiel IV ascended to the throne, he would be the last ruler of a unified First Yeudi Homeland.
Under the rule of Ezekiel III the aristocracy had grown unpopular due to its numerous taxes on the peasantry as well as the high levels of witch trials. Additionally to this the idea of free market capitalism had begun to gain popularity in Beiteynu, an idea that ran contrary to the agricultural nepotism practiced by the monarchy. Combined these two factors had caused a dramatic increase in the level of rebellions against both the royalty and the clergy.
Since the death of Solomon I in 1027 it had been customary for Sacred Monarchs to refrain from actual combat and instead encourage military separation. Ezekiel IV however, largely thought to be insane, believed in personally defending his nation and so engaged in nearly every battle that he could. In 1154 a major revolt began in Endlid and the King naturally chose to participate in quashing it. However whilst in previous battles generals had been under instruction to keep him away from serious conflict this time around they were unable to do so and he was eventually killed by an arrow to the eye.
As news of the death reached Bira so did reports of further revolts across the nation. This was only made worse by the fact that Ezekiel IV had no sons and so a struggle for power emerged between his two brothers. With the nobility unable to find a successor the royal army became demoralised and devoid of effective governance. Eventually following mass desertion the palace at Bira was attacked and looted with nearly all of the royal family, including the feuding brothers impaled in the town square.
Following this the various tribes under Beiteynuese rule each seized an area of the nation and proclaimed themselves as rulers of it; the largest of the successor states of the Sacred Monarchy was the Hosian and Kathuran Kingdom of Arakhim. It was at this point that the wife of Ezekiel IV, who had somehow managed to avoid death, stood on the balcony of the royal palace and proclaimed the death of the Sacred Monarchy and the First Yeudi Homeland before jumping headfirst in the street below.
In 1160 the son of the eldest brother of Ezekiel IV, living in southern Tadraki, declared himself the rightful monarch of Beiteynu. However by now the nation had descended into effective anarchy and he had nowhere near enough support to gain power.
It was also around this time that Yeudi emigration away from Beiteynu began. Those that move south end up few in number as the meet the growing power of the Deltarians, but large Jewish communities formed in Pontesi, Selucia and Cildania.
The Sacking Of BiraEdit
Following the fall of Ezekiel IV central government in Beiteynu collapsed and a period known as The Anarchy took over with the idea of localised tribes resurfacing. However over 300 years later in the 15th Century it a resurgence of the Sacred Monarchy became a distinct possibility as various tribes began to unite under King David.
However in nearby Pontesi anti-Yeudi sentiment was high and pogroms were commonplace. Yeudis had also been forced into small villages and a “Pale of Settlement” created. Following the Great Yeudi Revolt of 1490 in Diar Elahmar rumours spread of a Yeudi conspiracy to take over the nation. Seeing an opportunity to win support from an increasing disenchanted population the then leaders of Pontesi decide to take pre-emptive action and unite the nation in a patriotic Holy Crusade against Beiteynu. Troops immediately began the march through the Pale of Settlement destroying many Yeudi villages on the way and in late 1492 entered the nominal state of Beiteynu
By June 1493 troops finally reached Bira and proceeded to burn it to the ground. Yeudi citizens were routinely massacred and the nation annexed into the Pontesian state. The mass murder of Yeudis caused a one third fall in the population of Beiteynu a problem that was only exacebated by an increase in the Diaspora as emigration continued on a large scale. In 1500, seven years after the sacking of Bira a basic census on the lands was carried out which estimated that 47% of the collapsed population were Yeudi, to this day it is believed that this is the only time the Yeudi population of Beiteynu has fallen below half.
The Fight To ReturnEdit
Starting in the late 16th Century the Pontesian policy on the "Yeudi lands" switched from repressing the population to building it up as a sixth province. Whilst the Yeudi population remained large they were treated as second class people and never given Pontesian citizenship thus making them effectively stateless. They were forced into the far west of the nation and guarded by a large brick wall and a system of military barracks.
Despite the apparent danger well off Pontesians continued the move west and by the 18th Century it had a name as the best holiday destination due the sunny nature of the north.
However in 1800 an enormous earthquake hit the north east of what is now Fruskila destroying many Pontesian settlements and killing an estimated 80,000. Immediately Catholic leaders in Pontesi major declared the entirety of Beiteynu to be cursed and nearly all Pontesian settlers made a quick return back east.
Many Yeudis were now left in the position of no longer being prisoners but still living as stateless individuals. Many moves were made to address this however the most successful occured in 1864 when a group of newly appointed teachers formed the World Yeudish Council and put forward the idea of a second Yeudi Homeland.
The biggest issue they faced was dealing was the remaining royalists who simply wanted a return to the Sacred Monarchy. Eventually they were able to come to an agreement in which there would be no official restoration of the monarchy but the Yeudi faith would play the highest role in the legislative process. The agreement was signed by 1940 and the Council immediately began recruiting local men for a so called "War of Liberation".
The 2nd Yeudi Homeland (The Theocracy)Edit
In actual fact the war never occured and there was little Pontesian resistance to the Yeudi forces. By now the area had become both dangerous and economicaly unprofitable and the decision was made to withdraw all troops.
As such in 1966 The 12 Sacred Tribes united and reclaim Beiteynu from the minimal Pontesian army that remained in the nation. Little resistance was offered and most inhabitants were pleased to see Yeudi rule reinstated. Following this the 2nd Yeudi Homeland of Beiteynu was founded. In accorance with the agreement made with the religious communties Head of State became the Chief Rebbe of the nation and as such this Homeland has become informally known as the Theocracy of Beiteynu.
The Chief Rebbe immediately began cracking down on “anti-Yeudi activities”. Pigs and shellfish were declared illegal and all people were required to dress according to their religion with Yeudis wearing yellow, Hosians blue, Ahmadis green and all other relgions brown. During this period the guillotine came into play and the vast majority of non-Yeudis were either executed or exiled. One notable event was the Massacre of Padrilkistan in 2006. In this move, which can be declared ethnic cleansing, the Ahmadi area of sotuh Padrilka was brutally attacked and the Ahmadi population of Beiteynu halved. In addition to this many Yeudis themselves were killed for “religious deviation”.
However by 2124 there had been a mass ;oss of popular support for the government and their ultra-orthodox measures. In an attempt to rally the people behind him in a patriotism, the Chief Rebbe decided to attempt a “short victorious war”. This was to be against the Darnussian nation with the reason of liberating the Yeudi minority and the claim that they were stockpiling Weapons of Mass Destruction to use against the Yeudi state. The large Beiteynuese army was transported to the Darnussian offshore islands and it was thought that within a month they would have been captured. However the Darnussian defence had been underestimated and a stalemate situation emerged whereby each nation occupied one of the islands and neither made attempts to capture the other. After 26 years of the stalemate in 2150 the Chief Rebbe called for the complete capitulation of Darnussia and the remainder of the army was sent to the islands. This included conscripting all men over the age of 19 to the army. Sensing this the Darnussian government immediately sent telgrams to both Pontesi and Barmenistan to form a three nation alliance against Beiteynu. Pontesi and Barmenistan invaded from the south and with the army all fighting on the islands they were able to capture the bottom half of the nation. The Chief Rebbe panicked and ordered all troops to return to mainland Beiteynu leaving the islands easy for Darnussia to reclaim. However by now the Pontesi-Barmenistan alliance had grown too strong and with the Darnussians pushing from the north the entire nation was occupied within four years.
In 2154 the three nation alliance obtained complete control of Beiteynu and the then Chief Rebbe Abraham was captured. He was hung upside down in the main square of Gan Kofim and his corpse left for weeks to be defiled by occupational troops.
The three nation alliance to enable easy governance divided the nation into three zones with Barmenistan taking Quo'gün and Padrilka , Darnussia taking Endlid and Fruskila and Pontesi taking Tadraki. Each nation appointed an army commander to oversee their respective zone and all were governed by military rule.
However by the 2160's the Yeudi majority population had begun tired of living under foreign rule and while many were pleased to see the repressive ways of the Second Yeudi Homeland gone the new system was no better. As such several organisations got together and formed the Free Beiteynu! Organisation. Initially the organisation hoped to achieve its aims through non-violent measures however by the late 2160's hardline elements had resorted to terrorism. What began with a series of low level attacks on military barracks soon became a nationwide series of bombings and assassinations.
By 2173, like in the 1960's, the region had become both dangerous and unprofitable and the three nations decided to unilaterally withdraw from Beiteynu. In the same year the Third Yeudi Homeland of Beiteynu was declared independent.
The 3rd Yeudi Homeland (The Republic) (2173-2250) (?)Edit
Following years of Yeudi terrorism as well as dis-harmony between the occupying powers, in 2173 they decided to unilaterally quit the nation and the 3rd Yeudi Homeland of Beiteynu was founded.
It was declared to be a Yeudi state based on democratic and peaceful ideals.
The First Two-Party State (2250-2260)Edit
In the February 2247 general elections, the National Party and the Likud Party, which had both recently restarted, failed to make it into the Knesset despite a national voter turnout of almost 90%. The Underworld Party suffered a humiliating defeat, losing all but one of its seats in the Knesset. Meanwhile, the Habonim Dror gained an outright majority in the legislature with a 113-seat gain (250 seats total) and gained control of the executive in the first round of elections. Franklin Delanovitz Rooseveltstein's party reforms seemed to be working. The main opposition to Habonim Dror was the centre-left Kadima, which, despite a 45-seat gain, failed to garner a majority. This was the beginning of a two-party state.
During the Habonim Dror's tenure as the ruling party of Beiteynu, it passed a number of milestone pieces of legislation. One of them was a bill called the "End to War Act", which had long been advocated by the pacifist faction in the party. Amongst its provisions were a ban on all defense industries, a repeal of the draft, and the prohibition of military involvement with the police force. The Habonim Dror decreased military spending from 60,000,000,000 BEI to 300,000 BEI. The budget also provided for a doubling of the Health and Social Services funds from 20,000,000,000 BEI to 40,000,000,000 BEI and a 10,000,000,000 BEI increase in funding for the Ministry of Education and Culture (to a total of 60,000,000,000 BEI).
In January 2249, the President Rooseveltstein asked the Habonim Dror leadership to called for early elections after only two years of almost unopposed rule. President Rooseveltstein cited a "grave concern for the future of democracy" as his motivation. In the elections, the recently re-established far-right wing Judean People's Front candidate, Mortechai Jefferson Carver, won the presidency in the second round against David Ben-Gurion, the candidate put forth by Kadima. Franklin Delanovitz Rooseveltstein had been eliminated in the first round, having received only 20% of the vote.
In the general election, Habonim Dror lost a whopping 163 seats. Kadima, the former opposition, lost 81 seats. The Judean People's Front gained 245 seats and, with them, a unilateral majority. The once-successful Underworld Party, National Party, and Likud Party collapsed in the shadow their previous electoral failures. Not long after the legislative session began, Kadima dissolved their party for unknown reasons, though some speculate deep party divisions. Thus, the Habonim Dror were the only opposition to the Judean People's Front, which pursued its right-wing agenda without hesitation. In May 2249, the Judean People's Front pushed through a 20% flat tax for all in Beiteynu, destroying the previously established progressive tax.
In May 2249, the Judean People's Front allowed the Habonim Dror to form a minority government as way to balance power.
In January 2250, the Judean People's Front and the Habonim Dror agreed on a number of amendments to the Constitution. Amongst them were: a provision to change the name of the Head of Government from Prime Minister to Director General, renaming the Head of State Supreme Rabbi, reducing the size of the Knesset to 100 seats, and instituting equal representation for each region regardless of population or size. They also agreed to decrease term lengths from three years to two.
The January 2250 elections saw the beginnings of the two-party state. Franklin Delanovitz Rooseveltstein was elected to the position of Supreme Rabbi with nearly sixty percent of the vote. The Knesset elections mirrored the Supreme Rabbi election almost exactly, with the Habonim Dror winning 57 of the 100 seats. The party leadership immediately extended an olive branch to the Judean People's Front, offering them every cabinet position except for the Ministry of Defense.
In the 2252 elections, the Habonim Dror lost seven seats. Though they had garnered a majority of the popular vote (51+%) both parties received fifty seats in the legislature.
After the January 2258 elections, Beiteynu Beytenu was formed. In the 2260 elections, the Judean People's Front lost 16 seats, 14 of which went to Beiteynu Beytenu and two of which went to Habonim Dror. Despite a Beiteynu Beytenu endorsement, the longtime Judean People's Front candidate, Mortechai Jefferson Carver, received only 43.33% in the Supreme Rabbi election. Despite these gains, this would be the last election in which Habonim Dror maintained its unilateral majority.
In the 2260 elections, Habonim Dror lost 15 seats -- its largest loss in more than a decade. The Judean People's Front lost another four seats, and Beiteynu Beytenu gained 19 seats. Beiteynu Beytenu was now the second-largest party in Beiteynu. Franklin Delanovitz Rooseveltstein won the Supreme Rabbi election in the second round against Avigdor Liberman, the Beiteynu Beytenu candidate. It was the end of the two-party state.
The Second Two-Party State (2274-2282)Edit
Following his party's humiliating defeat in the 2264 elections, Franklin Delanovitz Rooseveltstein, the longest-serving head of state in Beiteynu history, resigned his position as leader of the Habonim Dror. He died of old age not long thereafter. He was replaced by Albert Gorestein who maintained the party's position as largest in Beiteynu and, in the 2268 elections, led the party to win the Supreme Rabbi election. However, the party lost 18 of its seats in the same election. Many political analysts say that the head of state victory was due largely in part to the endorsement of the successful Kadima. Despite this temporary victory, Albert Gorestein's verbose speeches and monotonous voice failed to inspire the Habonim Dror faithful, or anyone, for that matter. The party faded away into irrelevance.
While the Habonim Dror and other parties disintegrated, however, Kadima rose to prominence. By 2276, the only parties remaining were Kadima and the Judean People's Front. In election after election, Kadima increased in size and power and the power of the Judean People's Front waned. By January 2282, Kadima held 62% of the seats in the Knesset. Shortly after the elections, however, both the Kadima Party Leader and the Supreme Rabbi Michael Spitz-Rubentein (Kadima) were found dead in their homes. The party collapsed admist turmoil.
Without any opposition remaining, the Judean People's Front called for early elections. It won every seat in the Knesset.
The Dictatorship (2283-2314)Edit
Pnték Hyéonékaiék JeztadrakiEdit
In February 2309 as the autocratic rule of the Judean People's Front and the Exhalted Despot collapsed amidst allegations of corruption, dealings with secret societies and public uprisings, the nation was plunged into a state of near anarchy. As people immediately ran to retrieve all their savings, the state banking system was unable to cope and all branches were shut down. People were stuck with little to no money and this quickly correlated to a mass crime wave and a looting spree. Furthermore formally banned political groups began resurfacing and calling for action. The Communist Party of Beiteynu which had had the majority of its leadership executed during the Great Purges began launching a series of terrorist attacks on government buildings and urging the people to support a revolution.
Perhaps more influential however was the amount of support for the Beiteynu wing of the International Federation of Yeudi Anarchists. The people, now tired of authoritarian rule began to cease working for their employers as well as publically burned money on the streets. A large number of industries were taken over and workers cooperatives instaled whilst at the same time armed militas took to the streets. The state flag was burned and the anarchist one raised on all buildings.
Sensing the chaos in their neighbour and still eager to retrieve was they saw as their rightful land, the Pontesian government held an emergency meeting and authorised intervention in the nation. The army was immediately set into motion and under the banner of the already assembled Amsaék Hyéonlrnék Isràkai grouping they crossed the Abure-Tadraki border.
Within a week they had wrestled control of the Tadraki/Endlid region from the severely weakened Beiteynu government as well as exercising large authority over the rest of the nation. The Amsaék Hyéonlrnék Isràkai quickly established their control over what was now renamed Pnték Hyéonékaiék Jeztadraki (Pontesian Sunpeople's Gran Tadraki) dissolving the Judean People's Front run Politburo and giving authority to the Krs'kaisrne (United People's Table). At the head of this stood the imposing figure of the Jezhikoék'ai (Grand People's Man) and the post of Isràkai Accipitrum (Great Man Accipitrum) was created to act as a official liason to the Pontesian Atabeg Accipitrum.
The Yeudi population of the nation immediately rose up in anger and national pride with the Yeudi People's Front reorganising itself to fight as a paramilitary group alongside the Jüdische Widerstandarmee (a radically religious splinter group from the Communist Party of Beiteynu) under the command of the Beiteynu Resistance Committee. Violence was both regular and severe, especially after the Amsaék Hyéonlrnék Isràkai May 2311 "Official Recognition of Pontesian Sovereignty over Jeztadraki", and clashes between armed Yeudi groups and the Pontesian military became commonplace.
By Februry 2314, five years after establishing the Pnték Hyéonékaiék Jeztadraki, the Amsaék Hyéonlrnék Isràkai, eager to show their democratic credentials called for nationwide elections pitting their Pontesian coalition against the Yeudi parties of Beiteynu, including the political wings of the Beiteynu Resistance Committee parties.
The 4th Yeudi Homeland (The Disputed Territories)Edit
The 5th Yeudi Homeland (The Second Monarchy)Edit
The Ahmadi CaliphateEdit
In 237?, After the collapse of the Ma'vak party, The IR League took control of the country and established an Ahmadi Theocracy. The alledged oppression of the Yeudi and Pontesian Hosian populations by the Ahmadi minority was used as a pretext for invasion by The Holy Luthori Empire, although many in the international community accused them of attempting to expand their empire. While initially successful, the combined weight of The Accord forces who came to Beiteynu aid was enough to drive them back before a ceasefire was declared. A peace conference failed to establish an official peace, in part due to Luthori's refusal to deal with the Caliphate directly, which lead to Luthori continuing to occupy a small area in the Endlid province, known as the Kingdom of Yishelem by the occupiers.
The invasion was enough to cause uprising by many Yeudis and Pontesians, which harmed the prestige of the IR League, and would eventually caused their collapse and the end of the theocracy.
In the aftermath of the Caliphate, a feeling of secularism swept the nation. The few still commited to a religious state found their voices drowned out by that of the Communist Party of Beiteynu, who quickly went on to take every seat in the newly-named Parliament. In response to this, The Classical Liberal Party were formed. In the sweeping changes that were enacted, many quickly became disillusioned with the new liberalism. This saw many turning back to the preaching of religious leaders.
The 6th Yeudi HomelandEdit
Kingdom of Yishelem (2823-2863)Edit
See Also: Kingdom of Yishelem
The Kingdom of Yishelem was a vassal state of the Holy Luthori Empire. Since 2823, it incorporated the whole territory that was formerly part of the nation of Beiteynu. It was ruled by the King of Beiteynu, who is also the Holy Luthori Emperor. In 2863, a revolution, which evolved into the Beiteynu-Luthori War, broke out in the nation and the kingdom was forced to pull back to Endild, which it held before the takeover of Beiteynu. The Kingdom of Yishelem ceased to exist during the war, when its government was legally take over by republican parties and the nation was renamed the Beiteynuese Republic. After the war, the Beiteynuese Republic was reformed as the Commonwealth of Yishelem and Beiteynu, with the Holy Luthori Emperor as de jure, but not de facto, head of state.
Beiteynuese Republic (2863-2887)Edit
See Also: Beiteynuese Republic
The Beiteynuese Republic was the successor state to the Kingdom of Yishelem. It was founded in 2863 after various acts passed in the (former) kingdom's legislature by the republican parties of the nation. Because the Holy Luthori Empire considered the creation of the Republic an illegal act based on the Treaty of Yishelem, it declared war on the new nation the same year of its formation. The Beiteynuese Republic lost the Beiteynu-Luthori War, and, after the Beiteynu-Luthori Peace Conference was over and the Treaty of Poesy was signed by both nations, the country ceased to exist in 2887, and was succeeded by the Commonwealth of Yishelem and Beiteynu.
Commonwealth (2887- ?)Edit
See Also: Commonwealth of Beiteynu and Yishelem
The Commonwealth of Beiteynu and Yishelem is a nation located on the northwestern tip of Majatra. It is bordered by Pontesi to the east and Barmenistan to the south. Its western coast is surrounded by the Verranderlijke Ocean and to the north it stretches out into the Migrant's Pass, separating it from the offshore regions of Darnussia. It was founded as the "Commonwealth of Yishelem and Beiteynu" in 2887, when the Beiteynuese Republic was dissolved after the Beiteynu-Luthori War and its resulting peace conference, where the Treaty of Poesy mandated the nation be named as such. The nation was renamed the Commonwealth of Beiteynu and Yishelem in 2985, as allowed under the Second Treaty of Poesy.