Cildania was originally inhabited by a group of tribes called the Proto-Cildanians. The Proto-Cildanians were primarily a hunter-gather society that had little knowledge of agriculture, but apparently knew how to grow wheat. They worked with stone and used copper tools, which were used for their spears for hunting and construction. Little else in known about them before the Afejri invasions, which would destroy their culture and burn most of the sparse writings. Fragments of Proto-Cildanian have been discovered, but are not translated, and the Proto-Cildanians appear to have spoken an isolate language, unrelated to any other known ethnic group.
The Afejri invasions, taking place cca. 1200 BCE, were triggered by the conflicts between various tribes to the North, with some of the Afejri tribes escaping southward from their rivals and other tribes. The invading Afejri easily conquered the Proto-Cildanians, who were no match against their Bronze weaponry. The arrival of the Afejri settlers begins the first recorded events in Cildania's history.
The Afejri in Cildania lived in isolated communities based on a tribal organization. They also had a knowledge of metalworking, including bronze, and agricultural techniques. In the centuries preceding Qedarite conquest, Afejri settlements grew in social complexity, exhibiting evidence of social stratification and urbanization.
Around the year 700 BCE, the Qedarite Migrations reached Cildania, changing the demographics of the region to this day. The Qedarites settled in large numbers, driving the Afejri tribes to the north and east of the island. The Qedarites in Cildania gradually began to differentiate themselves from other Qedarite peoples in terms of language, religion, and culture.
The Qedarites were organized into independent city-states, which often competed and cooperated among themselves, as one city after another came to dominate the entire island. The Qedarites were amongst the greatest traders of their time and owed a great deal of their prosperity to trade. In order to provide a resting place for merchant fleets, to maintain a Qedarite monopoly on an area's natural resource, or to conduct trade on its own, the Qedarites established numerous colonial cities along the coasts of the Majatran Sea, competing with Selucian and Kalopian city-states; many of the Qedarite colonies are now important cities.
Birth of YeudismEdit
Cildania is the traditional birthplace of the religion of Yeudism. Although it is difficult to determine precisely the date when this happened, it is clear that the first Qedarite inhabitants of Beiteynu, and the ancestors of today's Yeudis, arrived from Cildania around 500 BCE. Culturally, the ancient Beiteynuese civilization is considered a part of the Qedarite civilization. Whilst being the birthplace of the founder of Yeudism, its followers soon left Cildania and the remainder were heavily persecuted, although there is a continuous Yeudi presence in Cildania dating from antiquity.
The numerous Qedarite city-states, although in almost constant conflict with the Afejri tribes and each other, usually all recognized the hegemony of one single city-state, the political, economic, and religious centre of the island. The dominant city rarely asserted its power by more than just requesting tributes. This changed after the war between the cities of Qildar and the hegemon of the time, Ramal (451-437 BCE). The sounding defeat of Ramal made Qildar the ruling city in the island. The new hegemon quickly established its power by sending garrisons to the cities that had fallen into its sphere, and the Afejri threat in the east gradually brought the numerous Qedarite cities and colonies in the sphere of influence of Qildar. The entire Majatran Sea area later came under the leadership and protection of Qildar, which in turn dispatched its own colonists to found new cities.
The Qedarite Empire, with its centre in the city of Qildar, was the largest empire on the continent, but it was never fully centralized, being a collection of city-states and tribes under the hegemony of an oligarchic trade republic. The power of Qildar over the shores of the Majatran Sea eventually collapsed around 22 CE with the Jelbo-Tukaric invasions, but the city continued to be the most powerful state on the island, leading to the modern name of the nation (Qildar/Cildania). With the fall of the Qedarite Empire, the island was left divided for the next 1000 years.
Council of Princes Edit
Medieval Cildania was divided among several small principalities and free cities. In 840 Hosianism was introduced from Kathuristan in Barmenia, and the majority of the Cildanian states were quick to adopt it as official religion.
In the 14th century, Cildania found itself in an almost constant war with its neighbour, Selucia. After the defeat of a Selucian invasion in the Akilda-Selucian War of 1382-1394, a grand council was called by the Patriarch Theophanes II to be held at the monastery of St Origen in Akildar. This council was composed of the Five Princes and their Bishops and the Mayors and Bishops of the Free Cities.
Led by the Patriarch, this council, 'The Council of St Origen', decided that with the possibility of more external threats, a more unified way of dealing with them was needed. To enable this it was agreed that a permanent council be formed consisting of the Patriarch, the Five Princes, a representative from the Free Cities, and was to be chaired by the Patriarch. Decisions were to be made democratically, with the Patriarch having two votes in Council as he represented both the Church and the people. This became known as 'The Council of Princes'.
Divine Kingdom of Cildania (1847-1929)Edit
The Council period of Cildania lasted for around 400 years. Although the island was very fragmented, with divided and overlapping sovereignties, this was one of the most peaceful periods in Cildanian history.
In 1847, Prince Gildas Kilian of Akilda dissolved the Council of Princes and declared himself Divine King of Cildania (HaMelek HaʾIilohi shel Qildar) with the Patriarch's consent. Akinawa, Gilzon and Ylrith supported the unification and the Divine Empire but Prince Jugurtha of Hebilon disputed the authority of the Patriarch and the King and declared himself Hebileean Patriarch-Prince, consolidating both roles. Prince Yugurtha raised an army against Cildania, and after a thirty year war Jugurtha was captured and executed following his return to Mort Iskendra. By the time of his capture the war had taken all of his heirs and with his death the War of Unification was over and the Kingdom established its absolute dominion over the Island.
The Kingdom existed as a Caesaropapist state, whereby the Department of Cildania (ER) was entirely subordinate to the Divine King. The king would typically protect the Church and manage its administration by presiding over councils and appointing patriarchs and setting territorial boundaries for their jurisdiction. The Council of the Princes was reestablished in 1895 to curb the power of the king, and in 1901 the first Parliament was convened. The Divine Kingdom lasted until 1929, when a liberal revolution established the Republic of Cildania.
The First Republic (1929-2805)Edit
The First Republic is the longest continuous era in Cildanian history extending from the declaration of the Republic at the end of the three year Departmental Provisional Government that took over after the abdication of Gildas II during the Revolution and was established as a compromise between the factions who stood on the verge of civil war. In the early years power was shared between the President, Chancellor and Departmental Representative but the end of the 1940s a typical semi-presidential system was in place. From the beginning of the 21st Century onwards the republic was interrupted by a series of interruptions from dictatorial, communist or neo-monarchist take overs but the era as a whole is termed by historians as the First Republic as it was defined primarily by the Republic rather than the brief interludes of irrepublicianism.
The final centuries of the First Republic are known as the instability was a period of Cildanian history charactised by extremism as the Senate [later Parliament] passed hands between Anarcho-Capitalist and Metzist-Leonidist majorities and as the economy was nationalized and then privatized again three times a decade the economy collapsed into ruin. This lead to stronger local government and a growth in Departmental authority as the central government was largely ignored in the decades leading up to the coup which brought an end to the First Republic and served as a transition into the Second, which, while just as democratic, was characterized in its early years by Departmental mediation. The Second Republic was in turn was overthrown in the Qedarite Revolution when the Qedarite Cildanians, with the support of Qedarites abroad, overthrew the largely Hebilean-lead Second Republic and the bi-cultural nationality to promote Qedarite Cildanian nationalism.
The term First Republic is of hindsight use only, in contemporary sources it is known only as the Cildanian Republic.
Departmental Cildanian Republic (2805-2811)Edit
In 2805, Cildania fell under the sway of the Fascist Hosian Action party, which established the theocratic Departmental Cildanian Republic. It was led by the Patriarch of the Department of Cildania (ER), and discriminated against adherents to other denomination. The DCR lasted until 2811.
The Second Republic (2811-3052)Edit
The Second Republican Period of Cildania witnessed a return of liberal democracy, which soon established a two-party system with the Qildar HaMithadeshet and the Liberal-Reform Party alternating in government. The Second Republic, in spite of its apparent stability, was crippled by corruption and illiberal practices, until it was overthrown by the Qedarite Revolution.
The Qedarite Republic (3052-3100)Edit
In the midst of one of the worst corruption scandals of the Second Republic, the Cildanian Phalanx, a secular Qedarite nationalist party, was formed. The Phalanx' secular stance and their highly disciplined nature made their popularity grow, and in the 3052 elections the Phalangites gained a constitutional majority in the Cildanian Senate, allowing them to establish the Qedarite Republic of Cildania. The Qedarite Republic was based on Qedarite (Semitic) nationalism, considering Qedarites a single nation that was meant to rule the entire continent. The Qedarite Republic heavily discriminated against Hebileans and Seluco-Cildanians, while at the same time encouraging Yeudi immigration and fostering close ties with Beiteynu and the Majatran nations. The Qedarite Republic eventually fell in 3100 when a liberal revolution, primarily supported by the minorities, overthrew the Phalanx and established the Most Serene Republic of Cildania.
Most Serene Republic and Most Serene Empire (3100-3488)Edit
The resulting Most Serene Republic proved to be an unstable settlement, however, with numerous and often violent conflicts between the nation's Cildanian majority and the various minorities. The inter-ethnic conflicts in Cildania eventually led to the establishment of a monarchy in 3224 under the House of Thomas, but this arrangement proved to be short-lived. During the 400-year Most Serene era, Cildania alternated between Republican and Monarchic rule.
Tenth Cildanian Republic (3488-3645)Edit
Stability was eventually brought to Cildania with the establishment of the Tenth Cildanian Republic, founded on compromise between the dominant Cildanians and the various minorities. This compromise did not completely end tensions, however, as the Seluco-Cildanians, dissatisfied with their marginalization, campaigned for a separate homeland in Velieres. Towards the end of the Tenth Republic, Cildania became a single-party state under the secular Liberal Workers party. At the same time, the conflicts and tensions that arose on Majatra as a result of the Jelbic-Augustan Wars, one consequence of which was the rise of Apostolic militancy, did not spare Cildania. With Apostolic faithful persecuted across the continent, the members of the Apostolic Department of Cildania, the largest and most powerful of the Eastern Hosian Churches, began to see themselves as discriminated by the secular single-party state. With the tacit approval of the Church, Hamash, a religious nationalist political party affiliated with the Apostolic Army in Majatra, was formed in June 3645, campaigning for the overthrow of the Liberal Workers regime and the establishment of a Hosian-based regime.
National Republic of Cildania (3645-present)Edit
The popularity of Hamash and its support by the Church gave rise to a large uprising, dubbed the Apostolic Revolution, which saw the collapse of the Tenth Republic and the establishment of the National Republic of Cildania, a Hosian nationalist and theofascist regime under the rule of Abba Azrubaal Ayyil, a Departmental priest from Gilzon.
Timeline of Governments Edit
|407 BCE-22 CE||Qedarite Empire||Oligarchic Republic|
|22-1394||Cildanian Principalities and City-States||Numerous independent republican and monarchic polities|
|1394-1847||Council of Princes||Theocratic union of independent monarchies and free cities|
|1847-1929||Divine Kingdom of Cildania||Caesaropapist monarchy|
|1929-2805||First Republic of Cildania||Democratic republic|
|2805-2811||Departmental Cildanian Republic||Theocratic republic|
|2811-3052||Second Republic of Cildania||Democratic republic|
|3052-3100||Qedarite Republic of Cildania||Nationalist dictatorship|
|3100-3488||Most Serene Cildania||Democratic republic, constitutional monarchy|
|3488-3645||Tenth Cildanian Republic||Democratic republic|
|3645-3665||National Republic of Cildania||Theocratic republic|
|3665-3858||Most Serene Cildanian Union||Democratic republic|
|3858-3865||Great Cildanian People's Republic||Socialist republic|
|3865-3874||Most Serene Cildanian Empire||Constitutional monarchy, Selucian apartheid regime|
|3874-3911||People's Free State of Cildania||Constitutional monarchy|
|3913-3937||Most Serene Cildanian Kingdom||Constitutional monarchy|
|3937-3957||Hosian Republic of Cildania||Theocratic republic|
|3957-3978||Federal Republic of Cildania||Theocratic republic; presidential dictatorship|
|3978-4010||Kingdom of Cildania||Represented, Constitutional Monarchy|
|4010-4014||State of the Corsairs of Cildania||Theocratic republic|
|4014-4125||Most Serene Cildanian Union||Parliamentary republic|
|4125-4144||State of Cildania||Yeudish presidential republic|
|4144-4191||Most Serene Republic of Cildania||Parliamentary republic|
|4191-4359||Republic of Cildania||Parliamentary republic|
|4359-4366||Kingdom of Cildania||Constitutional Monarchy|
|4366-4407||Republic of Cildania||Parliamentary republic|
|4407-4445||Federal Kingdom of Cildania||Federal parliamentary monarchy|
|4445-||Republic of Cildania||Parliamentary republic|