The history of Cobura can be divided into several periods, beginning from the early ancient civilisations and ending in the present day.
Ancient days (-400 CE) Edit
General overview: Rise and fall of the early civilizations in Cobura (Kingdom of Irkawa 2500 BCE-960 BCE, 300-400 and the Kingdom of Domale 960 BCE-300). Irkawan society was highly stratified, and social status was expressly displayed. Farmers made up the bulk of the population, but agricultural produce was owned directly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the land. Farmers were also subject to a labor tax and were required to work on irrigation or construction projects in a corvée system. Artists and craftsmen were of higher status than farmers, but they were also under state control, working in the shops attached to the temples and paid directly from the state treasury. Scribes and officials formed the upper class in ancient Irkawa, known as the "white kilt class" in reference to the bleached linen garments that served as a mark of their rank. The upper class prominently displayed their social status in art and literature. Below the nobility were the priests, physicians, and engineers with specialized training in their field. Slavery was known in ancient Irkawa, but the extent and prevalence of its practice are unclear.
Politics: The pharaoh was the absolute monarch of the country and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources. The king was the supreme military commander and head of the government, who relied on a bureaucracy of officials to manage his affairs. In charge of the administration was his second in command, the vizier, who acted as the king's representative and coordinated land surveys, the treasury, building projects, the legal system, and the archives. At a regional level, the country was divided into as many as 42 administrative regions called nomes each governed by a nomarch, who was accountable to the vizier for his jurisdiction. The temples formed the backbone of the economy. Not only were they houses of worship, but were also responsible for collecting and storing the nation's wealth in a system of granaries and treasuries administered by overseers, who redistributed grain and goods.
Economy: The success of ancient Coburan civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Egato/Reftionx River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert Irkawan dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Irkawan people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.
Art and Culture: The many achievements of the ancient Irkawans/Mallans include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known planked boats, Irkawan faience and glass technology, new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty, made with the Hittites. Ancient Irkawa has left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travelers and writers for centuries. Worship of ancient gods, representing forces of nature and the elements, often depicted as real life creatures (i.e. cats, eagles, snakes and roaches). First known books were written by two priests, named Kra and Dim. Their first scripture was committed to praising the royal family of the Kingdom of Irkawa and is known as the first piece of literature in Majatra.
La Klasistiko (400-1500) Edit
General overview: After the conquest of Augustus the Great of the new Kingdom of Irkawa, Cobura fell under Augustan rule, as it became part of the Augustan Empire, with Aŭgusta as its capital. After the fall of the empire around 1400, the Coburan part of the empire saw the mass immigration of Majatrans, and annexation of Cobura by the Ahmadi Caliphate. This Emirate controlled Cobura for less than a century, but gained notoriety for its fierce encouragement for the development in science and arts.
Politics: The upper class, which used to be dominated by the Irkawans, was now replaced by Augustans. Through the entire empire, Augustan was made the official language. The position of Pharaoh was replaced by the rank of Emperor of the Augustan Empire.
Economy: Territorial conquests permitted a large-scale reorganization of land use that resulted in agricultural surplus and specialization, particularly in south Majatra. Some cities were known for particular industries or commercial activities, and the scale of building in urban areas indicates a significant construction industry. Papyri preserve complex accounting methods that suggest elements of economic rationalism, and the Empire was highly monetized. Although the means of communication and transport were limited in antiquity, transportation in the 1st and 2nd millenniums expanded greatly, and trade routes connected regional economies. The supply contracts for the army, which pervaded every part of the Empire, drew on local suppliers near the base ), throughout the province, and across provincial borders. The Empire is perhaps best thought of as a network of regional economies, based on a form of "political capitalism" in which the state monitored and regulated commerce to assure its own revenues. Economic growth, though not comparable to modern economies, was greater than that of most other societies prior to industrialization.
Socially, economic dynamism opened up one of the avenues of social mobility in the Augustan Empire. Social advancement was thus not dependent solely on birth, patronage, good luck, or even extraordinary ability. Although aristocratic values permeated traditional elite society, a strong tendency towards plutocracy is indicated by the wealth requirements for census rank. Prestige could be obtained through investing one's wealth in ways that advertised it appropriately: grand country estates or townhouses, durable luxury items such as jewels and silverware, public entertainments, funerary monuments for family members or coworkers, and religious dedications such as altars. Guilds and corporations provided support for individuals to succeed through networking, sharing sound business practices, and a willingness to work.
Art and Culture:
Most of the cultural focus in the Augustan Empire was focussed on Portraiture, which survives mainly in the medium of sculpture, and was the most copious form of imperial art. Portraits during the Augustan period utilize youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. Imperial portrait sculptures may model the head as mature, even craggy, atop a nude or seminude body that is smooth and youthful with perfect musculature; a portrait head might even be added to a body created for another purpose.Clothed in the toga or military regalia, the body communicates rank or sphere of activity, not the characteristics of the individual.
Women of the emperor's family were often depicted dressed as goddesses or divine personifications such as Pax ("Peace"). Portraiture in painting is represented primarily by the Fayum mummy portraits, which evoke Irkawan and Augustan traditions of commemorating the dead with the realistic painting techniques of the Empire. Marble portrait sculpture would have been painted, and while traces of paint have only rarely survived the centuries, the Fayum portraits indicate why ancient literary sources marvelled at how lifelike artistic representations could be.
Medieval Cobura (1500-2100) Edit
General overview: After the Augustan Empire collapsed in 1401, the entire territory of the former Empire was brought under the rule of the Ahmadi Caliphate, which lasted until 1477, when the Kingdom of Cobura, under Leo I, founded a new (amlost-united) kingdom as a result of the reconquest of Ahmadi-ruled territory. During the short-lived Caliphate rule over Cobura, local princes were allowed to retain their autonomy in exchange for nominal submission to the Emir of Cobura.
Politics: In 1477, Prince Leo Egato, one of the numerous Augustan princes allowed to retain their lands, proclaimed himself King of Cobura. Soon after, Leo initiated a massive military campaign against the weakening Caliphate, eventually succeeding in liberating most of Cobura. Leo I's son, Alexios I, inherited his father's strategic acumen, and led a series of campaigns that culminated in the conquest of Tokundi in 1493. As a result, the new Kingdom of Cobura possessed roughly the same borders as the modern Republic.
The next century saw little glory in the Kingdom. The main tasks facing the descendants of Alexios I were the restoration of the countryside and cities that had been ravaged by over a century of warfare, quelling Tokundi rebellion, and refining the Kingdom's government. The early period of the Kingdom was one of gradual but fairly linear improvement. In 1614, Adrian I died of disease (commonly thought to be pneumonia by historians), and passed the throne on to his young son Adrian II, who was 23 at the time. Adrian II's ascent was met with trepidation by many nobles, who viewed the royal as incompetent and too young. Yet Adrian II proved that he was quite the opposite, and his reign was one of prosperity.
Upon inheriting the throne, Adrian II immediately began a large-scale effort to improve the country, proving his worth as a leader and earning himself the popular title of "Great Monarch." He valued learning, fostering scientific growth. During his tenure, the great National Library was constructed, and the most important scientific and medical discoveries of the Kingdom were made. He also granted autonomy to the Tokundians, who had beforehand been treated as inferior citizens due to their non-Augustan ancestry. Tokundi autonomy ameliorated this tension, contributing to the development of a sense of national unity and decreasing the amount of money that had to be spent combating occasional Tokundi uprisings. Adrian II's reign also saw the foundation of the great Coburan cities that had not been established during the Augustan, Tokundian, or Irkawan Empires -- among them Hudson. Abroad, the Great Monarch initiated trade with foreign powers, bringing prosperity and wealth to the Kingdom. As a direct result of this increased amount of money, Adrian II formed a standardized currency, the Cobur, which is still used today.
The revolution that ended the Kingdom began with a series of uprisings in large cities mainly by political militias - paramilitary wings of those groups that had long sought reform. The Uprisings soon spread, and the revolution would be swift and violent. The entire House of Monomachos, which delivered the last Coburan King Basil IV, would lose their life or manage to escape the country. Basil IV would be caught on the border with Zardugal, only to be brought back to Augusta and thrown from the rooftop of his Palace in front of a huge crowd. The aristocracy was stripped of wealth, power and titles. Many chose to commit suicide rather than face the future. Others chose to leave for Zardugal, Deltaria, or elsewhere, where they were still recognized as nobles.
Ultimately, the swift exchange of power and the dissolution of the Armed Forces led to the breakup of Cobura into much smaller, unstable and unfriendly states, resulting in widespread starvation and corruption. It was in this atmosphere that the only stable state - The National State of Tokundi - under the rule of the Tokundski Nationalisci, would expand and dismantle the militia authorities in the rest of Cobura, unifying the country once more. The Republic would be declared, but it would be under the Military Junta of Tokundski Nationalisci leader and President (later Field Marshal) Ronald MacNuggett. Though the regime was brutally authoritarian, MacNuggett's main two aims were to restore the economy and build a democracy. Democratisation would eventually take fruit in 2116, when the Liberal Technocrats would beat the Junta Party to form the first democratically-elected government, with MacNuggett honouring his vows and handing over the reigns of power.
Economy: The most common job in the medieval economy was that of a peasant farmer who worked in the manors of their lords. Each manor was made up of a number of acres in which the peasant farmers would work in to produce food for their villages and lords. In addition to farming, the farmers also kept sheep and the women were in charge of shearing the sheep, spinning the wool and sewing the clothes. Women were able to seek jobs such as seamstresses and laundresses.
Other middle ages occupations included artisans who produced commodities made from glass, wood, clay and iron. The artisans included weavers, shoemakers, masons, blacksmiths, tailors and carpenters. Other common jobs included working as bakers, beer brewers, millers and vintners. As trade increased toward the end of the medieval times, merchants became very important. The rise of the merchants boosted the development of towns and cities in the middle ages. Other important professionals included dentists, barbers, teachers and surgeons who focused on the human services sector.
Importantly, this economic expansion led to the growth of retail trading which the merchants dominated. Even though the merchants were despised by most of society, they can be credited as having boosted the state of middle ages economics. Merchants travelled across countries sourcing for goods and products that they would trade in other countries. They brought with them cloth, food, spices, and jewelry.
The growth of retail trade led to the development of towns and cities. More and more peasant farmers were able to purchase commodities from the merchants. The merchants took significant control over the regulation of the medieval economy. They not only became influential in the local politics but also formed powerful guilds. Through these guilds, the merchants were in a position to influence economic policies including aspects of taxation and levies. Prior to the guild system, merchants and artisans would organize themselves into a lose conglomerate. The trade regulations were few if any, and because these people sold their merchandise close to each other, squabbles over price emerged. The guild system thus symbolized a mature and more organized economic system in which prices were highly regulated as well as the conduct of guild members. The strict guild system also helped the local government in the collection of tax and the inspection of the quality of merchandise sold by the artisans and merchants.
Art and Culture: The Later Medieval Ages saw the emergence of renewed Augustan Art and the advances of art in the Medieval Times. During this period artists broke away from the influences of the Augustan and stone art style. It developed into pre-Renesanco visual art. The artists and painters were founders of the movement towards greater realism which culminated in the Renecanso art style. Medieval Times art saw changes which included:
- Brighter colors
- Metal work in the form of bronze art
- Middle Ages art in the form of stained glass windows
- Move towards realism
- The development of perspective and proportion in Middle Ages art
- The use of shadows and light
- New ideals of naturalism
- Creation of a sense of pictorial space
- The use of symmetry in Middle Ages art
- Changes in subject matter including the depiction of animals and mythological scenes
Famous writers include Cristo the Monk, a Coburan-Augustan monk who documented most of the history of the Kingdom of Cobura and the social framework of the feudal society. His books are still used as a valid source for historic evidence.
Renesanco (2100-3672) Edit
General overview: Generally, the Renesanco (rebirth) era saw the stablisation of Coburan society and politics all the way up to the 36th century, where the country fell into chaos again. The stable and predictive political climate of the Republic of Cobura was the ideal circumstance for artists to take a second look at the arts and scientific research conducted during the time of the Augustan Empire. This rebirth of sciences, that laid the foundation for development and growth, is often described as the key aspect of this era.
The rebirth of arts and siences from La Klasistiko (2100-3527) Edit
Politics: Following the chaos of the collapse of the Kingdom of Cobura and its successive military dictatorship, the political power in the country was federalised in the form of a semi-democratic republic. This republic however, was according to modern standards not democratic at all. Heads of state were not chosen by the public and acted as de facto tyrants. However, none of them caused major chaos in the country and most of their policies were fairly permissive, making way for the upper class to flourish and causing most of the local governance to be done by nobles.
Economy: During the Renesanco, the Coburan economy grew dramatically, particularly in the area of trade. Developments such as population growth, improvements in banking, expanding trade routes, and new manufacturing systems led to an overall increase in commercial activity. Feudalism, which had been widespread in the Medieval times, gradually disappeared, and early forms of capitalism emerged. The changes affected many aspects of Coburan society, forcing people to adapt to different kinds of work and new ways of doing business with others.
Art and Culture: Renesanco art marks a cultural rebirth at the close of the Medieval Times and rise of the Modern world. One of the distinguishing features of Renesanco art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. Giotto Bondono is credited with first treating a painting as a window into space, but it was not until the demonstrations of architect Filippo Di'imiri and the subsequent writings of Leona Battista that perspective was formalized as an artistic technique.
The rediscovery of ancient texts and the invention of printing democratized learning and allowed a faster propagation of more widely distributed ideas. In the first period of the Coburan Renesanco, humanists favoured the study of humanities over natural philosophy or applied mathematics, and their reverence for classical sources further enshrined the Augustan views of the universe.
Science and art were intermingled in the early Renesanco, with polymath artists such as Magnekos Diro making observational drawings of anatomy and nature. Diro set up controlled experiments in water flow, medical dissection, and systematic study of movement and aerodynamics, and he devised principles of research method that led historians to classify him as the "father of modern science". Other examples of Diro's contribution during this period include machines designed to saw marbles and lift monoliths and new discoveries in acoustics, botany, geology, anatomy and mechanics.
The Grey century and loss of independence (3527-3672) Edit
Art and Culture: Diro, Tirosaro and Mera
La Lumo (3672-3857) Edit
Foundation of the DRC and victory of reason (3672-3780) Edit
Art and Culture: Haile Yordanos, Teshewi, Enthe
Decline of republicanism and romanticism (3780-3857) Edit
Art and Culture: Duklo, Peuphratos, Euklatos and Mi'nishe
La Reĝuloj (3857-4300) Edit
General overview: Realism and ''landing'' of ideas, arts and culture
Art and Culture: Osire and Siyemwe
Present day (4300-) Edit
General overview:Modern art
Art and Culture: