Before the Enetric Migrations, Kalopia was the site of one of the oldest and most mysterious civilizations. Research has shown that the Siphinans are the decendends of the ancient civilization. Little is known about the pre-Enetric civilization other than what was left in the archaeological record, including sumptuous palaces, elaborate frescoes, and hundreds of yet undeciphered inscriptions in an unknown language. The pre-Enetrics seemed to have build a sophisticated urban trading civilization focused on the worship of a number of chthonic gods and enjoying close trade relations with the entire Majatran continent. Bull-jumping seems to have been a popular sport. The pre-Enetric civilization collapsed around 1500 BCE for unknown reasons. The collapse of this civilization coincides with the estimated arrival of the Enetric tribes, leading to the hypothesis that the invading Enetrics may have been the cause of the collapse. However pre-Enetric cities show no evidence of sacking or violent conquest, and newer theories speculate that the collapse may have been a result of a combination of environmental and political-military factors, coming about as a result of drought, crop failure, famine, and the Enetric migration or invasion. Regardless, the Enetric invasion was immortalized in a number of ancient Kalopian epic poems and is the first tentatively-recorded event in Kalopian history.
With the collapse of the palatial civilizations and the Enetric migration, no new monumental structures were built and commerce with the rest of Majatra was largely brought to an end. Literacy itself seems to have disappeared, since the redistributive economy had crashed and there was no longer a need to keep written records. Society during this period was divided into independent regions organized by kinship groups and oikoi or households, which later led to the emergence of the poleis or independent city-states. Towards the beginning of the first millennium Kalopia started an economic recovery and the gradual rebirth of civilization. A new writing system was introduced, adapted from the Cildanian alphabet, notably introducing characters for vowel sounds and thereby creating the first truly alphabetic (as opposed to abjad) writing system. The new alphabet quickly spread throughout Majatra and was used to write languages other than Kalopian as well.
Beginning with the late pre-Classical Era, the Kalopian oikoi had consolidated into poleis, independent and often republican city-states. The late pre-Classical and early Classical era were marked by significant urbanization through a process called "synoecism", the amalgamation of several small settlements into a single urban center. During this time the urban settlements greatly increased their population, leading to a process of colonization around the entire continent. The city-states would send colonists to remote places to establish a new polis in distant lands, which would maintain close economic and cultural ties to the metropolis but was otherwise fully independent.
The economic prosperity and blossoming trade resulting from urbanization and colonization led to the birth of the Classical Era, usually considered to have lasted from around the 8th century BCE until 205 BCE. During this period Kalopia was considered one of the most advanced, enlightened civilizations of its age. Consisting of a number of loosely affiliated city-states, classical Kalopia was not a state in the traditional sense, but was bonded together through connections in culture, language, and ideals. At certain points in history, Kalopian city-states are known to have controlled, settled, or otherwise heavily influenced the entire Majatran continent. The Kalopians experienced new heights in economic growth for their time, which resulted in previously unmatched cultural feats in architecture, drama, science, philosophy, and democracy. Though generally politically disunited, the cities of Kalopia were known to occasionally band together when combating their rivals.
As a result of the Selucian-Cildanian Wars (398-280 BCE) the Cildanian Hegemony emerged as the largest empire in Majatra. During the wars Kalopian colonies in what is today Deltaria were also brought under Cildanian rule and thereafter were ruled by native tyrants, nominated by the Cildanian governor in Leucopolis. Dissatisfied with the rule of the Cildanian-appointed tyrants, the Kalopian city-states in Deltaria initiated a revolt in 229 BCE. Lasting until 221, the revolt received substantial assistance from the city-states on the Kalopian mainland, particularly Helios. After the revolt was crushed by the Cildanians in 221, the Cildanian Republic decided to punish Helios and its allies for their support of the revolt. Moreover, seeing that the many city-states in Kalopia possessed a constant threat to the stability of the Cildanian Empire, the Cildanians decided to conquer the whole of Kalopia. In 215 BCE the first Cildanian invasion of Kalopia began. During the war with the Cildanians many Kalopian city-states banded together, and managed to win a number of significant victories. However, the general disunity of the poleis allowed the Cildanians to fight them one by one, and eventually most of Kalopia was brought under Cildanian rule by 205 BCE.
Conquered Kalopia was established as an Orsit (Province) governed by a Rab (Governor), and under Cildanian rule life in Kalopia continued much the same as it had previously. Cildanian and Selucian culture during this period were highly influenced by Kalopian culture, and although some Cildanian nobles regarded the Kalopians as lazy, petty, and unreliable, many others embraced Kalopian literature and philosophy. The Kalopian language was favored by the educated elite in Qart Qildar, who tended to regard Kalopian culture as an example to be followed. Also during this time the Kalopian language became the overall lingua franca and even official language throughout the Hegemony's southern provinces, even in areas that had never been colonized by Kalopians or brought under Kalopian influence.
Starting with the middle of the 2nd century BCE the Cildanian Hegemony entered a prolonged period of decline and instability, which also affected Kalopia. The civil wars and military decline of the Empire paved the way to the conquest of large portions of the Cildanian empire by the invading Jelbo-Tukarics, who in 71 BCE defeated the Cildanian garrison in Kalopia and conquered the entire province. For the next four centuries the Kalopian region would remain under the rule of the Jelbo-Tukaric tribes, occasionally united in petty khanates. However the city-states of Kalopia displayed a certain degree of continuity during this era, and the region remained heavily urbanized for a long time under Jelbo-Tukaric rule. Kalopians were allowed to retain their political institutions and customs and in return they were to pay tribute and provide foot soldiers for the army. Jelbo-Tukaric society was initially stratified, with the Jelbo-Tukaric elite at the top of the social ladder, but beginning with the 3rd century CE there was a process of incorporation of Kalopians in the ranks of the Jelbo-Tukaric nobility, which allowed the Khans to curtail the power of the leading Jelbo-Tukaric aristocratic families. During the same century a process of centralization also began, and the Kalopian cities started losing their autonomy. Religiously, although a majority of Jelbo-Tukarics retained their Tanhrist monotheistic religion and Kalopians retained their ancient mythology, Hosianism had begun to spread, becoming particularly popular in urban areas. By the end of the 4th century CE the Jelbo-Tukaric ruling class had become fully assimilated culturally and linguistically to the Kalopians over which they ruled, although they retained their privileges and distinct identity.
In spite of the gradual economic and political decline of Kalopia under Jelbo-Tukaric rule, Kalopian culture continued to thrive, both in Kalopia itself and in areas previously colonized or influenced by Kalopians. One such area was the Kingdom of Leucopolis, one of the remnant states of the Cildanian Hegemony, where Kalopian and Selucian cultures existed side by side and formed the basis of the Kingdom's culture. In 395 CE Leucopolitan king Augustus the Great initiated one of the largest and most successful campaigns of conquests in Terran history. After a rapid seven-year campaign the Kingdom of Irkawa, the largest territorial empire on the continent at the time, was conquered by Augustus' armies. Ruling from the newly founded city of Augusta on the shores of Lake Majatra, Augustus spent the rest of his reign expanding his empire to the north and consolidating his dynasty. Thus the Augustan Empire was founded, and under its ruling Dioclid dynasty Augusta became a center of Kalopian culture, rivaling Helios in splendor and cultural achievements. Within a century Augusta had become the largest city in the world and a largely Kalopian city, with Kalopians from diverse backgrounds forming much of its population. Under Augustus' son Cassander I and his grandson, Lysander I, Augustan rule was expanded westwards to incorporate Kalopia itself.
Under Augustan rule Kalopia was one of the most prosperous regions of the Empire, and the Augustans sent colonists there and contributed new buildings to its cities. Augustans were heavily Kalopianized and Kalopians were generally loyal to the Empire. Kalopian influence was so pervasive that throughout the Empire's thousand year existence Classical Kalopian was the only official language and practically the only language considered worthy of writing in the Augustan Empire. Also during Augustan rule most of Kalopia adopted Hosianism as the main religion under the Augustan Church, and Hosian Kalopians were considered fully Augustan and thus part of the Empire's ruling elite.
Augustan hegemony in Central Majatra would however prove to be short-lived. In a series of population movements, the Deltarian people, a group of ethnicities originating in Artania and ruled by the Tokundian tribe, moved from their Artanian homeland into Majatra. Briefly settling in what is today Jelbania and Vanuku around 500 CE, the Deltarian tribes began a number of raids into Augustan lands, reaching as far as Helios in 569. The initial raids were eventually defeated by the Augustans, who managed to maintain the Empire's frontiers. In 599 another massive raid was initiated by Deltarian chieftains Radomir, Bojan, and Branimir, and just like the previous raids it was easily repulsed by Emperor Constantine I. However Constantine was deposed in a military revolt in 604, reversing his military gains against the Deltarians, and by the following year they managed to occupy most of what is today Deltaria and the north-western parts of Kalopia in what is called the Deltarian land-taking. Although the Deltarians did not have any intention of settling in the Empire's regions, the collapse of its northern frontier opened the way for the final and permanent settlement of the Deltarian tribes.
Most of Kalopia however remained under Augustan rule, and after repelling further attempts at Deltarian expansion, the Augustans managed to maintain their new border with the Deltarian tribes for a few more centuries. This would change however when in 991 Thane Štefan of the Tokundian tribe proclaimed himself Czar and founded the Tokundian Empire, the first organized state of the Deltarian people after their arrival in Majatra. Although until then the Deltarians were a constant but ultimately impotent danger, the creation of a centralized Deltarian state created a much more serious and permanent problem for the Augustans. Just a few years after the establishment of the Tokundian Empire Czar Štefan led a series of successful campaigns against the Augustan Empire, greatly increasing his realm. In 998 Štefan invaded Augustan Kalopia and, after a crushing defeat suffered by Augustan Emperor Tiberius II, conquered the entire northern half of the province. From this time until the collapse of the two empires Kalopia would be divided in two, with the Augustans maintaining the southern half and the Deltarians entrenching themselves in the north. It was also during this time that the Turjaks, as well as a large number of Majatrans, migrated from Kafuristan into Augustan-ruled Jakania and southern Kalopia. In order to compensate for the depopulation of the area as a result of the Augustan-Tokundian Wars, the Augustan Empire allowed the newcomers to settle in exchange for defending the Empire's borders.
Turjak and Ahmadi KalopiaEdit
The brief balance of power established between the two empires was brought to an end with the birth of a new religion in Barmenia, Ahmadism. Ahmadism was founded by Prophet Ahmad in the aftermath of the collapse of the Sacred Monarchy of Beiteynu. Ahmad's emergence in 1186 led to the reunification of most of Barmenia, and during his lifetime the Prophet led a campaign in the Eastern parts of the continent, bringing the Majatran world into the fold of Ahmadism. After Ahmad's death, his brother was proclaimed his Caliph (Successor), establishing the Ahmadi Caliphate, although a succession dispute immediately after the Prophet's death led to the Israi-Abadi split.
Encouraged by the egalitarian message of the new religion and reacting to the high taxation and excessive centralization in Augustan-ruled Jakania and southern Kalopia, the Turjaks launched a revolt with the backing of the young Caliphate. In 1232 the Turjak rebels managed to expel the Augustan garrison from most of Jakania and, under the leadership of Mehmed I, proclaimed allegiance to the Caliphate in Barmenia. The newly proclaimed Turjak Sultanate also began a series of aggressive raids against surrounding polities, including the powerful Tokundian Empire.
In an effort to eliminate the Turjak threat, the Tokundians began a punitive counter-raid into Jakania, also sensing an opportunity for southward expansion. As Jakania was formally part of the Augustan Empire, Augustan Emperor Anthony immediately ordered that they be attacked and driven back, sparking the Great War of the South (1233-1248). During the war the Tokundian Empire switched sides and joined the Augustans in a military, political, and religious alliance, but this was not enough to stem the Ahmadi tide. By the end of the war all of Jakania, half of Kalopia, and substantial territories in Solentia were brought under the rule of the Great Empire of Turjak, a vassal of the Ahmadi Caliphate.
Northern Kalopian regions would remain under Tokundian Hosian rule until 1397, when the Deltarian tribes, with Ahmadi support, rebelled against the ruling Tokundian tribe. During the turmoil the Turjak Sultanate conquered the remainder of Kalopia, reuniting the entire region for the first time since 998. Under Turjak rule Ahmadism gradually became the largest religion in the southern parts of Kalopia, and the demographic balance in the region decisively shifted towards Majatrans and Turjaks, who by now collectively constituted a majority in what was to become Wantuni. In the north, although the spread of Ahmadism was initially slow and primarily targeted the Hosian elite, it intensified towards the end of Turjak rule due to greater economic integration and the collapse of Church structures. As a result most Siphinans and Kalopians went from being a predominantly Hosian population to one that is still mainly Ahmadi, while retaining significant Hosian minorities in certain regions.
Early modern eraEdit
Emirate of WantuniEdit
With the collapse of the Ahmadi Caliphate in 1486, the Turjak Sultanate became independent, although it suffered from instability itself. By 1500, the Sultanate had been in decline under the leadership of the Ashraf family for 300 years, losing territories to the nobility who sought to claim independence, ultimately leading to the disintegration of the sultanate in a few years. In 1500 the Turjak Empire only ruled Nilaka. The last ruler, Sultan Pugari II, proclaimmed the dissolution of the Turjak Empire and the establishment of the Merchant Republic of Jakania in 1513. This opened the way to the Warring States Period, a time of social upheaval, political intrigue and military conflicts and military advancement. Taking advantage of this, Muhammad al-Wantuni, a local Majatran noble, proclaimed independence and established his own realm, covering most of Kalopia, known as the Wantuni Emirate.
The Wantuni Emirate was an Israi and Majatran-dominated realm, but Ahmadi Kalopians, Siphinans, and Turjaks were also in a position of leadership in the Emirate. Towards the end of the Emirate the entire nation became known as Wantuni, from the name of the ruling dynasty, and local Majatrans began calling themselves Wantunis. In time the name "Wantuni" was adopted by Ahmadis of all ethnic backgrounds to refer to the nation, contrasting with the older name "Kalopia" which, until the rise of Kalopian nationalism, was used primarily by Hosians.
During this period the conversion of much of the population to Ahmadism continued with greater force, partially enabled by the "blood tax", a system of human tribute on the Hosian population, known as paidomazoma ("collection of children") in Kalopian. The Emirs would send military officers to take young boys from their families to be raised by the state. The boys were converted to Ahmadism, and the ablest of them were trained for military or civil service in the Emirate. Given that paidomazoma would allow the boys to obtain high-ranking civil or military positions many Hosian families voluntarily sent their boys to be collected as blood tax. The system was nonetheless controversial even at the time, given that, as the young boys effectively became slaves, this violated dhimmi protections guaranteed under Ahmadi law. Also under the Wantuni Emirate the Halawi sect had begun to spread. Characterized by mysticism and the incorporation of Hosian and folk beliefs, Halawism was particularly popular with Hosians from an Augustan background. Given its Abadi origin and doctrine, Halawism was frequently persecuted by the Emirs, which did not however manage to curb its popularity.
Because of the discrimination that the Emirate imposed on Hosians and non-Majatrans, many of the Emir's subjects, oppressed and disgruntled, were made all too ready to seek out a new partner in governance because of these methods, and Wantuni became susceptible to the threat of colonialism. Throughout the middle of the 16th Century, Artanian powers established colonial settlements on the shores of Wantuni. By the 1560s colonial outposts on the shores of the Majatran Sea become bastions of colonial power. Eventually, these powers faded away and were replaced by a strong, if understated, Deltarian presence. Preying on divisions within the Emirate, Deltaria maneuvered itself into a position of political importance in the nation and the Emir became a political figurehead, subject to every whim of the Deltarian establishment.
In 1750, Abd al-Aziz ibn Abu Hafs al-Wantuni, a descendant of a separate line of the Watuni dynasty living in exile in Solentia, raised a rebel force and, with the aid of the Qanzar Emirs, succeeded in driving out the Deltarian colonials, to the joy of much of the native populace. Celebrations of independence were short-lived, however, because Abd al-Aziz soon declared his allegiance to the Qanzar Empire, who appointed him the Wali (Governor) of its new Wilayah of Wantuni. Under the Qanzars, Wantuni enjoyed relative autonomy and saw a period of calm and economic growth. As demographics shifted, the Qanzar colonists began to overshadow the native peoples and the remaining Deltarians. At first, ethnic Solentians enjoyed the protection of the Qanzar crown in their new lands, but soon began to find their influence overreaching and heavy-handed. Native Wantuni and Kalopian people soon became hateful of the harsh tributes in currency and human capital that the Qanzars demanded and, allying with one another, the two groups rebelled against the Qanzars and declared Wantuni an independent republic in 1930.
Republican Wantuni (2000-2410)Edit
For three decades, the Republic seemed a strong and independent state, committed to the value of liberty and granting full political rights to both Kalopians and Wantunis. But in the early 2030s, Solentia, bitter over its loss, orchestrated a coup d'etat, replacing the republican government with an Emperor as their figurehead, supported by Solentian military forces. Banding together, dissidents and members of political parties of the Republic formed a resistance movement. With support from Kanjor, the resistance movement forced Solentia into a war of attrition that it did not have the resources to cope with. In 2376, Mikael von Löwenberg, a noble descending from both the Wantuni dynasty and a prominent Solentian settler family, was elected to the position of Emperor, establishing a Second Wantuni Empire. The Second Empire was also short-lived however and it was brought down by a peaceful revolution in 2429, and the Wantuni Republic was reestablished.
The Second Republic, unlike the first, was not a democratic state, but was heavily dominated by Wantunis, allied with Ahmadi Siphinans, who discriminated against the Kalopian population. Majatran became the only official language, and cultural rights of the Kalopians were gradually restricted. The general loss of civil rights led to many upper and middle class Kalopians fleeing Wantuni, establishing a sizeable Kalopian diaspora that became vocally active in favor of Kalopian rights.
Emergence of Kalopian nationalism (2410-2700)Edit
Starting with the early decades of the 25th century a Kalopian nationalist movement emerged in Wantuni, seeking the end of discrimination and the rediscovery of Kalopia's ancient heritage. The Kalopian alphabet, until that point used exclusively by Terran Patriarchal Hosians while Ahmadi Kalopians would use the Majatran script to write the language, was widely disseminated and accepted as the single "national" alphabet of all Kalopians, irrespective of religion. The Classical Kalopian language, until then exclusively used as a liturgical language by Terran Patriarchal and Theognosian Hosians was promoted as the unifying language of the nation, to replace "vulgar" spoken Kalopian by following the example of Selucia. Additionally, Kalopian nationalists began referring to the entire region as Kalopia, condemning Wantuni as a foreign colonial concept.
Towards the 27th century the Kalopian national movement moved from a largely literary and cultural Radical Nationalist movement towards mainstream political movement, developed in Wantuni and the Kalopian diaspora across the globe and supporting the establishment of Kalopia as a nation-state. In 2620 the first attempts to establish Wantuni as a Kalopian nation-state were introduced, but owing to the lack of strong leadership as well as opposition from conservative Ahmadi Kalopians, suspicious of the secular nature of Kalopian nationalism, these attempts failed. As the Kalopian demographic grew quickly, with swathes of the urban class immigrating from Kundrati and Kazulia and intermarrying with other segments of society, it soon became the largest ethnic group within Wantuni. Its growing political power was further cemented by the arrival of a Kalopian upper class, including such visionaries as the Kafuristani-Kalopian oil baron and businessman Theodoros Aristocrat, who lent economic support to the idea.
Creation of Modern Kalopia (2700-2790)Edit
It was not until 2698, under the leadership of Kalopian aristocrats Nileas Metaxas and Aristotelis Sophus that the Independent Republic of Wantuni was declared the Aristokratiki Basileia of Kalopia. under the Metaxes and Sophus, in what became known as the "Queens' Monarchy" (in reference to their openly homosexual relationship), the nation experienced vast liberal reforms, in the vein of Kalopian values. Their legacy today remains the sexual liberation movement which they pioneered in mainstream Wantuni. Kalopian politician Pornidious Aristocrat, of the Kalopian Regime Coalition, was elected to lead the first democratic Kalopian government and frequently sparred with the ethnically Wantuni Quasi-Libertarian Party. He is today remembered for his program, still in place today, which calls for the return of all Kalopians across the globe to the homeland. This resulted in a sudden rise in population, which helped propel Kalopia to become one of the world's largest nations.
Throughout the next few decades, dissent began to fester among the mainstream population, as many began to feel that Niles Metaxas and Aristotelis Sophus had slowly morphed into iron-fisted dictators. In the fateful Elections of February 2737, the people rose up against the "Queens' Monarchy," and overthrew the institution, replacing it with a democratically-elected President.
Due to his failing health, Pornidious Aristocrat, still the head of government, was removed from his position of authority within the Kalopian Regime Coalition, now displaying socialist tendencies, to be replaced by Egoist Virginatos, marking a new period through his leadership when Kalopia hosted a major diplomatic event, the Terran Cooperation Summit, specifically aiming to unite the major powers of Terra. As the year wore on, it seemed evident that Virginatos was more and more often the one calling the shots behind Aristocrat, and pundits jokingly referred to the administration as the "Virginatos Government." Despite this seeming lack of control within his own nation, Aristocrat earned wide acclaim abroad for his part in the Global Peacekeeping Organization, of which he eventually became the Grand Secretary.
By July of 2740, in the midst of the Terran Cooperation Summit, conflict between ethnic Kalopians and Wantuni cultural conservatives flared up once more. Amid demonstrations and violent riots on the streets, as well as the loss of the police and army, the government called on the paramilitary militia of the Kalopian Regime Coalition to defend the capital city of Polykratos. Eventually, control of the government was wrested from the KRC and placed firmly in the hands of a more liberal, moderate coalition. Two years later, Pornidious Aristocrat died whilst giving a speech, under his authority as Grand Secretary of the GPO, urging Egelion to join the organization.
Around this time, the Kalopian Navy were deployed to Egelion, with the intent of being utilized to put down a rebellion in Trigunia, under the auspices of the GPO's First Military Command. In April 2746, Egoist Virginatos was assassinated in his cabinet the day prior to the FMC's launch of operations in Trigunia, with suspicion being pointed towards GPO's rival, NATO. With the death of Virginatos, the First Military Command was mustered out and the Kalopian fleet returned home. With the fall of their last great leader, the Kalopian Regime Coalition disbanded, and millionaire and prominent KRC member, Malekas Aristocrat was found dead.
Eleven years later, his son, John Aristocrat, now running the Aristocrat Insurance Group, refounded the Kalopian Regime Coalition, in an effort to see the ideals of his father through to their ending. By June of 2761, John Aristocrat was elected to the position of Grand Secretariat of the Imperial Lands of Kalopia, the nation's head of state, on a platform of centralization and nationalism. Later that year, a major diplomatic incident occurred when a military aircraft, from anarchy-ridden Kafuristan, entered Kalopian airspace and bombed several rural villages. Kalopian ground and air assets destroyed the bomber and where then mobilized along the Kalopian-Kafuristani border. Soon, the Kalopian forces entered Kafuristan, as part of the GPO-lead Second Military Command, with the mission of restoring peace and order to the nation by eliminating several antagonistic rebel groups. During the course of the conflict, some violence spread over into Kalopian villages, but the mission ultimately proved successful.
In 2762, Eric Kim, a longtime resident of Polykratos and quiet wealthy backer of several key Kalopian military projects, vaulted to the forefront of politics when he founded the Kalopian Unity Power Bloc, a political party, often allied to the KRC, that stressed Kalopian Nationalism and devotion, largely unexplained, to "Vril Power." After the elections of December 2763, the Kalopian Regime Coalition was supplanted by the KUPB, the Quasi-Libertarian Party, and the Democratic Socialists of Kalopia, amid criticism that it was too involved in foreign affairs and ignoring the needs of the ordinary Kalopian citizen. After this disappointing result for the KRC, they officially dismantled for a second time. From the 2760s onwards, the Imperial Lands of Kalopia was essentially ruled as a one party state run by the Quasi-Libertarian Party.
Under Quasi-Libertarian rule, the Kalopian military once again saw action abroad, under the aegis of the Global Peacekeeping Organization. After a number of nuclear attacks throughout Terra by Pontesi-affiliated groups, the GPO mobilized the Kalopian fleet to launch a shoreline assault of Pontesi, in coordination with other GPO military forces.
Rise of the Kalopian Empire (2790-2793)Edit
The direction of the nation was altered rapidly when, in the 2791 elections, the Imperial Patriotic League, a minor political party which had not yet ever held a single seat in the Koinoboulio, was vaulted to prominence, with just over 64 percent of the vote. Embracing the idea of Kalopian nationalism and sovereignty, the Patriotic League withdrew Kalopia from the Global Peacekeeping Organization, citing its asserting too much a degree of authority over Kalopia and its military, and ordered all Kalopian military forces under GPO leadership to return home.
The Kalopian Regime Coalition (2797-3056)Edit
After the decline of the Imperial Patriotic League, an obscure and struggling party rose to power in the absence of a strong an organized opposition. The Kalopian Regime Coalition was founded in 2594, but had always been a rather small and weak opposition group, rising and falling for certain period of time, even outright disapperaing. It was led by Diktátor Apellas who officially declared an autocracy (in the absence of opposition) in April 21, 2923 eliminating the Kalopiki Dimokratia and replacing it with the Kalopiki Autocratoria. It had taken advantage of certain issues of corruption and the tensions with Kaufuristan and taken power over its rival, Anthropophagus. But with the return of Anthropophagus several months later, the KRC quickly lost power as a constitutional hereditary monarchy under the House of Islyn was established. In 3011, after over nine decades of struggling against the House of Islyn, which was usually supported by the more popular parties, the Kalopian Regime Coalition assumed complete control of the Ekklesia (legislature) and would hold that unopposed dominance for the next 50 years. During this time, the KRC enjoyed complete unopposed dominance over the Kalopian government taking many extreme authoritarian measures, nationalizing all industries, restricing freedoms, and even exiling the royal family to Hulstria. However, without any sort of organized opposition for the next 50 years, the KRC stood unopposed while under the dominance of Diktátor Apellas which fostered corruption and international tensions, including a war with Deltaria in 3045. After the death of Apellas in 3056, the nation was plunged into chaos, with several competing factions, including an Istalian-backed "Kingdom of Kalopia" competing for the control of the nation.
The Post-Apellan Era (3070-3405)Edit
The next four centuries would be marked by instability and conflict, with Kalopia alternating between a constitutional monarchy under the House of Islyn and Kalopian nationalist and Wantuni minority regimes After the collapse of the KRC, there was a massive power vacuum that remained unfilled until the rise of the National Imperialists (NIP) in 3070. The NIP managed to restore the House of Islyn as a symbolic constitutional monarchy in 3078, calling the royal family back from Hulstria and establishing a line of succession. The Islyn monarchy was overthrown by the re-establishment of Wantuni supremacy between 3143 and 3237, later replaced by the Kalopian Dictatorship, a Kalopian nationalist regime.
The establishment of the Kalopian Autocracy in 3330 brought the nation under a fascist-inspired Kalopian nationalist regime, which joined forces with the Union of Allied Badaran Vanguardships in the Great Majatran War and later joined Zensho Socialist Indrala in the Southern Hemisphere War, both fought against Zardugal and its hegemony in Majatra.
Military and Oligarchic Rule (3405-3477)Edit
In 3405 General Hermán Mexes of the Kalopian National Army took power in a coup d'état, and the Kalopian Autocracy became a military dictatorship. When General Hermán Mexes died in 3417, he was succeeded by General Georgios Stefanopoulos, one of his closest associates, as President of Kalopia. A few years before assuming power General Stefanopoulos had arranged the murder of his two brothers and married his sister, while assuming the name Heliocles. When he succeed Mexes, Heliocles proclaimed himself Tyrant and renamed Kalopia as the "Helioclid Dominion", a highly personalized regime characterized by clientelism, corruption, and nationalism. Also under the Helioclids slavery was legalized in 3419, one year after the founding of the slaving corporation Eilomax, which would continue to exert tremendous influence on Kalopian and Majatran history for centuries.
The Helioclid Dominion continued after the death of Heliocles as a right-wing junta. During this time the Dominion initiated a controversial language policy, by banning vernacular Kalopian and introducing Classical Kalopian as the sole official language. Modern vernacular Kalopian was dismissed as vulgar slang without a grammar, and its proponents were accused of communism. This policy continued under the Oligarchic Dominion (3468-3477), an openly oligarchic regime resulting from the entrenchment of the military ruling elite during the Helioclid era. This policy and the overall corruption of the regime caused much opposition among both Kalopians and Wantunis.
Wantuni Hegemony (3477-3515)Edit
Opposition to the Oligarchic Dominion resulted in the creation of the Wantuni Strength movement in 3476, the first explicitly Wantuni political organization in centuries. In 3477 Wantuni Strength succeeded in bringing the nation under the most brutal of the Wantuni minority governments in its history, the Wantuni Hegemony. Benefiting from the support of the Deltarian Empire, the Hegemony is responsible for the largest genocide in Central Majatran history. Initiated with the disenfranchisement of the Kalopians in 3477, the Kalopian genocide was responsible for the deaths of an estimated 14 million people, most of them ethnic Kalopians. The brutal Wantuni Hegemony regime sparked a series of revolts and the creation of a number of anti-Hegemony parties. The most successful of these was the Central Majatran Revolutionary Organization (KMEO), a political organization campaigning for the end of ethnic nationalism and fighting for the abolition of the Hegemony.
Central Majatran Federation (3515-3540)Edit
By 3515 the KMEO had gathered enough strength to overthrow the Wantuni Hegemony, founding the Central Majatran Federative Democratic Republic, also known as the Central Majatran Federation, a federal regime that granted full recognition to all of its ethnic groups, each of which was given its own Republic within the Federation. While the Central Majatran Federation was successful in eliminating Wantuni minority rule and ending its genocidal practices, it did not manage to put an end to the ethnic and religious tensions that plagued the nation.
Tensions were further increased when, following the election of the first Sessoldian head of state of the Federation, the Sessoldian people were recognized as a separate nationality from the Kalopian people. In reaction to this perceived attack on Kalopian unity, the Kalopian nationalist faction within the KMEO succeeded in having Kalopian nationalist Yianni Viastis appointed president of three of the five union republics, through both elections and a coup. In reaction to the perceived inability of the central government to curb the rise of Kalopian ethnic nationalism, the various Union Republics of the Federation seceded throughout 3534, thus starting a civil war known as the Collapse of the Central Majatran Federation. Lacking their own military forces, the breakaway republics were forced to hire mercenaries. The largest mercenary army in the conflict was that of Siphina, who hired Mehmet Pasha Serhan, a Jakanian pasha of mixed Turjak, Siphinan, and Arbanian ancestry, as the leader of the Siphinan mercenary armies. With the unofficial support offered by Deltaria and Jakania, Mehmet Pasha managed to conquer the entire Kalopian territory by 3540. That year Mehmet Pasha proclaimed himself the Beylerbey of Central Majatra and officially joined the Deltarian Empire as a vassal state.
Deltarian Kalopia (3540-3569)Edit
Under Mehmet Pasha Kalopia became one of the most important regions of the growing Deltarian Empire, dually subordinate to Deltaria and to Jakania. After Mehmet Pasha's death in 3557, Baselios I, a prominent Theognosian Priest, declared that Kalopia should be the start of a conservative Patriarchal revolution. Kalopia was gripped by a theocratic government, and Baselios I adopted the mantle of "Patriarch". He adopted Kalopia as the site of the "Great Patriarchy", while continuing the nation's membership in the Deltarian Empire. The Great Patriarchy, under the rule of Baselios I, saw the reformation of an ancient Holy Inquisition in order to root out heresy worldwide. The Great Patriarchy ended in 3569, a year before the Deltarian Empire itself collapsed.
Post-Deltarian era (3569-3673)Edit
With the fall of the Great Patriarchy, Kalopia went through several types of short lived regimes, amongst them nationalist, monarchist and Ahmadist. Between 3569 and 3581 Wantuni supremacy was returned to the nation, but under far less discriminatory terms as had been introduced during the Wantuni Hegemony, and in 3581 the nation became a constitutional monarchy under the House of Maraton, a cadet branch of the House of Demitreus. The founding of the Razamid Caliphate in Kafuristan in 3653 led to a religious reaction in Kalopia . Citing a number of hadiths according to which the False Caliph, an anti-messianic figure awaited at the end of the world as the culmination of injustice and tyranny, was to arise from the House of Razama, Zahir ibn Yaqub al-Wantuni, son of Yaqub al-Wantuni and Tahira, an Asli servant, proclaimed himself al-Muntadhir (the "Awaited One") and the Last Imam. Gaining a wide following among Wantunis and Ahmadi Kalopians fearful of a potential Kafuri takeover of Kalopia , Zahir al-Muntadhir established his Imamate in 3659 and ruled Kalopia as a theocracy. A new religion was thus born, Zahirism, which continues to have a significant following in the nation.
Razamid Province (3673-3713)Edit
In December 3673 by way of bribes and orchestration of an internal coup, the Razamids of Kafuristan overthrew the Zahirite Imam and Kalopia became a province of the fast expanding Razamid Caliphate. The Siphinian secret police boss Kostaq Fisnik ruled Kalopia for the Razamids with a Razamid Prince appointed Wali (Governor). Fisnik's regime was dominated by his fellow Siphinans and Abadis, and he pushed through a religious settlement between the major sects in the country in 3674. Razamid rule in Kalopia was threatened by the founding of the Central Majatran Revolutionary Organisation (KMEO), a secular resistance movement inspired by its predecessor of the same name of the early 36th century. A full scale uprising began and although it ended with the interference of the Caliphal government and troops, the Caliphate itself eventually collapsed in 3713, and Kalopia regained its independence under the new KMEO.
Post-Razamid Era (3713-4000)Edit
The Revolutionary Republic founded by the new KMEO proved to be a stable and lasting regime, surviving until 3777. That year the House of Maraton was peacefully restored to the throne, and for the next few centuries the nation would alternate between republican and monarchist regimes. In 3980 the oligarchic Patrician League gained power and established a formally plutocratic regime known as the "Freehold Republic". The Freehold Republic, ruled by a cosmopolitan oligarchy from throughout Majatra, was marked by ethnic and religious strife and a policy of forceful assimilation of all ethnic groups into the Kalopian and Wantuni ethnicities, through language imperialism and ethnic pogroms. The program was a partial success in that it drastically reduced the numbers of Arbanians and Istochniaks and largely erased the distinct identity of the Sessoldians, but it also brought about a rise of Turjak nationalism, reacting to Kalopian and Wantuni supremacy.
Rise of Tukaric nationalism (4000-4129)Edit
During the following ere the Turjak people in Kalopia gradually came to the forefront of Kalopian politics, eventually surpassing the Wantunis in political influence. What ultimately led to the collapse of the Freehold Republic however was its imminent accession to the Chann-led Imperial Republic. The trade-union led anti-Chann movement coalesced into the Patriotic Socialist Movement (PASOK), which gained power in 3993 and proceeded to ban the Patrician League. Despite the raison d'être of PASOK having been the expulsion of Chann presence in Kalopia , the country remained part of the Imperial Republic after the party's rise to power. During this first six-year period in which PASOK held a monopoly on power, they successfully drafted a new constitution for the country, including linguistic, electoral and political reforms, founding the Central Majatran Union of Kalopia-Wantuni in 3995.
The Central Majatran Union would remain under authoritarian PASOK rule until the Liberal Uprising of 4057, following which the country's leaders were sent into exile, and elections were held for a Constituent Assembly in 4058. The Liberal Uprising also brought the new Motherland Party to power. Initially a left-leaning liberal democratic party under the rule of Andreas Dragassakis, his assassination in 4063 at the hands of Ahmadist militants led to an immediate declaration of a state of emergency by Premier Sali Demir, a harsh government crackdown on radical Ahmadist groups, and the forced dissolution of the Kalopian Ahmadi Democratic Party (KADEP), the only nation-wide opposition party in the country. In the aftermath of the assassination Ekmeleddin Denktaṡ emerged as the leader of the Motherland Party and the nation itself.
During his presidency, Ekmeleddin Denktaṡ built a strong cult of personality around himself, as reflected in the construction of large statues of him around the country. Further, in 4065, he was awarded the honorific surname "Atatürcak" (meaning "Father of the Turjaks") by the Kalopian legislature. The early years of his presidency were marked by radical secularization of Kalopian society, the nationalization of major industries and the repression of political opposition. In 4060, the Atatürcak government crafted and passed a new constitution for Kalopia, which included the Language Law of 4060; this piece of legislation established the Kalopian Turjak language as the official language of the country, while distinguishing it from the basic Central Turjak language. Atatürcak's successor, Binali Kırmızıgül, introduced a number of reforms that gradually liberalized the regime and paved the way for a restoration of democracy, for the first time since the Liberal Uprising.
Facing increasing pressure both at home and abroad, Kırmızıgül ultimately allowed for the participation of opposition parties in the 4095 elections, the first full multi-party elections since 4058. The 4095–4100 legislature ultimately functioned as a constituent assembly; the 450 deputies prepared a new, democratic constitution for Kalopia, which came into effect on 1 January 4100. The new constitution established the Central Majatran Union (CMU) as a replacement for the Great Kalopian Republic that had been in place since the 4050s. The Union was administratively divided between the Kalopian Republic inhabited by ethnic Kalopians in the north and the Tukaric Republic inhabited by ethnic Turjaks in the south. On 16 December 4096, Kırmızıgül dissolved the Motherland Party, and replaced it with the more democratically-minded Socialist Düstur Party (SDP).
The new party was soundly defeated in the 4100 general elections, the first in the new Central Majatran Union. A power-sharing deal was subsequently struck with the opposition Kalopian Liberals, but in 4102 the SDP left the coalition government and re-entered opposition. Accusing the Liberals of threatening the Tukaric nationalist legacy of Atatürcak, the Central Majatran Armed Forces deposed the Liberal government in 4103 and established the Peace at Home Council to oversee the drafting of a new, secular and pro-Atatürcak constitution. The SDP backed the coup plotters, and subsequently joined the military government. Although civilian rule was restored to the nation, liberal democracy was not. After the 4112 elections SDP leader Ahmet Şimşek pushed for the transition from a presidential to a parliamentary system, renaming the nation as the Kalopian Republic and securing the premiership for former SDP leader Mustafa Öztükar. In the elections of 4118, the party suffered a heavy defeat. President Şimşek lost the presidential elections by a landslide, while the SDP saw lost most of its legislative seats. Prime Minister Öztükar was subsequently removed from office after a confidence vote in January 4119. The Socialist Düstur Party was subsequently disbanded, leading to a prolonged period of instability and chaos that was only brought to an end in 4129 with the electoral victory of the Wantuni Anarcho-Capitalists, a new political force pledging to undo the populist and Turjak nationalist policies of the SDP.
Stateless era (4129-4209)Edit
The Wantuni Anarcho-Capitalists, renaming themselves as the "Inhabitants of Wantuni", brought the Turjak nationalist regime to an end, abolishing all central government and sovereignty in 4129, leading to the successful implementation of a fully anarchist system. For almost a century Kalopia found itself with no government and no sovereignty. During this period the area became an attractive destination for many multinational corporations, particularly those based in Istalia. The Istalian energy giant Enist started the exploitation of the oil and natural gas deposits and established its headquarter in the Mossavi region. During the rest of the century the Istalian companies grew and expanded throughout Kalopia while in Mossavi they became a fundamental part of the social economic structure of the Free Communities of the area. The Istalian multinationals not only offered goods and services but started to act like quasi-government organization, offering social services, healthcare, education, public order, managing of the utilities, etc. by establishing agreements with the different Free Communities, especially the powerful city-state of Helios, ancient capital city of Kalopia.
However, after decades of Anarchism and Anarcho-Capitalism, the ancient Eilomax slaving corporation, the biggest multinational company in the Area commonly known as Wantuni, rose to power and re-introduced slavery in the area. The increased sense of fear and insecurity and the spread of violence, human rights violations, and the power of the multinationals, which had literally colonized large areas of Kalopia, led to renewed calls for the reestablishment of an organized state. Leading the opposition to Eilomax and the Istalian companies was the Worker's Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Wantuni, an Anarho-Syndicalist terrorist organization fighting international capitalism. Given the large penetration of the Istalian companies, the Front targeted Istalia, which was the victim of many terrorist attacks leading to more than five hundred deaths. The Istalian government led by Lorenzo Verhoeven, after having spent almost seven years successfully neutralizing a domestic terrorist group allied with the Revolutionary Front, was forced in 4197 to manage a scandal involving the Istalian companies in Wantuni: most of the istalian multinationals were accused of having exploited slavery and cooperated with the Eilomax.
The Istalian Government, aware of the importance of the Kalopian market for the Istalian companies and economy, decided to send a Military Extraordinary Administration in Mossavi to assume temporary control of the Wantuni branches of the istalian companies with the objective of maintaining their activities in Wantuni but also ensuring the respect of human rights and cutting all ties with Eilomax. In 4199 the Government of Kazulia, in the aftermath of a corruption scandal involving Kazulian companies in Wantuni, also intervened and invited the Wantuni people to establish a civil protectorate in the southern region of Al-Najd. Several years later in 4202 Istalia also established its own protectorate, replacing the previous Military Extraordinary Administration.
Recting to the emergence of a slave-based economy as well as to the creeping annexation of territories by both Istalia and Kazulia, a number of militias, trade unions, companies, and local authorities joined forces to create the Kalopian Loyalist Party, aiming to re-establish a state in Kalopia and defend the nation's sovereignty and territorial integrity. Seeing that Eilomax would have a better chance of protecting its assets under a formalized legal framework, even with an official abolition of slavery, the company backed the Loyalist project of establishing a state in Kalopia. Thus the Union of Kalopia-Wantuni was founded in 4203, putting an end to the stateless era.
However the new Union was weak and remained vulnerable to both Eilomax, which managed to have its CEO simultaneously hold the roles of Head of State and minister of Finance, Defence, Infrastructure and Transport, Science and Technology, and Trade and Industry, and to the Istalian and Kazulian extraterritorial possessions, which remained in place as protectorates. Due to these structural weaknesses and the fact that Kalopia had become a tax haven for the entire Majatran economy, the global financial crisis hit Kalopia particularly hard, seeing Kalopian assets plunge and leading to increasingly violent social unrest. Acting as a "satellite" tax haven for the Istalian and Kazulian economies, Kalopia became a conduit for illicit financial flows from the developing countries in Majatra into financial centers in Romula or Skalm, leading to large macroeconomic imbalances, especially since much of the activity taking place in Kalopia was not measured by conventional national statistics, due to trade mispricing and tax avoidance. As a result of the consequent loss of faith in the ability of the government to restore democracy and human rights to the nation, the popularity of the Workers' Revolutionary Front soured. The financial crisis and the loss of confidence in the government and the Istalian and Kazulian protectorates also led to the emergence of a new player on the Kalopian political scene, the League of Communist Vanguards, a Vanguard Communist and Jalalist political movement joining the Front in its goal of revolutionary overthrow of the Union and the protectorates.
Socialist Kalopia (4209-present)Edit
The League of Communist Vanguards and the Workers' Revolutionary Front joined forces to launch a full-scale revolution in September 4205 that by July 4206 managed to occupy the capital of the Union, Eleopolis, sparking a brief but brutal civil war between the Metzist-Anarchist alliance and the Eilomax-ruled Union. In January 4209, with the defeat of the last Eilomax stronghold outside the Istalian and Kazulian protectorates the League proclaimed the Union of Kalopian Revolutionary Socialist Vanguardships and adopted a draft constitution, establishing Kalopia as a socialist decentralized regime founded on Communist and Anarcho-Syndicalist principles. A far-reaching set of economic reforms was implemented, leading to the nationalization of most industries, the establishment of worker-managed co-operatives, and the introduction of a wide welfare system. A more formal constitution was adopted in 4216 that officially defined Kalopia as a direct democracy governed under socialist principles.
With the socialist revolution in Kalopia the nation joined Deltaria, Jelbania, and Jakania as the fourth officially socialist government in Majatra, and in April 4213 the four nations signed a treaty founding the Majatran Revolutionary Socialist Federation (MRSF), establishing a socialist super-nation covering most of Central Majatra. The new superstate found itself in direct conflict with the Istalian and Kazulian protectorates after it demanded the withdrawal of foreign forces and the forceful incorporation of Mossavi and Al-Najd into the MRSF. Reacting to the threat of war the two protectorates held a referendum on their future status, asking their citizens whether they preferred to maintain the status quo, join the other protectorate to form a single independent government, or join the MRSF. Voters in both protectorates overwhelmingly voted for union and independence, and on the 1st of January 4219 the Federal Republic of Kalopia-Wantuni was founded as an independent nation, with close economic and political ties to Istalia. The refusal of the Majatran Revolutionary Socialist Federation to recognize the new entity led to an increase in tensions, as well as a dramatic realignment of Majatran politics when Vanuku, the traditionally dominant power in Majatra and a formal opponent of the rising MRSF, entered into a mutual defense and non-aggression agreement with the new Federation, implicitly aimed against Istalia.