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Cobura has one of the longest and richest histories on the continent of Majatra, being home to some of the continent's oldest civilizations. Coburan history is marked by the interactions between the nation's five distinct ethnic groups that lived in Cobura since ancient times: the Irkawans, the Mallans, the Augustans, the Majatrans, and in later history the Tokundians.

Pre-Modern HistoryEdit

Ancient HistoryEdit

Qedarite MigrationsEdit

Main article: Qedarite Migrations
The Qedarite Migrations, one of the largest and longest population movements in Terran history that saw the migration of Qedarite (Semitic/Afro-Asiatic) speaking peoples from Squibble to Majatra, reached the territory of modern-day Cobura around 3000 BCE. In the aftermath of the migrations, the dominant languages and civilizations on the continent were Qedarite-speaking for millenia.

Ancient IrkawaEdit

Main article: Kingdom of Irkawa
Pyramids Rakote

The Great Pyramids and Sphinx of Rakote

One of the first civilization to emerge on Majatra was the Ancient Irkawan civilization, centred around the region of Irkawa. Although the region had been inhabited since long before the advent of the Qedarite Migrations, the first complex civilization was built by the ancient Irkawans, who founded the Kingdom of Irkawa around 2500 BCE.

Irkawan EmpireEdit

Nebmaatre IV

Golden mask from the mummy of Nebmaatre IV, a minor Irkawan king

Around 2000 BCE the Pharaonic Period in Irkawan history began, characterized by a centralized Kingdom ruled by a Pharaoh and aided by a large priestly class. This period was marked by large-scale construction, most notably including the Great Pyramids and Sphinx of Rakote, or the later Temples of Refbēsh. In 1497 BCE, Irkawan civilization entered its most prosperous stage, marked by territorial and cultural expansion. In 1463 BCE, in response to constant attacks from Domale in the East, Irkawa conquered that region, expanding Irkawan rule over most of contemporary Cobura and much of Zardugal and Jakania.

Kingdom of DomaleEdit

Mallan Pharaohs

Mallan Pharaohs of Irkawa

The Kingdom of Irkawa entered a period of decline beginning with around 1000 BCE, eventually collapsing in 964 BCE, as the numerous peoples ruled by the Kingdom gained their independence through revolt. The Mallan-ruled Kingdom of Domale emerged as the strongest of Irkawa's successor states, and in 713 BCE, Domale conquered Irkawa, which it ruled until expelled by a native Irkawan revolt in 536 BCE, leading to the establishment of two concurrent Kingdoms of Irkawa and Domale. Mallan civilization did nevertheless manage to survive, and even experienced a period of flourishing between 500 BCE and 200 CE. The Kingdom of Domale entered decline when, in 226, it was overthrown by a rebellion of the Kingdom's native Yeudi Mallan population, which founded a new Yeudi dynasty that lasted for nearly a century, until Domale was reconquered by Irkawa.

Domale Pyramids

Irkawan-style pyramids in Domale

Irkawan New KingdomEdit

The Kingdom of Irkawa experienced a minor resurgence in the fourth century CE. Taking advantage of the weakening of Domale, the Kingdom of Irkawa reconquered the region in 312 CE, reestablishing Irkawan rule over most of the territory of the old Irkawan Empire. This resurgence was to be short-lived, however, as the kingdom was eventually conquered in 402 CE by Augustus the Great, the founder of the Augustan Empire.


Augustan EmpireEdit

Main article: Augustan Empire
Augustus Great

Augustus the Great, the founder of the Augustan Empire

The empire's roots lay in ancient Selucian colonization on the shores of the Sea of Majatra and the ancient Kingdom of Leucopolis, a Selucian-speaking successor state of the Qedarite Empire. After much aggressive expansion, it was the dominant empire in Majatra until its considerable decline and eventual demise in the period of 1353 - 1401. Based on the large-scale conquests of Augustus the Great, the Augustan Empire was responsible for the spread of Enetric (Graeco-Roman) civilization across Majatra, leading to the emergence of a new ethnic group, the Augustan people. The Empire was also heavily influenced by Irkawan and Mallan civilization, and the newly founded city of Augusta in Cobura was the Empire's capital throughout its history. It was also during the Empire's rule that Hosianism was introduced into South Majatra, however most Coburans were Hosianized later on by Barmenian missionaries under the non-Aurorian Patriarchal Church (Eastern Rite).

The decline and eventual collapse of the Augustan Empire came as a result of the interminable conflicts with the Deltarians and later with the emerging Ahmadi Caliphate. The Augustan-Tokundian Wars (587-1401) considerably weakened the Empire, leading to the loss of territory to the Deltarian tribal federation and the later Tokundian Empire and to the independence of the Empire's peripheral areas. The Ahmadi-Augustan Wars, initiated with the Great War of the South, dealt the deathblow to the Augustan Empire, which was fully conquered between 1353 and 1401, aided by the mass migration of the Tokundians from Deltaria into present-day Tokundi.

Cassander

Augustan Emperor Cassander I, dressed as an Irkawan Pharaoh

Ahmadi ruleEdit

Main article: Ahmadi Caliphate

After the Augustan Empire collapsed in 1401, the entire territory of the former Empire was brought under the rule of the Ahmadi Caliphate, which lasted until 1477, when the Kingdom of Cobura, under Leo I, founded a new (amlost-united) kingdom as a result of the reconquest of Ahmadi-ruled territory. During the short-lived Caliphate rule over Cobura, local princes were allowed to retain their autonomy in exchange for nominal submission to the Emir of Cobura.

Kingdom of CoburaEdit

Foundation (1477-1493)Edit

In 1477, Prince Leo Egato, one of the numerous Augustan princes allowed to retain their lands, proclaimed himself King of Cobura. Soon after, Leo initiated a massive military campaign against the weakening Caliphate, eventually succeeding in liberating most of Cobura. Leo I's son, Alexios I, inherited his father's strategic acumen, and led a series of campaigns that culminated in the conquest of Tokundi in 1493. As a result, the new Kingdom of Cobura possessed roughly the same borders as the modern Republic.

Early Years (1493-1614)Edit

The next century saw little glory in the Kingdom. The main tasks facing the descendants of Alexios I were the restoration of the countryside and cities that had been ravaged by over a century of warfare, quelling Tokundi rebellion, and refining the Kingdom's government. The early period of the Kingdom was one of gradual but fairly linear improvement.
Cobkingdomflag

Flag of the Kingdom of Cobura.

In 1614, Adrian I died of disease (commonly thought to be pneumonia by historians), and passed the throne on to his young son Adrian II, who was 23 at the time. Adrian II's ascent was met with trepidation by many nobles, who viewed the royal as incompetent and too young. Yet Adrian II proved that he was quite the opposite, and his reign was one of prosperity.

Golden Age of Adrian II (1614-1657)Edit

Upon inheriting the throne, Adrian II immediately began a large-scale effort to improve the country, proving his worth as a leader and earning himself the popular title of "Great Monarch." He valued learning, fostering scientific growth. During his tenure, the great National Library was constructed, and the most important scientific and medical discoveries of the Kingdom were made. He also granted autonomy to the Tokundians, who had beforehand been treated as inferior citizens due to their non-Augustan ancestry. Tokundi autonomy ameliorated this tension, contributing to the development of a sense of national unity and decreasing the amount of money that had to be spent combating occasional Tokundi uprisings. Adrian II's reign also saw the foundation of the great Coburan cities that had not been established during the Augustan, Tokundian, or Irkawan Empires -- among them Hudson. Abroad, the Great Monarch initiated trade with foreign powers, bringing prosperity and wealth to the Kingdom. As a direct result of this increased amount of money, Adrian II formed a standardized currency, the Cobur, which is still used today.

Adrian II

Adrian II, the most successful King of Cobura

Later Years of the House of Egato (1657-1937)Edit

After the death of Adrian II in 1657, the crown was inherited by his son, Alexios IV. It was predicted that Alexios IV would be another great monarch, worthy of the name taken from his predecessor Alexios I. Unfortunately, the new King was not equipped for the Monarchy. His mismanagement cost the country millions of Coburs; his social skills were lacking, which offended the Court; and, most disastrously of all, he rescinded the autonomy granted to Tokundi. Enraged that their supposed autonomy had not really been such, as it could be taken away at the whim of a King, the Tokundians rebelled with incredible fervor, resulting in widespread loss of life and property.

It was clear to many that Alexios IV needed to be deposed, and his sister Anna and brother Zeno conspired to eject him from the throne. Their coup succeeded in 1661 with the help of the military, giving the crown to Zeno and exiling Alexios IV to Zardugal. King Zeno I immediately ended the war with Tokundi by granting total independence. Although this angered many Coburans, it was the correct course of action, as the war had no clear way to victory for the Kingdom and would have dragged on for many expensive years. This proved to be the only major act of Zeno I's reign, as he died a short three years later. Queen Anna I was superior to her brothers, and she continued the buildup of infrastructure that her father Adrian II had began. Twelve years later, the Kingdom of Cobura, this time with a stronger military, invaded Tokundi and conquered it, rejoining it to the Kingdom -- without autonomy. The Fifteen Years of Independence, as they were called, were the last that Tokundi would see, and since its end in 1673 Cobura has not seen an armed resurrection come from Tokundi.

After Queen Anna I's death, little of note occurred in the Kingdom until the ascent of Michael III in 1935. Michael III was not a gifted King, and seemed to have little grasp of events (current historians speculate that he suffered from a mild form of mental retardation). To the North of Cobura, Phillip Monomachos noted the new King's incompetence with glee. Monomachos was the direct descendant of Alexios IV, and dreamed of restoring his family to greatness. Wealth was not enough for Monomachos -- he needed the power of state. As discontent with Michael III grew, Phillip industriously gathered support in Irkawa and Egato, preparing to raise a force to assault the Kingdom. He did so successfully, and in 1937 launched a strong, concentrated assault on Augusta. Phillip captured the city successfully, and due to his noble blood was able to claim the throne and was crowned King Phillip I.

House of Monomachos (1937-2114)Edit

Basil IV Cobura

Basil IV Monomachos, the last King of Cobura

The Monomachoi, however capable they might have been when it came to capturing Kingdoms, proved to be harsh and repressive as Kings. Phillip I was a cruel monarch, who enjoyed persecuting peasants and was to Republicans the very symbol of what was wrong with monarchy. Had the Monomachoi seen fit to give up a little of their power, they may have fared better. But they did not see fit, and the national health of the Kingdom decayed. In 2114 the public, pushed to the limit by the terrible and extreme policies of Cobura's last King, Basil IV, rebelled.

The 2114 Revolution and the Republic of CoburaEdit

The revolution began with a series of uprisings in large cities mainly by political militias - paramilitary wings of those groups that had long sought reform. The Uprisings soon spread, and the revolution would be swift and violent. The entire House of Monomachos would lose their life or manage to escape the country. Basil IV would be caught on the border with Zardugal, only to be brought back to Augusta and thrown from the rooftop of his Palace in front of a huge crowd. The aristocracy was stripped of wealth, power and titles. Many chose to commit suicide rather than face the future. Others chose to leave for Zardugal, Deltaria, or elsewhere, where they were still recognized as nobles.

Ultimately, the swift exchange of power and the dissolution of the Armed Forces led to the breakup of Cobura into much smaller, unstable and unfriendly states, resulting in widespread starvation and corruption. It was in this atmosphere that the only stable state - The National State of Tokundi - under the rule of the Tokundski Nationalisci, would expand and dismantle the militia authorities in the rest of Cobura, unifying the country once more. The Republic would be declared, but it would be under the Military Junta of Tokundski Nationalisci leader and President (later Field Marshal) Ronald MacNuggett. Though the regime was brutally authoritarian, MacNuggett's main two aims were to restore the economy and build a democracy. Democratisation would eventually take fruit in 2116, when the Liberal Technocrats would beat the Junta Party to form the first democratically-elected government, with MacNuggett honouring his vows and handing over the reigns of power.

The legacy of the period lives on today. The majority of Coburans believe in far-reaching civil liberties, and are constantly on the watch for government's that overstep the mark.

Anarchist RevolutionEdit

Domestically, the National Confederation of Labour's Revolutionary Government lasted from 2365 to 2376. Many of its policies were introduced to national law. In the economic sphere, most corporate bodies were nationalised and then transferred to workers' co-operatives. In social affairs, personal freedoms were radically increased. The major exception was religion, which was officially outlawed; however, application of the law was limited to organised religion, with a corresponding campaign against private devotion seen as too invasive. In constitutional affairs, the NCL created a system of local and regional governments (LRGs), devolving many powers to assemblies, which it claimed was more democratic. When the NCL was toppled in 2376, many of these policies were reversed by the new government.

Coburan Civil WarEdit

Main article: Coburan Civil War
Nalchik

Anti-government troops during the Coburan Civil War

Modern Cobura (3187-present)Edit

Establishment of the One Party State (3187-3201)Edit

Standards for Coburan democracy are among the highest in the world. In the year 3187, however, democracy suffered a temporary setback when the United Constitutionalist Party won the presidency and 57% of the legislature, effectively creating a single party system. Under the leadership of President Rich Fowler, Cobura pursued more conservative policies, some of which still last today.

Transition to Democratic Party Rule (3201-3216)Edit

Fowler's domination of Coburan politics lasted 14 years. In 3201, the Democratic Party, led by Abraham Quincy, changed this, capturing both the presidency and the legislature by a slim margin. Although the principle party had changed, Coburan democracy was not yet restored: only one party held the power. The Democratic Party's tenure was marked by increased involvement in foreign affairs, which elevated the Republic's stature in Terra. Quincy proved to be more committed to the democratization of Cobura than his predecessor when he decided not to seek re-election in 3208. Far from true democracy, however, the Democratic hold only tightened with the election of another Democratic President, Joseph Kildon. Under Kildon's second term (3212-3216), the Democratic Party completely dominated the legislature, holding all seats.

Decline of Single Party Rule (3216-3220)Edit

The citizens of Cobura proved to be discontent with the Democratic Party domination when Alexander Svindal re-founded the Party for Individualism. In the election of 3216, Svindal won the election for President and the Individualists captured a slim majority in the legislature. The Individualist rule would be one of liberalization, and would prove to be the last single party rule in Cobura when a functioning, multi-party democracy was finally installed in 3220.

Rise and Fall of Populism and Socialism (3220-3240)Edit

Just as Svindal reincarnated an earlier party, other parties would re-emerge. The Social Congress, under the Presidency of Michael D. Higgins, would cease being a pressure group and return to national politics after almost 150 years. Robert Franlow re-established the 200-year-old totalitarian People's Revolutionary National League under the name of the New People's Party, triggering a Populist movement that still reverberates with sections of the populace today. Although the Populists would never achieve a majority in the legislature, their rise was a mark of the discontent Coburans felt with the succession of single party states that had ruled them, and was either a pleasant affirmation of democracy or a troubling tendency toward autocracy, depending on the political persuasions of the analyst asked.

In the election of 3220, the presidency was given to Michael D. Higgins of the Social Congress, but the largest share of the legislature was won by Franlow's New People's Party. The NPP's totalitarian stance, however, was not met with approval by the rest of the legislature, and very little of the Party's agenda was passed. The Social Congress instead lead a centrist and centre-left government under Prime Minister Enda Cosgrave. The government pursued a strengthening of the mixed economy. This would spark a right-wing reaction in the growth of the Conservative Capitalist Party.

This reaction would come to fruition after the 3224 elections, seeing Cosgrave (but not Higgins) thrown from office. The NPP/CCP/PfI coalition under Prime Minister Helena Lazareva looked to be capable of cementing the domination of populism. Internal tensions would ultimately destroy the coalition and one of its partners, the NPP, amidst accusation from the Party for Individualism that they had engaged in voter intimidation, bribery, and party raiding to increase their seat share. Robert Franlow initially denied the accusations, but was eventually forced to acknowledge the truth of them, step down as Party Chairman, and even flee to Gaduridos in the face of public outrage. A new chairman, Guy Bercier, was elected to run for President, but was shot by enraged Franlow supporters. The New People's Party never recovered, and collapsed shortly after.

Although the New People's Party sparked the trend to populism, it was not the only party to pursue such policies. Shortly before Bercier's assassination, the Conservative Capitalist and True Representation Parties were formed on populist principles. In the wake of NPP dissolution, many supporters of the NPP left to join one of the new parties. The Conservative Capitalists controlled the largest share of the legislature for many years, and was vastly more powerful and successful than the New People's Party due to their more moderate positions and amenity to compromise. This was not to last, however, as an internal coup led to the discarding of many principles and the establishment of the Social Darwinist Party. The new face of the CCP did not fare well with the electorate, and the party collapsed shortly after.

The Social Congress would increase its vote in every election until 3236, when its support would spectacularly collapse. Internal struggles and a lack of vision had meant that the party lost much of its support to the more moderate Progressive Liberty Party or the more statist Labour Party. The crisis on the left would come to a head when, despite holding a majority in the Federal Assembly, it would find itself unable to form a government. The left would not recover from the episode until many years later.

The True Representation Party has proven to be more durable, and as of 3261 is the last vestige of the Populist Movement.

Golden Age of Democracy and Internationalism (3228-3254)Edit

Under Michael D. Higgins' presidency, Cobura's transition from single party state to multiparty democracy was successfully conducted, though suffering from the inevitable turbulence that is always associated with such a move. Starting with the election of 3228, such turmoil was more or less dispatched, prompting some to label the post-3228 era a "golden age" of Coburan democracy. Higgins receives much of the popular credit for this, and is regarded as something of a national hero. The Republic is highly functioning, with several parties representing a wide spectrum of political ideologies. For the time being, at least, Cobura is a model of a republican democracy, with strong tendencies towards liberty and away from government. It is characterised by a weak and largely apolitical Presidency, often occupied by a party not in government, and a strong centrist presence in the Federal Assembly.

In the election of 3248, the rise of the National Citizens to prominence, in conjunction with the True Representation Party, led to a strong shift to the right, both fiscally and socially. The Coburan populace reacted negatively to this move, and in the next election (3252) a large number of parties were inducted into the Federal Assembly. All areas of the political spectrum, from Marxism with the Communist Party, Nationalism with the National Citizens, and Theocratic Monarchy with the Red Clover Movement, were covered.

During the Golden Age of Democracy, Cobura also joined the Alliance of Terran Republics, and in 3243 was instrumental in bringing about negotiations to end the civil conflict in Badara. This was a marked change from the traditional isolationism of Cobura, which had been most strikingly manifested in the nation's refusal to intervene when its neighbor of Jakania suffered a civil war. Cobura took several other steps to ensure its prominence in international affairs, such as allowing arms sales to allies and legalising heavily regulated paramilitaries. Though not a member of the Majatran Union, Cobura enjoyed civil relationships with most of its neighbours.

The monumental number of parties in 3252 led political analysts to predict that the resultant tensions would be terribly severe until Coburan politicians once again consolidated. Their fears came true in 3254, when the city of Augustus broke away from the Republic and ended the Golden Age of Democracy.

Augusta Rebellion (3254-3261)Edit

Adrian Egato, the Red Clover Movement, and the Transnational ArmyEdit

In the State of Egato, discontent over the policies from Hudson was brewing to an all-time high. In the year 3252, the theocratic and monarchist Red Clover Movement gained immense popular support all around Egato, and particularly in the city of Augusta. Voicing their anger over secular and Republican policies, the Red Clovers began to organize a series of protests in the city, culminating in a 24-hour barricade of the city's capitol building. The mainstream Red Clover supporters were joined by God's Hand, a reactionary and militant force which engaged in terrorism. God's Hand's first strike was against a factory in Tokundi late in the year 3253, but the organization did not win popular approval and went silent. When the Red Clover Protests began, God's Hand activity was renewed, and reports of arson came out of Augusta. In response, the Transnational Army, a staunchly Republican movement, engaged in an open assault on Red Clover protestors before being beaten back by the police. Although few were seriously injured and only two individuals were killed, anger in the city reached a fever pitch. In Hudson, Chancellor Marc Kildow recognized that the volatile situation in Augusta could become a nucleus for civil war, and appealed to the Federal Assembly to send in the Coburan Army. The presence of soldiers reduced the vigor of the Red Clover protestors, and as the Transnational Army allied itself with the government, catastrophe seemed to be narrowly averted. In 3254, however, God's Hand successfully burned down the Egato State Capitol Building and placed explosives near Army installments. More soldiers flowed into the city, and popular opinion was sharply polarized.

Amid the turmoil, the House of Egato, the old rulers of the Kingdom after which the State is named, saw an opportunity to reclaim lost power. Adrian Egato (later Adrian IV) contacted the Red Clover Movement and gained their support. From his position in the Red Clover Movement, Egato accrued funds and munitions, smuggling them into the countryside near Augusta before traveling to the city himself. In the summer of 3254, Egato formally announced that the government was illegitimate, and only his family had the right to rule Cobura. He placed a call for supporters of the monarchy to flock to a specified location near Augusta in preparation for open rebellion.

Assault on AugustaEdit

Rebels cob

Territory controlled by Egato rebels before the fall of Augusta

For the next year, Egato's forces ("God's Soldiers," as they were called) conducted guerrilla operations against the Coburan government, both in the city of Augusta and surrounding areas. In 3255, after receiving a sudden influx of supporters, they mounted a more organized assault on Augusta, successfully capturing the city and setting up a provisional government.

Fighting Across EgatoEdit

Despite an immediate counterattack from the Republican Army, the city of Augusta remained in the hands of Adrian Egato, who was soon crowned as Emperor Adrian IV of the New Augustan Empire. During this time, the Republican Army and God's Soldiers were involved in a constant back-and-forth. Neither side was truly close to winning a victory for most of the time, but it continued nevertheless. In 3256, a series of stunning victories from God's Hand led some to believe that the rebels were actually close to winning the war. During the height of the rebellion, Nova Venice was in serious danger of being captured by the rebels. When a foreign power, the Republic of Badara, announced its support of the rebellion, Adrian IV's victory seemed likelier than ever.

However, it was not to last. In 3258, the Republican Army (aided by the Transnationals, who had continued to carry out subversive attacks in Augusta) finally succeeded in breaking through the lines of rebel troops. Soldiers poured into the city of Augusta, and for two miserable weeks fighting was occurring in the city streets themselves. The lives of many individuals were lost, warehouses were looted, and roughly a quarter of the city was razed.

CeasefireEdit

Rep troops augusta

Republican troops re-entering Augusta

During the 3258 Battle of Augusta, pressure was mounting on both sides to end the war. In Hudson, the Red Clover Movement, pacifists, and those fearful of harming civilians were pushing for recognition of Augustus' independence. Among the ranks of the rebels, there was significant fear that unless the war was ended immediately Augusta would be ruined. Abroad, Badara and Gaduridos attempted to bring about peace. Finally, a temporary ceasefire was called, and Chancellor Kildow and Adrian IV met to discuss the war. Both were unwilling to compromise on the granting of independence, but realized that too many innocent lives were being lost, and so agreed to establish a long-term ceasefire.

During the ceasefire, which lasted from 3258 to 3261, Augusta was effectively independent. It was not recognized as a sovereign state by any nation except Badara, but had practical control over internal affairs. In the city government, it was hoped that eventually Coburans would come around to allowing them independence. The city's autonomy was not without its difficulties, however. At one point, it became apparent that too much of the food stores had been destroyed in the Battle of Augusta and not enough farmland retained in the ceasefire. The Red Clover Movement organized a drive to send food into the city, Badara sent aid, and the Federal Assembly, fearful of punishing innocents, voted to allow food to be sent to the city.

Despite the newfound sources of food, there were other concerns of the rebel government. The Transnational Army, as a non-state group, had refused to recognize the ceasefire, and continued in its attacks. Additionally, it was realized that many of the city's engineering experts had been killed or had fled the city, and the difficulties of repairing the damage dealt by the Republican Army appeared insurmountable. As the ceasefire led to stagnation, morale continued to drop, and eventually it was realized that the city had to surrender.

Reconstruction (3261-3267)Edit

After the surrender of Augusta, Cobura began the process of reconstructing the Republic. According to the 3261 Treaty of Augusta, the city was afforded 2 years of autonomy for transitional purposes, during which the government which had led it during the rebellion (including Adrian IV as Emperor) was retained. During the Reconstruction period, the Republic threw its full weight behind the recovery of Augusta, but the foundations of the government remained shaky.

Surprisingly, it was not the continued life of Adrian Egato that disrupted the government, but Marc Kildow's leadership. In 3262, all politicians belonging to the Socialist League and the FinEquaDef Party, including President Ronaldo Hyde (FED), simultaneously resigned from their posts in protest of Kildow. Early elections were immediately held in order to supply a new President, but soon afterwards the True Representation Party walked out of the Federal Assembly. A debate was held on whether to once again call elections, but the idea was shot down -- primarily due to Chancellor Kildow's refusal to hold elections so frequently. However, elections were held two years later in 3264 (the third in four years), when the Social Democrats, People's Central Party, and Communists passed a vote of no confidence in Chancellor Kildow. Claiming that Kildow's 25-year-long reign was undemocratic due to his the lack of seats of his party (the Party for Individualism), they protested that the Chancellor ought to belong to whatever party had the most seats in the Federal Assembly. In the ensuing election, the Royal Agrarian Party (a strong supporter of Kildow) became the largest party, and proposed that their own candidate, Reverend Jaakob Bernard, fill the position of Chancellor. The motion succeeded, and the old coalition was continued under Reverend Bernard's leadership.

In 3267, the controversial Marc Kildow was elevated to the Presidency with the backing of a wide spectrum of parties, including the Social Democrats, who had initially led the charge against his Chancellorship. Under Kildow's Presidency, Reverend Bernard's Chancellorship, and a large, stable coalition, the Reconstruction period of Cobura finally gave way to another long stretch of democracy.

Return to Stable Democracy (3267-3282)Edit

The aftermath of the Reconstruction firmly behind Cobura, the nation turned to conducting the normal, routine business of democracy.

In 3268, Chancellor Reverend Jaakob Bernard formed the Agricultural Institute, with backing from the Royal Agrarian Party and Farmers' Union. The stated goal of the AI was to aid farmers by lobbying for legislation of the type that protects industrial workers, modernization of equipment, homes, and other possessions, financial donations to struggling farm families, connecting farmers with volunteer workers, and engaging in other activities.

Reverend Bernard continued to be in the spotlight when, in 3271, he was replaced as Chancellor and Royal Agrarian Party Secretary by Marilyn Pepke. Rev. Bernard, claiming that he was elected by God, isolated himself and his family int he government-owned Chancellor's House. 29 days after his sealing, Pepke and the Federal Assembly authorized special units of the Coburan police force to break into the house. Reverend Bernard's family was transported to a safe house in a still-unknown location, and Reverend Bernard himself was placed in solitary confinement at a Hudson prison. Pepke's government claimed that a trial date would be set shortly, but as time drew on this became questionable. After a month of his solitary confinement, the prison was questioned and Pepke criticized. It became apparent that Pepke had planned to keep Reverend Bernard imprisoned, resulting in the first major criticism of her term. Due to public pressure, Reverend Bernard's trial commenced, during which he testified that he had been maltreated during his imprisonment. Nevertheless, the trial was not decided in his favor, and he was sent back to prison for six months. The Bernard family emerged from their safe house for the trial, and was not subjected to the same measures. The Bernard family elicited little sympathy, and never recovered from the scandal, though Reverend Bernard remained active in the administration of the Agricultural Institute.

In 3280, a faction of the Left Party, the Leftist Agrarian League, broke away and attempted to form an independent party. For various reasons, this was an impractical course to take, and the LAL seemed doomed to a short life. The Royal Agrarian Party intervened, however, and formed the Alliance of Agrarian Parties, which included the LAL. Chancellor Marilyn Pepke, who has planned the Alliance, would not live to see the results of her work. 6 months after the Alliance's foundation, Chancellor Pepke was assassinated by an independent anarchist, Michael Rolth, in 3281. The event wracked the Alliance, and the two factions of it blamed each other for Pepke's death. A month after Pepke's demise, the Alliance dissolved, its factions splitting into independent parties. This marked the death of the agrarian movement in Cobura, as both parties ceased to exist shortly after. In Egato, the state historically most supportive of the Royal Agrarian Party, agrarianism remains a strong influence, though it has not yet returned to the center stage as it had during the late 3200's.

Social Democratic-People's Central Party CoalitionEdit

Shortly after the Royal Agrarian Party and Leftist Agrarian League disbanded, the Left Party also collapsed. In the next election of 3282, the Social Democrats and People's Central Party won a two-thirds majority in the legislature and formed a coalition. The coalition government immediately lengthened the legislative term to 10 years, triggering protests and the reformation of both the Left Party (under the name Socialist People's Party) and the Revolutionary Party of Cobura.Opposition parties (the Socialist People's Party, the Revolutionary Party, the Party for Individualism, and the National Citizens Cobura) formed the Coburan Democratic Alliance in response to what they viewed as authoritarian measures from the government. The coalition, meanwhile, began a total reformation of the government, altering names, the composition of the legislature, and other such characteristics. Most egregiously, the coalition named President Cesare Colona of the People's Central Party President for Life and gave Colona the sole power to propose a cabinet, ensuring that the coalition would remain enforced for the rest of Colona's life. In response, the Coburan Democratic Alliance launched mass riots and protests across the nation (referred to as the Coburan Liberation Crisis.

In 3285, the Democrats were defeated by the government, and the Revolutionary Party and Socialist People's Party in particular were singled out for forming anti-government militias. All members of the Coburan Democratic Alliance (which included every opposition party) were disbanded, and the leadership of the Socialist People's Party exiled to Keymon.

Rise of DeltariaEdit

Main article: Deltarian Empire
Cobura's new-found internationalist stance would bring it to the attention of a newly re-emerging power on the continent, the Deltarian Empire. Due to Cobura's traditional alliance with Zardugal, the government generally pursued close ties with Majatra's few democratic regimes, so that when one such regime, the Federal Republic of Deltaria, was under threat by the rising Czarist movement, Cobura was one of the most active participants on the Republican side in the Deltarian Czarist War. The establishment of the Deltarian Czardom as an imperialistic and expansionist government did not spare Cobura. In the Lake Majatra War, Cobura fought on the side of the Zardic alliance; during the course of the war, Cobura saw its government overthrown due to a Deltarian-backed coup and its territory witnessed intense fighting between Zardic and Deltarian forces. Deltarian victory in the war established the Deltarian Empire as the continent's new hegemon, and Cobura was not spared from Deltarian expansion. The formation of the Coburan People's Liberation Front, a pro-Deltarian party campaigning for the rights of Mallans and Irkawans against the Augustan minority government, brought increased Deltarian influence in the nation, and international condemnation against human rights abuses in Cobura, including by the International Human Rights Movement, forced the Coburan government to enter a power-sharing agreement with the CPLF. In 3524, the majority Mallan city of Forteco (known as Amkä in Mallan) was destroyed by a nuclear device of Deltarian origin; although all evidence pointed to the Augustan-led Coburan government as responsible for the nuclear genocide, there are allegations that the incident was orchestrated by the Coburan People's Liberation Front in conjunction with Deltaria. Nevertheless, the Deltarian Czardom used the nuclear blast in Forteco as a pretext for the Deltarian Intervention in Cobura, leading to the establishment of the Deltarian Kingdom of Cobura as per the provisions of the Treaty of Aŭgusta.
Mushroom cloud Forteco

The nuclear blast in Forteco

Admission into the Royal Zardic Federation and the Coburan War of Liberation (3567-3593)Edit

Between May 3566 and July 3574, Deltaria found itself in a civil war that led to the Fall of the Deltarian Empire. Taking advantage of this, Cobura proclaimed independence, and on November 31st, 3567 the Royal Monarchy of Cobura at the time forced the elected officials in the National Assembly out of office and presumed a total autocratic state. After 2 months of unrest in the state of Cobura and a full autocracy, the Royal Federation of Zardugal waged a war against Cobura and had forces in as early as January 6th of 3568. The resistance movement was strong and formed the Koalicio por Kialo (Coalition for Reason) and ran the rebel government and organized resistance militias. By 3569 all remaining royal pockets in the nation were crushed and the Royal Family exiled to an unspecified location for their safety.And that very year the new National Assembly passed the Pax Zard and was promptly admitted into the Royal Federation of Zardugal. Zardic rule over Cobura lasted until 3601, when the Coalition for Reason gained power and proclaimed Cobura's independence as the Imperial Augustan Republic of Cobura.

Augustan Empire (3607-3645)Edit

Temrkai Khan

Nikandro Heraklito, aka Temrkai Khan, the conqueror of the Augustan Empire

Simultaneous with the overthrow of the Zardic monarchy in Cobura it was dethroned in Zardugal as well. As the new republican governments of the two countries shared their Augustan nationalist ideology, they decided, after the Limenostomo Conference (3603-3607), to form an supra-national union bringing together the heirs of the old Augustan Empire. The modern Augustan Empire was thus founded in 3607 as an elective monarchy with the capital in the Coburan city of Augusta. The reborn Empire lasted for nearly half a century, becoming Majatra's new hegemon. There was only one Emperor in the modern Augustan Empire's history, Theodosio IV, speculated to be the son of late Deltarian Czar Viktor I. The Empire collapsed following the Jelbic-Augustan Wars, a military conflict between the Augustans and the Jelbic nations in the north. After initial success in the Augustan-Jelbanian War and the Barmenia-Vanuku War which brought Jelbania and Barmenia under full Imperial control, the Augustan commander of those invasions, Nikandro Heraklito, rebelled against the Empire, and using Jelbania and Barmenia as his power-bases, conquered and destroyed Zardugal. Heraklito's Black Horde was eventually defeated in the Battle of Augusta as it tried to invade Cobura, but the Treaty of Sebasto granted the Black Horde victory in Temrkai's War, leading to the disestablishment of the Empire in 3645.

Post-Augustan interlude (3645-3672)Edit

Democratic Republic of Cobura (3672-3857)Edit

After the fall of the Augustan republic, Cobura declared itself independent, introducing the Democratic Republic of Cobura, President during the liberation was Haile Yordanos, leader of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice. He is considered to be the founder of modern Cobura.

Since the foundation of the DRC, Cobura has never been subordinate to a foreign power.

Kingdom of Cobura (3857-4317) Edit

The House of Saksoure was established in Cobura in 3857 upon seeing the failure of republican governments to ensure equal political status to all Coburan peoples, despite their best intentions. It was decided that only a strong leader devoted to these ideals could ensure the welfare of Coburan society.

United Governorates of Cobura (4317-4380) Edit

After the dissolution of the Saksoure supporters in around the end of the 43rd century, the nation fell into chaos and anarchy. In 4306 the communist Alliance party took power, and arranged open elections in 4312. These elections were won by the Kolibro movement. An alliance of both parties vowed for the democratization of Cobura and founded the United Governorates of Cobura, where there would be more power to the Governorates and for the first time in 500 years, the Coburan people could choose their Head of State.

Also, the first version of the Constitution of Cobura was written by Delilah el-Majhadi and Domiano Corona, which ensured fundamental rights for all Coburans regardless of race, gender or religion.

Communist takeover (4380 - 4398) Edit

Following the dissolution of the Kolibro movement, the Aliance party radicalised and took absolute power in Cobura, following a 29-year long period of monarchism and communist dictatorship.

Esinsundu Empire (4398-present) Edit

After the fall of communism in 4398, the UGC was refounded, but then as a souvereign state within the framework of the Esinsundu Empire, with the House of Saksoure as head of state. After 80 years, Cobura rejoined the Esinsundu Empire.


Cobura articles
History History of CoburaHistory of Cobura by periodQedarite MigrationsKingdom of IrkawaKingdom of DomaleAugustan EmpireAhmadi CaliphateKingdom of Cobura2114 RevolutionCoburan Civil WarCoburan Liberation CrisisLake Majatra WarDeltarian Intervention in CoburaAugustan Empire (3607)Jelbic-Augustan WarsMeshtikistan Independance Conflict
Geography MajatraLake Majatra
Nomes DilganatoDomaleEgatoIrkawaTokundi
Demographics Ethnicity: AugustansIrkawansMallansMajatrans | Religion: Apostolic Church of the EastCoburan Apostolic Tewahedo ChurchTerran Patriarchal ChurchAhmadismYeudism
Government Executive:List of Heads of State and GovernmentThe CrownPrime MinisterCabinetGovernorsIntelligence and Security Services of Cobura | Judiciary: Judiciary of CoburaSupreme CourtCoburan Constitution | Legislative: House of Representatives
Politics Political Parties of CoburaElections in Cobura
Economy Economy of CoburaCoburan CoburCoburan Central BankFortas GroupEnacomAhmosisBazaroHoruso Air
Notable People Leon FilayamoSisay MēsikiDomiano CoronaDelilah el-MahjadiAli Azmera MelosDeĵano CezaridoMerani BalenkoAsha ZemalaMane Iyassu SidhomFeyza HadireDeviano de HesperioAmekhan Mikhailo
Military Coburan Armed ForcesCoburan ArmyCoburan NavyCoburan Air Force
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