|Early History BC 1000 - AD 801|
|The First Confederation Era AD 802 - AD 1278|
|The Autocratic Era 1279 - 1720|
|The Second Confederation Era 1735 - 1813|
|Unification and Constitutional Monarchy 1813 - 1922|
|The Reign of Kaiser Wilhelm I|
|[] c. 1000 - 1831|
|[] 1832 - 2080|
Early History (BC 1000 - AD 801)Edit
The modern Dundorfian language and ethnic group are thought to have developed from a single nomadic tribe in northern Artania known as the Durvin. The Durvin were broken into no less than six separate clans which possessed great autonomy. This tribe, along with numerous other tribes in the region, eventually developed a sedentary lifestyle and built a strong, yet decentralized, civilization.
The first Dundorfian culture began to spread throughout northern Artania before filling the vaccuum in the south created by the exit other tribes and ethnic groups from the invasion of the Tokundian peoples, the descendants of modern Deltaria. Here, it is firmly believed, the first Dundorfians settled amongst the mountains, forests, and valleys of modern Dundorf.
The Migration EraEdit
Between the 600s and 400s BC, modern Dundorf's Zackerland region is thought to be the northernmost extent of the Tokundians. Here, the two groups intermixed both socially and culturally; with a few modern Dundorfian folk cultural activities directly borrowed from this time. Linguists firmly believe that the mixture of these two cultures created the hybridized language known as Dunedurven (named after an ancient ethnic Dundorfian village of the same name), which is the direct ancestor of modern Dundorfian.
As the Tokundian empire slowly began to retreat south towards Majatra, it is thought that some Dundorfians migrated with them. This movement is what is believed to have extended ethnic Dundorfian range into northern Ichredön (Ikradon).
Around 320 BC, a small number of ethnic Dundorfian tribes with newly acquired Tokundian weapon technology, culture and social influences expanded by migration and raid into modern Kirlawa and Rutania becoming permanent fixtures in these nations that has lasted to this day. It is the presence of these ethnic Dundorfians that would play a major role in the development of Dundorf as an ethnically homogenous nation-state.
For the next five centuries, from 200 BC to 200 AD, the area ethnic Dundorfians resided in remained relatively quiet. Evidence supports the idea that further migration of ethnic Dundorfians throughout the region continued and is it believed by the end of this period nearly half of modern Dundorf was settled. Evidence shows that during this same period the climate warmed slightly causing bumper crop harvests and a subsequent increase in population. This population increase put pressure on the small areas of settled land. The excess population was siphoned off to the fill the ranks of Dundorfian raider groups, the venerable Feunodden (Old Ichredöne: "North Fire"; believed to derive from direction of and the torching of buildings by the raiders), which began the gradual invasion of modern Ichredön to the south.
The Ichredön ConquestEdit
By 801 AD, a small number of Dundorfians had slowly overrun all of the rich kingdoms of modern-day Ichredön and had grafted themselves at the top of the existing social and political power structure, in what came to be known as Südsiedlung, or "settlement in the south". Mainland Ichredön was effectively under ethnic Dundorfian rule but curiously remained under ethnic Ichredön administration. As expected, during the next four centuries of occupation Dundorfians slowly adopted elements of Ichredön civilization in a more-or-less a la carte fashion, often changing ideas or technologies to fit their culture; the most prominent of which was the adoption of Apostolic Hosianism. However, Dundorfians showed little initiative in adopting the seafaring ways of the ethnic Ichredön groups on the coast of the Golf von Ichredön (Gulf of Ikradon). This failure in adaptation kept nearly all of Ichredön's overseas colonies free from invasion.
The First Confederation Era (AD 802 - AD 1278)Edit
During the next two centuries the areas under ethnic Dundorfian control remained decentralized but stable. These areas were divided into small Fürstentümer (principalities), Herzogtümer (duchies) and Grafschaften (counties) each ruled by a noble family of higher or lower rank. These familes would come to be known as the Uradel or Old Nobility. Many prominent names such as von Eschenbach, von Kahr, and von Burchardinger stem from this era.
One of the adaptations from Ichredön society was governmental centralization. Traditional decentralization ended in 1057 with the creation of the Adel-Bündnis (Confederation of the Nobility). The Confederation was developed to better control the newly acquired Ichredön lands and to more adequately defend the areas under ethnic Dundorfian control.
This first Confederation was led by the Kaiserlicher Kurfürsten-Rat (Imperial Elector Council) representing all Hochadel (High Nobles) from throughout the land. The Elector Council met very infrequently but still maintained the highest power in the land with the sole responsibility of electing the de jure head of the Dundorfischer Reich (Empire of Dundorf): Der König von Dundorf und Ichredön. The Elector Council were originally summoned by the Apostolic Archbishop of Oderfeld within one month of an King's death, and met within three months of being summoned to choose a successor.
The first King elected was Manfred II von Eschenbach, Großherzog von Zackerland as Manfred, König von Dundorf und Ichredön (r. 1059-1064). The King held little real power but helped unify the Reich, organized defense, negotiated with foreign dignitaries and helped resolve disputes between the kingdom's nobility. Despite the advent of a King the Reich remained a strong adherent of feudalism. Local autonomy was paramount on most matters of society and state and local nobility retained nearly all of their previous powers.
The Loss of IchredönEdit
Over the nearly four centuries of ethnic Dundorfian control, Ichredön kings attempted to retake the country numerous times. The most notable incident was in 1267, when King Irkadonous III invaded the Erzherzogtum Gildark from his colonies with an enormous army. Ikradonous was met on the coast by an army led by a low nobleman, Graf Gerhard Joseph von Wittelsbach, and was soundly defeated. Von Wittelsbach was promoted and granted a Großherzogtum (Grand Duchy) by King Hans Otto III von Burchardinger, Prinz von Rheinbach, König von Dundorf und Ichredön (r. 1260-1275).
In 1272 Ikradonous returned again from the colonies with a small but powerful vanguard army and led the Ichredönen people in a general rebellion. On 26 February 1275, at the battle of Festung-Felsen (Fortress Felsen) Ikradonous defeated a Ritterdundorfischer (Dundorfian Knights) army led by Graf Peter Sebastien von Rommel. Von Rommel's defeat not only relinquished ethnic Dundorfian control of Ichredön but it also caused the fall of the Haus von Burchardinger when King Hans Otto III was killed in a rearguard action at the river Ode a week later, leaving no surviving male heirs. Most ethnic Dundorfians settlers in Ichredön fled but those that stayed were the ancestors of the Dundorfian ethnic minority residing within the borders of Ichredön today.
The Collapse of the First ConfederationEdit
Soon after the loss of Ichredön, the Dundorf kingdom was beset by large numbers of ethnic Dundorfian refugees from the formerly conquered lands. The loss of lands, titles and the fear of possible Ichredönian invasion led to the breakdown of autonomous local order. More and more eyes were turned toward the King and the Imperial Elector Council.
In 1278, the King and Council called for a Großartiger Rat (Grand Council) of all noblemen, high and low, throughout the kingdom. This new Council met in November of the year to decide on steps to take regarding the refugee situation. The Council voted most of their powers of autonomy to centralized control under the Imperial Elector Council and the King.
The Autocratic Era (1279 - 1720)Edit
From 1279 to 1519 the King and Council ruled the Dundorfisches Reich with varying degrees of loosening centralized control. A period of stability, cultural and economic growth developed throughout the kingdom but life in the countryside and small towns went on much the same as it always had. University towns, such as Chonstaat-am-Bingen (Rabstein), Unterschloss (Oderfeld), and Volzhaus (Rheinbach) developed with help of the Apostolic Church, thus increasing the intellectual and cultural importance of the kingdom.
In 1519, the tranquility of almost 200 years was shattered when a Markerbürger merchant named Gert von Tossel (Duntrekker: Van Tassel) and his family returned from Luthori with a new faith: Independent Confessional Hosianism.
Formation of the Duntrekker MinorityEdit
As in most Land of Dundorf, the area around Markerburg was agriculturally-oriented but had its small proportion of wealthy merchants from the area's only large town: Nordenhaus. Gert van Tassel came from one of these wealthy merchant families.
While on an eight-year assignment in modern Luthori for the Hohe Handelszünft von Norden Haus (High Merchant Guild of Nordenhaus) van Tassel, as all merchants, moved throughout the merchant social circles of Luthori. It is within these circles that the van Tassel family is documented to have been baptized in the new Independent Confessional Hosian faith.
In the latter part of his stay, van Tassel studied at a seminary and became an ordained minister. Upon the completion of his assignment in Luthori, he and his family traveled back to Markerburg, where he quickly gained converts and started the first Ameliorate Church in the small village of Treptow.
These initial converts quickly became pariahs to the majority Apostolic noblemen and peasants throughout Dundorf. Religious discrimination, both official and unofficial, befell many small communities of Calvinists, soon termed Dunners by adherents. Because of this discrimination and persecution, Dunners soon came together in small communities for protection; often collecting on lands of Niederer Adel (lower nobles) who had themselves converted.
It was within these small communities, cut off from the rest of society, that the foundation of modern Duntrekker culture and language developed.
Tolerance and PersecutionEdit
In 1529, Gerhard I von Wittelsbach was elected King Gerhard I and brought in a wave of tolerance towards Dunnischen. Under the Verbesserung Gesetze (Confessing Laws) of 1530, local noblemen were pressured to allow Dunnischen to worship freely under conditions that they do not attempt any further conversions of Apostolic subjects. Within two years both nobles and peasants Dunnischen were given permanent lands in Dunlake and encouraged, sometimes violently, to migrate to them.
The reign of tolerance ended in 1534 with the death of Gerhard I. Trade and movement restrictions, forced conversion and general persecution by local lords quickly followed the coronation of Harold von Eschenbach, Großherzog von Zackerland as King Harold I. It was only a few years later that the "Great Pogrom" occured.
On Easter 1537, fueled by rumors of ritual murder and sexual perversion, the Apostolic subjects of Dunlake raided several of the autonomous Dunnische communities bent on looting, and destroy property. However, the violence soon went out of control. It is documented that 2,434 Dunnichen were killed (many through torture) and an estimated 200 Dunner women, young and old, were raped. Early histories of the era often claim that local noblemen were directly responsible for ordering the pogrom but recent study has proven that the nobles were guilty only of turning a blind eye to the violence and persecution.
Many smaller pogroms and isolated acts of violence continued throughout the sixteenth century but became less and less common as more and more of the peasantry began to convert. By 1610, almost half of the peasantry of Dundorf classified themselves as Ameliorate Hosians, but conversion was by no means even. Markerburg, Oderfeld and Rheinbach regions gained the most converts while Rabstein remained the most staunchly Apostolic.
Full Independent Confessional ConversionEdit
Independent conversion progressed steadily throughout the seventeenth century and was aided in 1655 by the foundation of Königliches Hosiliches Priesterseminar (Royal Hosianian Seminary). It was around this time that many noblemen began to convert. The most notable, was Graf Helmuth von Hohenstauffen in 1698. With the conversion of the Haus von Hohenstauffen, an influential family in the royal court, many of the other Uradel and lower noblemen felt compelled to follow suit with their own conversion. By 1705, Church documents show that exactly two-thirds of all noblemen in the kingdom were Ameliorate Hosianism.
The Apostolics in the nation, facing eradication by conversion, struck back in January of 1700 in what came to be known as the "Second Great Pogrom". This wave of violence struck the Dunnischen harder than others, since they were more isolated and perceived as more secretive of the Luthoran groups. In this Pogrom, the numbers of dead reached nearly 6,000 and is considered the paramount cause of the Groote Duntrek or migration of thousands of Dunner families out of Dundorf and to various corners of the world including Saridan, Likatonia, Pontesi, and Malivia. This Duntrek lends its name to the modern ethnic Duntrekkers minority group found in Dundorf and other countries throughout Terra.
Collapse of the Autocratic EraEdit
With the abundance of noble conversions and the Ameliorate emphasis on localism the powers of the King were in steady decline. In 1718, most nobles simply retreated to their own lands, effectively ignoring the political and social power of the autocracy. It took two years of summoning but in 1720 the Elector Council finally met, only to eliminate the monarchy and then proceeded to vote itself out of existence in less than a day's time.
The Second Confederation Era (1735 - 1813)Edit
Within only a decade the seed of a second confederation era was planted. In the period after the last Elector Council of 1720 much had changed within Dundorf to rekindle the ideas of confederation and eventual unification. The economy began to rely more on raw materials (iron ore, copper, coal), the manufacture of durable trade goods (furniture, especially clocks), and the trade of cereal grains (barley, wheat and potatoes) that on feudal self-sufficiency.
United Customs UnionEdit
In 1731, the Vereinigte Zünft der Kaufleute (United Guild of Merchants) of Dundorf met in Bergengruber, Oderveld to create a common internal customs system and end barriers that were hampering trade between the almost 200 small autonomous states. The Guild created the Vereinigte Zollverein (United Customs Union) to regulate trade and bring the economies of the separate states together.
This Customs Union, while loved by merchants, townspeople, and independent farmers, soon caught the wrath of many rural noblemen who felt it was jeopardizing their sovereignty. These complaints were spread by word of mouth in noble circles throughout Dundorf and in 1722 rural noblemen had officially organized against the customs union.
A rift formed between so-called Bürgerschaft (City Nobles) and the Rittergüter (rural nobles) over the union. A proposal developed between the Haus von Klings (city nobles) and the Haus von Hohenstauffen (rural nobles) to create the Älteres Gericht (Elder Court) to decide on the issue.
The Vereinigte Zollverein was taken to court and remained on "trial" for nearly a year before it was decided that its efforts at uniformity held greater benefits, both financial and cultural, for all noblemen and
the common people than the current system of local sovereignty.
The verdict of the Court was imposed on all nobility as cities and towns began to grow with the increase of markets and capital. This shift in financial focus from land to capital, rural to urban, was a slow process but many saw the eventual change in political power.
The "Bürgers" began a rapid movement for more political integration (and many farsighted city noblemen may have foreseen even further political unification in the distant future) in the form of a second Confederation. By 1734, nobles had drawn up sides, almost based exclusively upon urban and rural lines, and began the long process of debate and negotiation for a new system of government.
Second Grand CouncilEdit
The following year a Großartiger Rat (Grand Council) was called for the first time since 1278. The Council met for the same reason as the previous one: to form a confederation and elect a new monarch. In a break from the old confederation that had lasted for centuries, the nobles of this
council chose to change the names of the institutions created.
The Kaiserliche Landtag (Imperial Diet) was created, replacing the older Imperial Elector Council. The Diet was much more institutional in nature. Only noblemen owning property or money equaling 5000 gold florins (roughly equating to 500,000 DUM as of 2000) were allowed to vote and run in designated provinces. The Council met annually for several months a year and further worked towards creating a unified economy and law system.
The new monarch was given the title Dundorfischer Kaiser (Emperor) but served much the same figurehead function as the previous "König von Dundorf und Ichredön". On 1 January 1736 the first Kaiser-elect was the 29 year-old Friedrich Wilhelm II von Klings, Prinz von Rehinbach who was crowned Hosian I, Dundorfischer Kaiser.
From the election of the first Kaiser in 1736 until the year 1813, the Diet presided over an overwhelming series of rapid economic and cultural changes.The merchant, artisan and professional occupations were growing larger (but by no means large in numbers) and more powerful given their wealth and status in the cities. A tension grew between the traditional lords of the nobility and the new "lords of money" over taxation, representation in the Diet and ultimately over political power.
Despite these debates, events and issues, Dundorf was not truly a nation-state. It remained greatly decentralized as most political powers still fell to local noblemen, while the Diet and Kaiser had very little real means of enforcing the laws they passed.
A series of further von Klings ruled as Kaiser, but, of course, did not govern Dundorf until the pivotal year of 1813 when the ideas of unification, centralization and nationalism became a unstoppable force throughout Dundorf.
Unification and Constitutional Monarchy (1813-1922)Edit
In 1813, a series of pamphlets were published professing the new ideas of nationalism, that would soon excite both the common and elite population of Dundorf. The most famous, and profound pamphlet was "Steigen von der Dundorfischer Nation" ("Rise of the Dundorfian Nation") by Klaus Bernhoff, Professor of Philosophy at Oderveld University. In his pamphlet, Bernhoff spoke of the need to define a new nation dedicated to ethnic homogeneity and ultimately democracy, based upon ethnicity. However, Bernhoff did not specify nor define the ethnic characteristics of this new Dundorfian nation. Regardless of its small faults, his pamphlet sold nearly half a million copies and sparked a fierce debate in all circles regarding possible unification.
It was not until 1817 when Franz Wagener, an ethnic Dundorfian university student living in exile from Kirlawa, published his pamphlet "Der Alldundorfischer Bewegung" ("Pan-Dundorfianism") that strict defnitions of Dundorfian ethnicity and culture were determined. Franz Wagener wrote:
«We want to protect the eternal foundation of our life: our national identity and its inherent strengths and values ... Farmers, burghers, and workers must once and for all become one Dundorfian people.»
The pamphlet outlined a movement of unification under the current Kaiser, who would no longer remain an elected office but would gain hereditary status while the powers of the Imperial Diet would be increased to that of a national parliament elected by universal manhood suffrage of those defined as ethnic Dundorfians. With this pamphlet and his other further works, Wagener became Dundorf's greatest author and the father of the idea for the modern Dundorf nation.
Wagener's ideas became popular in all classes of Dundorfian society. Workers, peasants and even wealthy merchants enjoyed the emphasis on universal manhood suffrage in the election of a national parliament. Nobles enjoyed the prominence of a national monarch and the future power implications of a future Imperial Court. All classes enjoyed the sense of belonging and exceptionalism emphasized by Dundorfian nationalism and destiny. Despite these feelings, Wagener's plans did not address the question of irredentism of ethnic Dundorfian regions of neighboring countries and this problem would plague the foundation of the new Dundorfian nation-state.
All classes of the Dundorf lands became interested in the new concept of nationalism and a movement was formed with the emphasis towards unification of all Dundorfians into a new nation-state. The movement was based closely on the ideas expressed in Franz Wagener's works and in 1820 was titled the "Der Alldundorfischer Verband" ("The Pan-Dundorfian Movement"), or ADV, after Wagener's first and most prolific writing.
The head of the newly created ADV was Friedrich Wilhelm IV, Prince of Oderveld from the Haus von Hohenstauffen. As a prominent member of the Imperial Diet, Friedrich Wilhelm von Hohenstauffen was able to negotiate the help of other members in the organization's quest for unification of all ethnic Dundorfian lands. The ADV eventually became the largest of the informal factions within the Diet and was able to put great pressure on the Kaiser-Elects, the reigning symbols of Dundorfians everywhere. However, Friedrich Wilhelm became such a popular figure in and outside of the nobility that he became the de facto symbol of Dundorfian unity.
With the power of the ADV growing within the governments of all the major autonomous states of Dundorf, as well as in the confederal Diet, unification became a real factor and was finally put to a national audience on 8 June 1831, nearly fourteen years to the day of the publication of Wagener's "Der Alldundorfischer Bewegung" pamphlet that had sparked true interest in unification.
The most powerful force aligned against unification was the inter-Diet faction led by Erzherzog Anton IX von Duisberg, Großherzog von Chontaloia. The faction held just enough seats to upset the unification process; as Diet procedure and tradition required a near unanimous nine-tenths of the in-session members to support any all-encompassing legislation.
For two weeks the Diet debated as large nationalistic and pro-unification marches, sponsored by the ADV, were carried out in all major cities and numerous smaller pronvincial areas. Newspapers carried on their own debates as proponents and detractors tried to persuade the few undecided members of the public to support their respective positions.
The break in debate came on 21 June 1831 when several non-Diet members of the ADV broke into a pre-session meeting of von Duisberg's faction and susequently locked the four most prominent members, including von Duisberg himself, in the chamber until nearly noon before being overpowered and arrested by the Diet's internal security office.
Their absence gave the ADV membership in the Diet the chance they had been waiting for and Haus von Hohnestauffen himself stood up to voice the call for another vote on the measure around 10:30 am. The Diet subsequently voted but it was not until 11:45 am that the votes were tallied, giving the necessary numbers to pass the legislation. The normally reserved and proper Imperial Diet broke into loud celebration as the sound of the nationalistic anthem "Heil dir im Siegerkranz" ("Hail to Thee in Victor's Crown") filled the chamber.
That very day the issue was brought before Kaiser Hosian VI who quickly agreed to the legislation and signed it at 4:12 pm in the afternoon. Unification was now a reality.
News of unification spread quickly and Dundorfians throughout the country celebrated with feasts and traditional dances and music. The 21 June came to be known as "Unification Day" and is still celebrated throughout the country as a commemoration of both the event and the culture of Dundorf.
After the celebrations had died down, the Diet proposed the election of a Verfassungsmäßige Versammlung (Constitutional Assembly) to create a new constitution for the nation. The Constitional Assembly's deputies would be a mixture of appointment and election.
It was agreed that the newly empowered Kaiser would appoint one-third of the deputies with the approval of the Diet. The nobles of Dundorf would elect from themselves another third of the delegates while the final third would be elected by the common people; common people of course referring to non-noblemen fulfilling the property qualifications.
The Assembly finally met in February of 1832 and began the process of writing a constitution. Several problems quickly plagued the Assembly:
- 1. Several high and low noblemen, led by Großherzog Anton IX von Duisberg, refused to accept the legitimacy or jurisdiction of any constitution created and were arming themselves in the Grafschaft (County) of Grozvic.
- 2. A questions arose over the size of the nation. Should the new ethnic Dundorfian country also include Dundorfians (Volksdundorfe) residing in lands technically outside the defined borders of the state?
The first piece of legislation decided upon by the Assembly, and with the blessing of the Kaiser, was the creation of a permanent united army, the Reichsheer Dundorf (Imperial Army of Dundorf) to force governmental authority over the breakaway Grafschaft. The conflict that followed came to known as the Trennungskrise (Breakaway Crisis).
As the Assembly debated and argued over the constitution, financing was gained from wealthy merchants and nobles for the new Reichsheer gained. The 10,000-man force began training under the command of Graf Kurt Augustus von Rommel. It was during training that the new national flag, the Kaiser Fahne (Kaiser Flag), was first unfirled for the new, national army to fight under.
The Reichsheer quickly moved against the army of von Duisburg and the other breakaway nobles. The armies met outside of Sudschloss-am-der-Czimnetz in Grozvic. The battle that ensued was short and bloody for both sides but was clearly won by the Reichsheer after the ancient wall defenses of the city were breached allowing the 1. Oderveld "Kaiser's Own" Grenadier Regiment to storm the city.
It took several months for the remaining breakaway nobles in their distant landholdings to capitulate and the situation to finally settle. It was during that time that the constitution, the so-called Kaiser Verfassung (Kaiser Constitution), was created on 20 August 1834.
The Kaiser Constitution had several different branches with different powers:
- The Kaiser
- Hereditary Position
- Appoint ministers and a personal Geheimer Rat (Privy Council) for advisory purposes
- Represent the Dundorfian people at home and abroad
- Conclude treaties with approval of the Reichstag
- Declare war with approval of the Reichstag
- Commander-in-Chief of the Reichsheer
- Appoint the Reichsgeneralstab (Reichs General Staff)
- Approved appointment of ministers
- Power to veto and approved budgets and legislation
- Power to call the election of a new Reichstag
- Reichstag (Imperial Diet)
- Parliament of the Dundorfischer Reich
- Presided over by Reichskanzler (Chancellor of the Empire)
- Elected by classes
- Drei-Klassen-Wahlrecht (three class suffrage) system
- Nobles always came out ahead
- Equal representation of all major states (See: Diagram, right)
- Propose budgets
- Propose legislation
- Reichsgerichtshof (Imperial Court)
- Unify courts systems throughout nation-state
- Judge issues between all states
- Try national government officials
However, many Assembly deputies felt the Kaiser was given too much power under this constitution. Ironically, the current Kaiser Hosian VI, a known closet-autocrat, believed he was not given enough power; he especially did not like the Reichstag's power over his office concerining budgets, treaties and war. So Kaiser Hosian VI rejected the constitution out of hand, much to the displeasure of the Assembly and the nation, sparking what would come to be known as the Kaiser Krise (Kaiser Crisis). On 3 September 1834 Hosian VI presented himself before the Assembly to explain himself to his naysayers by giving a near-two hour speech on the rights and powers he, as a monarch with Gottesgnadentum (Divine right), should have been given:
After the speech, the Assembly murmured quietly until Friedrich Wilhelm IV von Hohenstauffen, Prince of Oderveld stood up and spoke. Friedrich Wilhelm was greatly respected to both liberal and conservative minded Assemblymen. He was a widely known as a conservative and royalist but, with his training as a lawyer, was above all a staunch supporter of nobility rights. Having listened intently to the Kaiser, von Hohenstauffen quickly caught the illegality of his words. Freidrich Wilhelm spoke only one line but it would soon resound throughout Dundorfian and world history and turn him from a respected deputy into a God-like figure:
«It may be that the Kaiser reigns over Dundorf, my dear sir, but the Reichstag rules it.»
The implication of the statement was most easily defined by historial Gertrude Steiner as "the legislature has always written the rules, while the monarch has always sat there". The Assembly instantly understood the implication of this simple statement. Hosian VI, embarrassed and at a loss for action, offered his resignation as a threat to the Assembly the next day. To his surprise, the Assembly, now serving as the de facto government, accepted and the last of the von Klings emperors stepped down in disgrace.
On 10 September 1834, the Assembly, acting somewhat out of its jurisdiction, elected the 63-year old Friedrich Wilhelm IV von Hohenstauffen, Fürst von Oderveld as the first Dundorfischer Kaiser of the constitutional age. He was crowned on 15 September 1834 as HIM Wilhelm I, Dundorfischer Kaiser.
The Reign of Kaiser Wilhelm IEdit
The year 1834 was a watershed moment for Dundorf. It saw great political, social, and economic change. It was also the witness to the ascendency of one of the greatest figures in Terran history: the new Kaiser Wilhelm I.
Friedrich Wilhelm IV, Prince of Oderveld from the Haus von Hohenstauffen had begun his career as a junior member of the Kaiserliche Landtag who gained more prestige from his family name than what many believed he would ever gain from his actions. Friedrich Wilhelm ran a law firm between sessions of the Imperial Diet, a rather un-gentlemanly pursuit for a noble "man of leisure".
However, upon reading "Der Alldundorfischer Verband" ("The Pan-Dundorfian Movement") by Franz Wagener he became enthralled by nationalism and exited by the thought of Dundorfian unification. In 1823 Friedrich Wilhelm was invited to a meeting by a fellow Diet-member of a nationalist organization and was soon made its legal counsel. With the purpose of unification in his mind and the backing of the organization Friedrich Wilhelm slowly began to rise within the ranks of the Imperial Diet by taking on more tasks and presenting numerous pieces of legislation.
Simultaneously with this rise in the hierarchy of the Imperial Diet came the ascension to the leadership of the nationalist organization which Friedrich Wilhelm quickly renamed the Alldundorfischer Verband (The Pan-Dundorfian Movement) or ADV. Friedrich Wilhelm represented this organization in the Imperial Diet. He was the head of the organization when unification came to full fruitation and his popularity and prestige only grew during the subsequent Kaiser Crisis. The corridors of power echoed with the question as to who would be the new Kaiser after the abdication of Hosian VI.
Friedrich Wilhelm soon stood alone as the only viable candidate, given his populairty both with the nobility and commoners.
The Reign of Kaisers Wilhelm II & Augustus IEdit
The Augustian EraEdit
The Reign of Augustus IIEdit
Characteristics of the AgeEdit
Society & ClassEdit
- odd time between new concept of class and older, more rigid concept
- most of the period,
The Arts & CultureEdit
- most famous literature, plays, operas, etc
- music grew; classical music, new symphonies, new types of music experimented; battle for "soul" of music in this era
- Dundorf became a nation of art & musical patronage
- Romantic & emotional paintings created
- paintings became infused with nationalism; large complaint that "Dundorfians made art for Dundorfians"
- further growth of industry
- cities grew rapidly, grew into much more importance
- dominated by the conservative Traditionelle Konservative Partei Dundorf (Traditional Conservative Party - TKPD), the liberal conservative Liberal-Konservativen Partei (LKP), and the Independent Confessional Bewegung der Hosiengemeinschaft (Movement of the Hosian Community - BCG)
- witnessed the emergence of socialism as political force; trade union movement grows
- class struggle emerged politically with creation of the socialist Sozialrevolutionären Partei (Social Revolutionary Party) & the Partei der Institutionellen Revolution (Institutional Revolutionary Party)
- debate within the movement as to whether engage in violence of gradual changing of politics towards socialism
The Reign of Kaiser Georg Wilhelm & the First Dundorfian Civil WarEdit
In the 1920s, First Dundorfian Civil War broke out in Dundorf between Socialists and Capitalists.
- socialists become aggressive, promoting militant trade unionism
- enact reforms; government biased towards right, unions begin taking own control, no "rule of law"
- capitalists/conservatives/monarchists/military/ rise in revolt
- Kaiser stays neutral, unable to kill subjects
- revolt put down after two years
In 2312, Adolph Dinkel of Dundorf was co-awarded the first Hero of Terra prize(with Lord Timothy Bunton of Dorvik) "[f]or founding and spearheading peace talks between the nations of Dorvik and Dundorf". This ended the hostile relations between the two nations that had been ongoing for a number of years.
During the 2320s, several Stalinist organizations, such as the KED, allowed the Deltarians to invade Dundorf. However, a staunch Right-Wing and moderate Left-Wing opposition never allowed the Deltarians to get the complete control (see Deltarian political invasion of Dundorf ). To this day, the Right-Wing never trusts the Left-Wing, especially becaue of the Right-Wing rule in the 2360s.
2330s Crisis Edit
Starting in the 2330s, Dundorf gave aid to the Popular Militia led by Colonel 'X', the leftist forces in the Kirlawan Civil War. In March of 2335, Dundorf officially entered the war against the Fascist forces. After peace talks, Dundorf sponsored the nascent Democratic Republic of Kirlawa, the most leftist of the four nations making up divided Kirlawa. Many Dundorfian fighters fought for the DRK during both the first and second Kirlawan Civil Wars, in the 2330s and 2360s.
In 2335, the Senate building in Fairfax, Dorvik, burned down. Dundorfian interests were initally blamed, but this was never proven. Also in 2335, Dundorfian elements were accused of supporting six Socialist-linked bombings in Kundrati, famously detailed in the Spoletto Report.
In the late 2330s, rightist elements in Dundorf accused some DCMLU parties of being funded by Dundorf's socialists; these accusations led to the arrest and conviction of Green Freedom Party leader Tekno Kratt in 2339.
Dundorf is thought to be the original location of the Dundorfian bird flu, which hit parts of Dorvik hard during the early 2360s.
In 2428 Dundorf was proclaimed a Kingdom with the crowning of Kovács Márton as König. König Márton's rule lasted 25 years until the election of 2453 saw a return to the republic.
In 2495 The First Church of Dundorf was established as the State Religion of Dundorf.
Early 2606 Constitutional crisis over government over Cabinet positions.
Third Dundorfian Civil War Edit
On February 10, 2752 a radical right-wing militia in Julstoch bombed and attacked the Julstochan state capital building. The militia, known as the Dundorf Kapitalist Bund (DKB), used the surprise from these attacks to take over all the major poulation centers in Julstoch. The ensuring civil war would cost Dundorf greatly.
Crisis of the 3000sEdit
- Late 3020s & early 3030s, Dundorf experienced a quick transition of parties into & out of the government, as well as many temporary and fleeting constitutional changes
- period of turmoil & insecurity
- economy suffered; government was grossly ineffective
- paramilitary groups created to support local communities; loss of governmental control; violence erupted throughout the nation; population continued to grow via refugees, immigrants, illegal immigrants, etc
- seedy elements, organized crime, etc poured into the nation; causing increased crime rates & lack of stability
- some small towns taken over by armed groups; almost feudal-like states
- without effective leadership and facing mounting economic & monetary crises, members of the ministry of finance printed money, thus causing hyperinflation & continuing to fuel the economic crises
- due tp inflation & the inability to effectively collect funds, the government was unable to pay for services, especially unemployment insurance and merely cut off payment to those effected; therefore causing further confrontation with people
The Dundorfian Democratic Republic had its origins in the 2500s when socialist parties within Dundorf begun to dominate the political spectrum. Over the ensuing centuries, the new republic experienced ongoing political unrest as governing socialist forces encountered resistance from conservative political and societal factions keen to return to the previous liberal order.
The DDR disintegrated as an entity in the early 3000s, thanks to an unprecedented political crisis among the governing socialist factions. The republic was refounded on 10 February 3134, after the formation of the Communist Party of Dundorf from existing left-wing political entities. The CPD sought to restore the country's previous socialist order, and was supported in those objectives by the Republican Socialist Party (Republikanische Sozialistische Partei) and the Dundorfian Socialist Workers Party.
The refounded DDR prevailed over the ensuing decades, but increasingly came under threat due to rising societal discontent. Sluggish economic performance combined with increasingly repressive instruments to preserve the socialist state contributed to an environment conducive to political change.
In response, Die Mitte emerged as a rival political entity, promising to restore a liberal state and rebuild a market economy. After the collapse of the socialist Dundorfische Bauernpartei, Die Mitte rose to power with the election of Alexander Müller as premier and Sara Weiß as the chair of the parliament in 3175.
After an initial programme of reforms, Die Mitte moved to refound the state once more. The DDR was formally succeeded by the Bundesrepublik Dundorf in 3190. Weiß was sworn in as the new republic's inaugural president.
However, Die Mitte dissolved itself after a heavy defeat in the national elections in 3196, losing its majority to the centre-right Liberaldemokratische Partei and the socialist Sozialistische Einheitspartei Dundorfs. Together with the monarchist Radikal Kaiserliche Partei, those three parties formed an all-party-coalition.
The SED started a new attempt of turning Dundorf into a socialist state and re-introduced socialist economic policies and anti-religion laws, supported by the RKP and under the protest of the LDP. The neo-socialist laws were immediately repealed by the LDP after it gained an absolute majority in 3200. Together with the newly-founded Konservative Partei, the LDP, led by Jean-Pierre Du Pont and Michelle Ehrenfeld sought to introduce a neoliberal economic reform programme, including large privatisation projects. The capitalist system led to an extraordinary economic boom, but the leftist parties were dissatisifed with the deregulations, because they also signifantly decreased the power of trade unions and the rights of workers.
The ensuing years were marked by an ongoing tug-of-war between the conservative and socialist blocs. The socialist parties - including the SED, RKP and Sozialistischer Front - initially succeeded in rolling back parts of the conservative reform programme. But poor socialist organisation meant that left-wing majorities in the Bundestag were unable to stop the Konservative Partei and LDP from introducing new policies, not only in the economic area but in the administration of justice and the military. Despite the fact that the socialist bloc generally always had a majority from 3204 to 3217, elections frequently brought narrow results without clear majorities for either bloc, meaning that the political system often remained a mixture of socialist and capitalist policies.
In 3217, the conservatives returned to power with the help of the SF, which renounced its previous left-wing agenda after a heavy electoral defeat. The coalition of the two right-wing parties and the SF, now named Dundorfische Arbeiters Bewegung, then replaced the left-wing government, with the LDP's Larissa Dreyfus installed as the interim Head of Government. The national-liberal coalition was endorsed at the next elections, and the new government - under the chancellorship of Natascha Issen (KP) - began to reverse the policies of the socialist parties, particularly in the areas of economy and defence.
Following the 3221 elections, political instability prevailed. The socialist bloc (SED, RKP, SP) won a majority but could not form a government, leaving the conservatives in power as a minority government. The government managed to ward off the attempts of the leftist parties to re-regulate the economy and other areas. The minority cabinet eventually served for the full term and the conservatives obtained a majority again in the next elections, which was mainly seen as a votum for stability.
Disarray ensued in 3225 when the DAB collapsed, giving the socialists a nominal majority in the Bundestag. The socialists' decision to form a government and pass sweeping reforms without calling new elections was controversial, and the conservatives heavily criticized the new government as illegitimate.
When elections were eventually held in 3226, the conservatives (LDP, KP and the Freikonservative Partei) secured a large parliamentary majority, while the KP's Michael Hanke nearly doubled the socialists' vote in the presidential race. The victory of the right-wing-coalition was accompanied by spontaneous celebrations in the streets of Dundorf. Due to the overwhelming success of the conservative bloc, the elections of 3226have been dubbed "conservative revolution" by political commentators. After their landslide victory, the conservatives formed a new government under Vanessa Tallerand (LDP) as Bundeskanzlerin and immediately started re-introducing free market policies and abolishing anti-religion laws.
However, the tenure of the conservative government was also marked by a heated discussion over a controversial security bill proposed by the KP that would have significantly extended the powers of the police. The SED and the green-liberal LGB accused Minister for Internal Affairs Elena Neitzert (KP) of intending to establish a totalitarian regime. The fact that the LDP did not support the bill and the FPKD's absence eventually led to the defeat of the initiative. The opposition expressed doubts about the stability of the coalition and Bundeskanzlerin Tallerand was criticized for the poor internal coordination of her cabinet. All these factors led to a rapid decrease of the government's approval rating.
In the next elections, the conservative bloc suffered a heavy defeat, losing both their parliamentary majority and the position of Head of State. After the attempt of LDP, KP, FKPD and the LGB to form a four-party-coalition failed due to the collapse of the FKPD, the left-wing parties took advantage of this and formed a government with the LGB in turn. The free-market system introduced by the conservatives was then partially repealed, as well as some of the vast privatization projects conducted during the conservatives' tenure. The leftist bloc managed to keep its majority in the subsequent elections.
Nationalists ,Socialists and Democrats 3248-4100 Edit
The Government of Dundorf switched ever so often between Socialist Democratic Republics often known as Dundorfische Demokratische Republik or the DDR, Nationalists who called the nation the Dundorfisches Reich and democrats who called the Nation Bundesrepublik Dundorf.
Right Wing Rule 4100-4228 Edit
In the late 4000's Dundorf started to move away from its bi-partisan status as more politcal parties satred to emerge as a credible alternative to the Socialist party. This also represented the rise of the right once more and in the early 4100's the first right wing governmnet for many years was founded under Erich Schmidt (TKEPD).
Bundesrepublik Dundorf In Janraury of 4101 the Demokratische Dundorf Republik officially changed its name to Bundesrepublik Dundorf, this marked the start of a new era for Dundorf and its People.
The Reich Chancellor was assisted by the Reich Council (Dundorfian: Reichsrat) which formed a cabinet comprised of nearly a dozen ministries and executive departments. The Reich Chancellor served as the head of the Reich Council, the members of the Reich Council were appointed by the Kaiser and approved by the Reichstag.
The Dundorfian Reich in the passing of Restoration of Dundorfian Heritage and Culture Act and the Organization of the Reich Act in December 4189 the Grand Council of Dundorf was granted authority to return to their noble holdings, however they were not granted the same status as they had during the historical Dundorfian Reich. Instead, the modern 5 regions of Dundorf were preserved and named States of the Reich (Dundorfian: Reichsländer) and are headed by an elected Reichsstatthalter (Luthorian: Reich Lieutenant/State holder). Each of the Reichsländer have a democratically elected Landtag (Luthorian: State diet) which is responsible for regional issues. States of the Reich are further divided in Kreise (Luthorian: County/district) and then either organized into small cities (Dundorfian: Ort) or municipalities (Dundorfian: Gemeinde) or boroughs of major municipalities (Dundorfian: Stadtgemeinde)
The Ministry of the Interior was taken over in 4189 by another Selbstschutzverband officer, Rudi Schürer who immediately launched a massive internal reformation of the ministry. Dundorf lacked a centralized police force and underneath the quick-handed Schürer, the Ministry of the Interior federalized all police forces and began to divide them up. The formation of the Reich Police (Dundorf: Reichspolizei, RiPo) was meant as a means to police the entire Reich, former local units were combined into the forces of the Reich Police. Minister of the Interior Schürer then combined the investigative might of the ministry into the Criminal Police (Dundorfian: Kriminalpolizei, KriPo) which is meant to handle all investigations into a varied of criminal and civil offenses.
The Interior Minister also formed the Secret Reich Police (Dundorfian: Geheime Reichspolizei, GeRePo) which was meant to investigate issues of secret state matters, issues relating to Socialism or Communism and issues related to the Kaiser or constitution. Despite the Luthorian translation of "secret" it did not necessarily mean they were unknown or take extreme measures, it was simply a matter of translation that it translated as such.
One Party State 4228-4243 Edit
In 4228, the Nationale Traditionelle Partei took over Dundorf leaving it in an era of one party rule. The NTP collapsed in 4235 which led to Leftist Factions seizing power in Dundorf. The Socialistische Einheitspartei (Socialist Unity Party) restored the DDR and reimplemented many socialist policies. This included the nationalisation of the economy.
Two Party Era 4243-4245 Edit
In the 4243 elections, the Frei Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party) won a surprising majority in the then DDR Volkskammer. The FDP was able to repeal many of the Socialist Policies put forward by the SEP but did not have a large enough majority to truly restore the Republic.
Closing Days of the DDR 4245-4251 Edit
In the 4245 elections, the Konservative Partei (Conservative Party) entered the political scene ending the short lived two party system. In the following elections more parties such as the Dundorfisches Nationalistische Allianz (Dundorfian Nationalist Alliance), Nationale Syndikalistische Liga (National Syndicalist League), Demokratische Partei (Democratic Party), Socialistische Freiheits Partei (Socialist Freedom Party) formed and gradually eroded the Veto Power of the SEP to block constitutional changes. Some of these parties such as the DP disbanded however the majority remained as forces in Dundorfian politics. In the 4251 elections, the SEP had lost its veto power, opening the door to constitutional changes. Shortly after, the SEP collapsed.
The Bundesrepublik 4251-4384 Edit
Constitutional changes were made to officially end the DDR and establish the Bundesrepublik in its place. The political landscape was dominated by various parties with different ideologies although no major leftist force existed until the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Dundorfs came back to unite the many small leftist Forces.
Restoration of the DDR 4384-Present Edit
In the Parliamentary Election of 4384 the SED went on to win a majority in the National Parliament and reestablish the Dundorfian Democratic Republic. The rule of left wing parties lasted until 4698 when the Dundorfische Volkspartei brought right wing rule back to Dundorf. In 4726 the Militärregierung - Alte Kämpfergruppe overthrew the fascist Schwarye Sonne Gesellschaft and established a military junta ruled by the leader of the army as king. In 4734, the Militärregierung dissolved as stablility had returned to the region, the Libertäre Kommunistische Partei took over and brought democracy and communism back to Dundorf. In the Volkskammer Elections of 4737 for the first time since the restoration of DDR a non-bloc party joined the Volkskammer. With a 6% share of the National Vote the Nationalrevolutionary Party joined the Parliament. Soon after Dundorf became divided again between the left wing forces led by Die Libertäre Kommunistische Partei, and the right wing forces led by the Nationalrevolutionäre Partei. The führer of the Nationalrevolutionäre Partei was killed in 4747, allowing Anton Kreidler to transform the party into the new liberal Liberaldemokratische Union.