The history of Selucia covers the history of the territory of the modern state of Selucia as well as that of the Selucian people. Selucians are considered to belong to the Enetric peoples, and are thought to have arrived on the Selucian archipelago sometime in the 3rd millennium BCE. Throughout the following millennia, Selucian culture and civilization spread, directly or indirectly, to many areas outside the Selucian islands, including Pontesi, Barmenia, Deltaria, Zardugal, Istalia, or Canrille. Selucia was also the headquarters of the first international Hosian Church, and as such Selucian influence spread far beyond areas of Selucian control.
|c. 3000 BCE - c. 1000 BCE||Enetric tribes|
|c. 1000 BCE - 334 BCE||Selucian city-states||Numerous independent republican and monarchic polities|
|334 BCE - 280 BCE||Selucian League||Republican Confederacy|
|280 BCE - 22 CE||Qedarite Empire||Province of oligarchic republic|
|22 - 1811||Selucian city-states||Numerous independent republican and monarchic polities|
|1811-1935||Selucian Empire||Constitutional republic, colonial empire|
|1935-2113||Selucian Imperium||Fascist dictatorship|
|2113-2593||Selucian Imperium||1st Republic, elective monarchy|
|2593-2684||Selucian Republic||2nd Republic|
|2684-2701||Civitas Seluciana||3rd Republic|
|2701-2830||Selucian Imperium||4th Republic, elective monarchy|
|2830-2854||Selucian Land of St. Parnum||Terran Patriarchal monastic state|
|2854-2989||Selucian Imperium||Elective monarchy, Patriarchal theocracy|
|2989-3000||Republic and Empire of Selucia||Pagan dictatorship|
|3000-3060||Selucian Imperium||Republic, Patriarchal theocracy|
|3060-3163||Republic and Empire of Selucia||Pagan dictatorship; 5th Republic|
|3163-3721||Selucian Imperium||Elective monarchy, Patriarchal theocracy|
|3721-3781||Commonwealth of Selucian States||Federal republic|
|3781-3838||Selucian Imperium||Patriarchal theocracy|
|3838-3920||Selucian Republic||6th Republic|
|3920-3955||Selucian Kingdom||Represented, Constitutional Monarchy|
|3955-4085||Kingdom of Selucia||Represented, Constitutional Monarchy|
|4086-4236||Kingdom of Selucia||Pagan republic|
|4236-4256||Republic of Selucia||7th Republic|
|4325-4347||Represented, Constitutional Monarchy|
|4799-||Senate and People of Selucia||11th Republic|
The Enetric Migrations are a prehistoric event hypothesized to have brought the Enetric speaking peoples, including Selucians and Kalopians, to Majatra from their initial homeland somewhere in modern Kundrati. When the Enetric peoples invaded sometime around 3000 BCE, the area was inhabited by various non-Enetric-speaking, indigenous pre-Enetric people, who practiced agriculture as they had done since the 7th millennium BCE.
Ancient Selucia was an ancient civilization that lasted from the Archaic period of circa 1000 BCE to the end of antiquity (c. 500 CE), but in common usage it refers to all Selucian history until the fall of the Qedarite Empire. Ancient Selucia is considered the foundational culture of Artanian civilization and one of the fundamental influences for Majatran civilization. Ancient Selucian civilization has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, art and architecture of the modern world, particularly due to the spread of Selucian Hosianism, as well as a result of the rediscovery of Selucian antiquity during the Renascentia.
In time the Enetric tribes on the archipelago began differentiating themselves from other Enetric peoples. During the 7th century BCE writing was introduced with the adoption of the Qedarite (Phoenician) alphabet, modifying it to create the Selucian alphabet. Selucia was divided into many small self-governing communities, to a large extent determined by Selucian geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbours by the sea or mountain ranges.
The basic political unit in Ancient Selucia was the city-state. Each city was theoretically independent, as was any colony, although colonies traditionally deferred to their mother city. The process of colonization around the Majatran Sea, started in the Archaic era, continued much more vigurously during the age of Classical Selucia, when the Selucian city-states competed with Cildanian and Kalopian polities in colonizing the shores of Majatra.
Competition between Selucian and Cildanian city-states intensified after the creation of the Qedarite Empire in 407 BCE. Desiring to maintain Cildanian monopoly on trade in the Majatran Sea, the Qedarite city-state of Qart Qildar imposed its hegemony over most Cildanian city-states around Majatra by the end of the 5th century. Trade disputes between Selucians and Cildanians and conflict over hegemony in West Majatra culminated in the Selucian-Cildanian Wars, a series of four wars that gradually brought most Selucian city-states under the rule of the Qedarite Empire. During the wars Selucia was united for the first time in its history under the Selucian League, an alliance of nominally independent city-states led by an elected Imperator (general), under the informal leadership of Auroria, the most powerful city-state at the time.
Selucia was defeated by the Qedarite Empire and incorporated as a province. Although Selucia declined militarily, Selucian culture continued to flourish under Qedarite rule. The Selucian city-states retained a large degree of autonomy, and the Selucian religion received much sponsorship from the Empire. Qedarite Selucia was also characterized by a large degree of syncretism between Selucian and Qedarite cultures, and many Kalopian influences were also introduced, especially after the Empire conquered Kalopia in 205 BCE.
The Jelbo-Tukaric Migrations that ultimately destroyed the Qedarite Empire did not affect Selucia directly, but the Selucian city-states did rebel against Qart Qildar in the Social War. With the defeat of Qart Qildar, Selucia gained her independence, but not her unity, as the islands would continue to be divided into a patchwork of small independent polities.
Following the fall of the Qedarite Empire and the power vacuum left in its place, a new power slowly emerged in Selucia, the Hosian Church. Hosianism was founded in Beiteynu while the Qedarite Empire was crumbling, and the new faith was introduced in Selucia not long after its founding; according to tradition, it was St. Michael, one of the Disciples of Eliyahu, that brought the new religion into Selucia, becoming the first Bishop of Auroria, where he was also martyred. Lacking central authority, many of the city-states were quick to embrace Hosianism, while others remained adamantly Pagan. In Auroria iself, after its adoption of Hosianism as the city's faith, the Bishop gained the role of President of the City. Claiming legitimacy derived from Saint Michael, the Bishop of Auroria considered himself the highest authority of the emerging Church, so that when the Unitarian controversy was raging amongst Hobrazian Hosians, spreading into Majatra, Bishop of Auroria Adeodatus Florianus called for a council of the entire Hosian world in order to put an end to the controversy. The resulting Council of Auroria of 533 CE was one of the most important events in Terran religious history, as it formalized the mainstream Binitarian dogma, established the first Hosian Church (the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra), adopted a single biblical cannon for the whole Church, and recognized the Bishop of Auroria as Arch-Patriarch and leader of the entire Hosian world. The council also resulted in the oldest ongoing schisms in the Hosian Church, as the Unitarian party, rejecting the outcome of the Council, ultimately founded the Patriarchal Church (Eastern Rite).
The newly established Hosian Church, headquartered in the Selucian city of Auroria, gradually became the strongest political faction on the islands. By the 8th century Auroria was confirmed as the secular possession of the Church as the Patrimonium Sancti Michaelis ("Patrimonium of Saint Michael"). In the meantime Selucian towns outside the control of the Church preserved their independence. By the end of the medieval era, these towns had exited from Feudalism, so that their society was based on merchants and commerce. Owing to their favourable position between Artania and Majatra, Selucian cities became international trading and banking hubs and intellectual crossroads. Several of these cities became thalassocracies, building fleets of ships both for their own protection and to support extensive trade networks between the two continents, while also occupying coastal territory around the Majatran Sea.
Between the 14th and 16th centuries Selucia was the centre of the Renascentia, a cultural period marked by the flourishing of the arts, architecture, literature, science, historiography, and political theory. The newfound prosperity brought by trade and banking led to the power of the city-states increasing significantly, as the Selucian trade routes that connected Artania and Majatra were major conduits of culture and knowledge. Economic and territorial growth brought increasing wealth to the Selucian city-states, so that during the Renascentia many political leaders, including the Papacy, felt the need to show their affluence and taste by spending money on cultural symbols of wealth. Leading families in the city-states would become patrons of the arts and culture. A central feature of the Renascentia was the rediscovery of Classical Antiquity and its cultural, scientific, and artistic values. Renascentia luminaries strove to imitate the achievements of Antiquity and move away from the stagnation of the previous period, which they termed the "Middle Ages".
The rediscovery of classical mythology during the Renascentia led to a strong resurgence of Selucian Paganism beginning with the 15th century. As a consequence of newfound interest in the writings of ancient Selucians, Pagan writers could now rightfully point out that their faith, until that point looked down upon as nothing more than peasant superstition, had a rich and ancient philosophical tradition that could compete with Hosian theology on equal footing. The rebirth of Paganism during the Renascentia was however opposed by the Church, which also claimed itself the heir of ancient Selucian heritage by pointing out monotheistic tendencies within the writings of a number of classical philosophers. The Renascentia consequently became fertile ground for philosophical and theological disputes between the two competing traditions. The religious landscape of the archipelago was from this point on characterized by a relative balance between two religions, each with its own claim to higher intellectual and moral respectability.
During the Renascentia Classical literature was rediscovered, and with it widespread knowledge of Classical Selucian. Renascentia authors strived to immitate the writing of classical authors, creating a polished and artificial style that followed the prescriptions of 3rd century BCE Aurorian Selucian. The growing body of literature in Classical Selucian and the increasing divergence of colloquial dialects established the classical register as a common language throughout the islands, gaining acceptance as the language of diplomacy and trade in addition to its role as the language of literature and religion.
Early Modern historyEdit
Towards the end of the Renascentia the powerful families that ruled the Selucian city-states and who had been the major patrons of cultural rebirth gradually brought the various republics under their direct rule, establishing hereditary monarchies that would come to dominate the islands in early modern times. During the Renascentia Selucian writers such as Titus Tullius Coleus looked back to the perceived heroism of ancient times, when Selucia was united against foreign powers. In the late 18th century nationalist ideas began to gain momentum, supported by the growing middle class dissatisfied with feudalism, monarchy, and the disunity of the nation. Building upon the values of the Renascentia, early Selucian nationalists envisioned a single unified Selucian nation-state governed under Republican principles. Nationalist writers of the 18th century began publishing works in a modernized form of Classical Selucian, breaking from the archaic tendencies of Selucian writing during the Renascentia by tackling modern themes in an otherwise artificial standardized language, thus laying the foundations of Modern Standard Selucian as the single language of the Selucian nation. Those in favour of unification also faced opposition from the Papacy and the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra, which feared that giving up power in the region could mean the persecution of Selucian Hosians. This led to a close association between Selucian Paganism and Selucian Nationalism, the latter of which saw the Hosian faith as an allogenous element and the main obstacle to unification.
One of the largest monarchic polities on the islands was the Principality of Argona, which had in the late 16th century come under the rule of the powerful Gens Urseola. The rising middle class of Argona was increasingly dissatisfied with the autocratic rule of the Urseoli, and in 1799 the Urseoli were overthrown in a republican revolution, founding the Argonan Republic. Due to the Republic's Pagan Nationalist and republican character, it soon entered armed conflict with the Church and the other states on the islands. The resulting war, won by Argona, led to the Unification of Selucia and the creation of a Selucian nation-state under pagan and republican principles. Hosianism was banned and driven underground, Paganism was granted a unified form and theology, and Modern Standard Selucian was established as the nation's sole official language.
First Republic (1811-1935)Edit
The Unification of Selucia resulted in the creation of the First Republic. Sextus Fontilius, the commander in charge of the invasion of Auroria, was elected the first Consul of united Selucia together with former Dictator Iulianus Capraeus, establishing a form of government that would last, with numerous alterations and interruptions, for millennia. Politics in the Republic soon became dominated by a new Republican aristocracy. Known as the Patricii (Patricians), this new aristocracy had its roots in the rising industrial and capitalist oligarchy that gradually gained prominence as a result of the modernization of Selucia. The Patricians were distinguished by their enthusiasm for Classical culture and education; one major feature setting them aside from the rest of the population was their use of classical Tria Nomina, which in time became the most important marker of Patrician status.
The First Republic also established a vast colonial empire ruling over large territories in Majatra, Seleya, and Keris. Unlike other contemporary colonial empires, Selucia's was fueled by an explicit policy of assimilation and miscegenation, although ethnic Selucians were firmly at the top of the hierarchy. Selucia lost most of its colonial empire as a result of the North Seleyan Wars (1889-1907). The Selucian colonial empire left a lasting legacy, as territories under Selucian rule were heavily influenced by Selucian culture, and the Selucian language spoken in these former colonies evolved into several modern languages, including Canrillaise, Egelian, or Tukarese.
Fascist Selucia and First Imperium (1935-2113)Edit
The national humiliation felt by Selucia due to the loss of its colonial empire fueled a sense of revanchism and ultranationalism. In time these sentiments coalesced into a new far-right ideology and political movement, Fascism. Benedictus Linius Mussio, the leader of the Fascist movement, came to power in 1935 through partially legal means, and three years later he was proclaimed dictator for life. Although his rule was short-lived, Mussio's regime, officially known as the First Imperium, remained in power for centuries.
Second Imperium (2113-2593)Edit
In 2113 the Fascist regime collapsed and was replaced by an aristocratic republic, dominated by three major noble families, the Gens Assedonensis, Gens Commodiana, Gens Aurelia, and Gens Draconensis. Replacing the authoritarian office of Dictator with an elective monarchy, the Selucian Imperium's head of state was the Imperator, elected by the populace from the leading members of the three ruling families. The Imperator enjoyed vast powers, including the power to nominate the cabinet, and was also automatically the Pontifex Maximus of Religio Seluciana.
During the Second Imperium Paganism remained the dominant religion, and Hosianism, although no longer actively persecuted, was a small minority. In 2385 the Hosians in Selucia decided to revive the ancient office of Arch-Patriarch. The office had been restored in 2104 and again in 2134 by the Terran Patriarchal Church, however the Terran attempt at a restored Arch-Patriarchate was not universally recognized by all Hosians heir to the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra, and after a number of schisms the Terran Patriarchal Church itself abolished the Arch-Patriarchate in 2325. Owing to the lack of an Arch-Patriarch, and given the freedom of religion now enjoyed by Hosians in Selucia, the Selucian Church elected Ioannes I as the first Arch-Patriarch in Auroria after centuries of persecution, claiming direct continuity with the old Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra. The newly elected Arch-Patriarch in Auroria attracted support from a diaspora of adherents of the now-defunct Apostolic Church across the world, reinstituting bishoprics in certain places. A massive influx of the faithful did not emerge until much later, but since then the Church steadily grew.
Second Republic (2593-2701)Edit
Opposition to aristocratic rule grew towards the end of the Imperium, and in 2593 democratic forces succeeded in abolishing the Selucian Imperium, replacing it with the democratic Selucian Republic. The Second Republic was politically dominated by left-leaning forces, but there were numerous attempts at restoring aristocratic rule throughout its existence. In 2684 the nation changed its official name to "Civitas Seluciana".
Third Imperium (2701-2830)Edit
Aristocratic forces, under the leadership of the Imperial Democratic Coalition were finally able to restore the Imperium and its political system in 2701. Although the restored Imperium enjoyed a certain level of stability at first, religious and social tensions were high and, by the 2780s they became violent. During that decade the National Revolutionary Front, a far-left political organization, launched a series of deadly attacks on religious sites and clergy. The Proletarian Legion, the paramilitary wing of the Front, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks in Auroria, including, in 2789, an attack on the Badaran embassy. Reacting to left-wing violence a far-right reactionary and patrician organization was formed known as the Optimates. The following decade was marked by street violence between the far-left and the far-right, as well as fierce electoral competition between the two. In 2794 an unexpected turn of events led to a coalition government between the National Revolutionary Front and the conservative Home and Hearth Party, locking the Optimates out of power. The communist-conservative coalition proceeded to collectivize all land in 2795, leading to increased opposition and heightened violence. Although an attempted Optimates coup was defeated, the nation seemed on the brink of civil war. Following the dissolution of the the Home and Hearth Party, the two forces, i.e. the far-left National Revolutionary Front and the far-right Optimates, agreed to establish a joint dictatorship in order to avoid civil war. In 2796 Optimates leader Avitus Tyrannus was proclaimed Dictator of Selucia with the backing of the National Revolutionary Front, establishing a repressive regime that introduced slavery, persecuted Hosianism, and promoted gladiatorial games. It was later revealed that the National Revolutionary Front had been infiltrated by the security forces of the state years earlier and was turned into a puppet of the Optimates with the purpose of keeping the lower classes complacent.
Selucian Crusade (2830-2854)Edit
After the death of Avitus Tyrannus the regime disintegrated and entered a period of chaos and instability. The Selucian Communist Party managed to gain power in Auroria in 2828, but its control over the rest of the nation was practically non-existent. Taking advantage of the chaos and wishing to put an end to his rival the Selucian Patriarchal Church, the Pápež of the Terran Patriarchal Church launched a crusade against Selucia with the goal of bringing the nation under the fold of the Deltarian Church. The newly-formed Order of Saint Parnum under the leadership of Grandmaster Boris Ryssko succeeded in occupying the whole of Selucia, creating the Selucian Land of St. Parnum, a monastic crusader state ruled by the Order. During crusader rule the entire economy and educational system were brought in the hands of the Order of Saint Parnum and all religions other than the Terran Patriarchal Church were heavily persecuted. The Orderstate ruled Selucia for three decades, during which time most Selucians became literate in the Daralian language and a large part of the population was forcibly baptized into the Terran Patriarchal Church. After the death of Grandmaster Boris Ryssko in 2852 Selucian Orderstate entered a period of turmoil. Most brothers of the Order left Selucia to join other Crusades or to fight for the Terran Church in Deltaria, leaving the Orderstate undefended. By 2854 the Alliance of Imperial Selucians, the main opposition to the Order of Saint Parnum, gained power and proceeded to restore the Imperium.
Fourth Imperium (2854-2989)Edit
The driving force behind the resistance to the Orderstate was the Selucian Patriarchal Church, and in the restored Imperium Hosians gained an unprecedented degree of power. It was during the Fourth Imperium that Hosians became, for the first time since the Great Persecution, a majority of the population of Selucia. Although technically a democracy, the Imperium was gradually brought under clerical rule, and conflict with other religions became a central feature of Selucian politics. In 2940 Cardinal Connor of Victoria, who was at the time the most influential Patriarchal leader in the nation, established Selucia as a monarchy. He named his step-nephew, Constantinus I of the House of Victoria, the first hereditary Imperator of the nation, and in 2951, pro-Selucian forces in Barmenistan established Rebeca I, the youngest daughter of Constantinus I, as Queen of Barmenistan. Under the House of Victoria Selucia became a Hosian theocratic monarchy that persecuted against all rival faiths. When Cardinal Conor was assassinated by Ahmadi terrorists, the assassination was blamed on the nation of Badara, accused of aiding Ahmadi revolutionaries in order to "spread Ahmadism to Western Majatra." In reaction the Imperium decreed the expulsion of all Ahmadis in Selucia and a period of tension with Badara, when it seemed that war was imminent, followed.
Triariist Revolution and Third Republic (2989-3163)Edit
It did not take long for Pagan reaction to the Hosian theocratic monarchy to materialize. In 2988 a new political movement, the United Legion of Triariists, emerged, based on the ideology of Triariism, named after the elite fighting force of the First Republic. Calling for the restoration of the First Republic and an end to Hosian rule, Triariism was an openly Pagan and Republican reaction to the House of Victoria. The following year the Triariists were successful in overthrowing the monarchy and established the Republic and Empire of Selucia, with a new constitution and political system deliberately modeled after the First Republic. Religio Seluciana was openly promoted, although other religions were not persecuted. For the first time in centuries the Triariists restored a system of dual Consulship, with Marius Severinus Fabianus Hieronymon serving as First Consul of the Senate and Octavianus Albus Livius Faunus "the Apostate" serving as Tribune Elect and Proconsul of the Republic.
The Triariist regime also embarked on an ambitious city construction program. Eleven new cities were established under the Republic and Empire, including a new capital city Octaviana and the city of Hieronymium, named after the two Triariist leaders and both located in Sadaria Orientalis. Most of these cities exist to this day as a visual legacy of the Triariist regime. The most important of the monumental structures built under Triariist rule is the Altar of the Republic, a complex Pagan temple built in 2992 and consecrated to Dea Selucia, Goddess Selucia. In 4480 the Altar, by then a secular museum, was declared a IESCO Global Heritage Site, and in 4799 it was reconsecrated as a Pagan temple.
Although the Imperium and Hosian rule was briefly restored between 3000 and 3060, the Triariist regime returned to power. Soon afterwards it found itself in conflict with Phalangist Cildania. The Qedarite Republic of Cildania was a Pan-Qedarist ultra-nationalist regime which pursued the unification of all of Majatra under Qedarite (OOC: Semitic) rule. When Phalangist Cildania launched a campaign of forceful assimilation against the nation's Hebilean minority the Triariist regime declared war on Cildania and sponsored the creation of the Hebilean Resistance Army. Although the two nations did not directly engage each other in combat, Selucia was successful in destabilizing the Phalangist regime. Mass protests and the ongoing guerilla war against the Hebilean Resistance Army forced the Qedarite Republic to liberalize in the 3070s, and by 3100 Cildania became a democratic republic. In Selucia too Hosian opposition to the Pagan government grew. By 3163 the Selucian Patriarchal Party, the political arm of the Selucian Patriarchal Church, succeeded in restoring the Hosian monarchy under Philippus III.
Fifth Imperium (3163-3721)Edit
The restored Fifth Imperium ruled Selucia for six centuries, during which time it transformed from a Hosian-dominated nation with a significant Pagan minority to an overwhelmingly Hosian country owing to the near eradication of Paganism. Although the hereditary nature of the office of Imperator was abolished in 3190 after the death of Philippus III, Hosian theocracy continued unabated. A peculiar feature of the Fifth Imperium is the gradual emergence of a Dundorfian ruling class centred around the Liberal Conservative Party, although Dundorfians remained a small minority throughout the Imperium's existence. During this time the Selucian Security changed, from being a minor policing organization, to becoming a feared and deadly secret police, operating outside civil control to eliminate dissidence and crush opposition to the regime.
Invasion of PontesiEdit
Ethnic Selucian opposition to Dundorfian minority rule crystallized around the old Selucian Patriarchal Party as well as a political newcomer, the New Imperial Party, and for a while a coalition between the two parties managed to gain power in the Imperium. However, in 3227, after the NIP-led government under Alamar Xarfaxis unconstitutionally authorized a military operation to aid the Unholy Empire of Davostan under Medivh Evil, the government was dissolved and the New Imperial Party was forcefully disbanded. Alamar Xarfaxis and former Selucian foreign minister Livia Haart, together with 35 other former leading members of the New Imperial Party, fled political persecution by the Selucian government and the Alliance of Terran Republics and were granted asylum in the Pontesi Hegemony. Medris Mederagaar, the Director General of the Pontesian Hegemony had estimated that the newcomers would help stabilize the Pontesian regime while also increasing its influence in Selucia, however this proved to be a miscalculation. Alamar Xarfaxis formed the core of what would later become the Crimson Crusade by assembling a coalition of radicals from the left and the right dissatisfied with Hegemony rule. In the 3232 elections the "Imperial Crusaders League", led and founded by Alamar Xarfaxis, won the Pontesian elections. Soon afterwards the Union of Imperial Crusader Kingdoms was established, and although the new government hid its intentions at first, it did not take long for the Crusaders to reveal their true interest in Pontesi. The Imperial Crusaders League's main goal was the wholesale Selucianization of Pontesi, based on Alamar Xarfaxis' prophetic visions of Pontesi as a God-given part of the Selucian nation. The government's heavily discriminatory actions led to violence, and in 3238 the violence erupted into full-scale civil war between the Crusaders, supported by Selucia and the Alliance of Terran Republics, and the resurgent Pontesi Hegemony backed by the International Monarchist League. The war lasted eleven years and led to the defeat of the Crusaders and end to their Selucianization attempts in Pontesi. However the Crimson Crusade survived the end of the war. Owing to its backing by the Alliance of Terran Republics, the Crusaders were able to find refuge in neighboring Barmenistan, Beiteynu, or, as was the case for Xarfaxis himself, in Selucia where he lived the remainder of his life. Following his death a personality cult emerged around him and his ideas, leading in time to the emergence of Xarfaxianism, a far-right Selucian nationalist ideology that saw not just Pontesi, but also Malivia and Keymon as natural and legitimate targets for Selucian expansionism.
Lake Majatra War and Selucian Civil WarEdit
Selucian involvement in Pontesi opened a new era of direct Selucian involvement in continental Majatran affairs. The Pontesian governments following the civil war saw the presence of ethnic Selucians in the nation as a threat, initiating various discriminatory actions against Pontesi's Selucian population. In response Selucia issued numerous warnings to Pontesi, to no avail. With rising tensions the Selucian government initiated a policy of militarization and mobilization. However, war was to arrive to Selucia from further south. The Deltarian Czarist War of 3457-3466 led to the establishment of an expansionistic neo-feudal regime in South Majatra, the Deltarian Empire. Opposed by the democratic powers on the continent, most prominently Zardugal, the Deltarian regime drew the condemnation of Selucia as well. In 3494 the Deltarian-Zardic conflict escalated into open war, starting the devastating Lake Majatra War that ended only in 3509. Although Selucia pledged neutrality at first, Deltarian atrocities caused the Selucian government to directly intervene in the war. In 3508 Selucia declared war against Deltaria, however support for the Zardic side could not materialize. The Deltarian government, seeking to prevent Selucia's participation in the war, took advantage of the ethnic and social tensions in Selucia to parallize the nation. In December 3508 Deltaria sent troops and materiel to the Selucian National Front, a pro-Deltarian Fascist movement, who the following year launched a rebellion against the government. Althought the fascist rebels were ultimately defeated, the establishment of a domestic front in Selucia tied down any Selucian support for Zardugal in a brutal civil war.
Plebeian RevolutionEditFollowing the defeat of the fascist rebellion the Imperium became a single-party state led by a Dundorfian-dominated conservative and Hosian elite. The conservative regime continued in power unchallenged for decades, during which time Paganism was nearly completely eradicated, its practice restricted to the lower classes. The banner of Pagan liberation was picked up by a seemingly unlikely force. In 3652 trade union leader Caius Capo founded the Plebeian Democratic Party, a left-communist political party rejecting the concept of a vanguard party as leading a proletarian revolution and rejecting state capitalism/state socialism, instead advocating workers' councils (or Plebeian Councils) as the means for dismantling the bourgeois state. Unlike previous left-wing movements in Selucia, the Plebeian Democratic Party was openly and explicitly Pagan. Although Caius Valerius Publicola's Union of Communists broke from the Plebeian Democratic Party over differences regarding attitudes towards religion and morality, the two Communist parties remained allies, and in 3656 they launched a revolution agains the Imperium, managind to take full control over Sadaria Occidentalis. The so-called Secession of the Plebs (Secessio Plebis) established the Council of the Plebs (Concilium Plebis) as the provisional ruling body of Selucia, challenging the authority of the Imperial Senate. In response to the declaration of a state of emergency by the central government, the Communists established the Red Brigades (Cohortes Rubrae), merging the paramilitaries of the two parties with the goal of defending Sadaria Occidentalis from the Selucian Security. Surprisingly, in 3660 the Plebeian coalition won the elections and proceeded to form a new Communist government. One of its first acts was the recognition of a Decree of the Plebs outlawing the public practice of Hosianism and legalizing Paganism. The law was immediately brought to review by the Constitutional Court and its application was thus suspended; owing to factional tensions within the Court itself and between the various Communist parties in power, the decree was ultimately never applied. The Plebeian Revolution eventually collapsed due to factional fighting, government suppression, and international sanctions. Although the revolution was unsuccessful, it did result in the removal of Paganism's status as religio illicita. The end of official persecution reversed the negative demographic trend experienced by the Religio, although this did not lead to a resurgence on the scale of the Triariist revival.
Fourth Republic (3721-3781)Edit
The Imperium was briefly overthrown by a democratic federation known as the Commonwealth of Selucian States. The left-leaning Green Party gained power in 3721 and established a democratic regime. Although the Commonwealth was a relatively vibrant multi-party system, Selucian democracy proved to be fragile. The resurgent Crimson Crusade briefly held power as the Crusader Democrats, but was soon defeated. The Commonwealth established close military ties with Zardugal, even allowing for the establishment of a military base. The presence of foreign troops in Selucia led to a nationalistic reaction and the reestablishment of the Liberal Conservative Party, who, after gaining power, closed all foreign bases and proceede to restore the Imperium.
Sixth Imperium (3781-3838)Edit
The restored Imperium is considered one of the most repressive regimes in Selucian history. The practice of all religions other than the Selucian Patriarchal Church was forbidden under pain of death, women were forbidden from seeking employment, and all forms of migration were banned, as a single-party regime led by the Conservative Liberal Party and backed by the Selucian Security took power. The Imperium participated in the Jelbic War on the side of the Jelbic Khaganate, seeking to establish peaceful ties to the largest power on the Majatran mainland, but the consequences of the Jelbic War were to lead to the collapse of the Selucian Imperium.
Barmenian Refugee CrisisEdit
During the Jelbic War the Jelbic nationalist government of Barmenistan, at the time a member of the Khaganate, was replaced by an Ahmadi theocracy, the Genzid Caliphate. Wishing to establish its legitimacy over Barmenistan and to find a source to recover its massive war debt, the Caliphate signed the Edict of Expulsion, expelling all Felinists and confiscating their property, sparking the Barmenian Refugee Crisis. The fleeing Felinists started flowing towards two main destinations, namely Pontesi and Selucia; it is estimated that more than ten million Barmenians left the country within a year. One month after the Edict of Expulsion was signed, the Pontifex Maximus of Selucian Paganism issued a call for Felinists to immigrate to Selucia, owing to close ethnic and religious ties between Felinists and Pagans. Selucia's Conservative government reacted violently; the Senate approved a Special Situation, granting the Head of Government unlimited emergency powers, and the Selucian Security began a large-scale assault on refugee camps, leading to the forceful deportation and killing of hundreds of thousands of refugees.
The crisis highlighted the repressive nature of the regime and led to the formation of an official opposition to the Imperium, coalescing around two major political leaders. In 3819 Octavia Flavia Hadriana, the founder of one of the pro-Felinist NGOs, founded the liberal Action Party, later known as the Liberal Society, and in 3821 she was elected Imperatrix with a wide margin, gaining more than 92% of the vote, due to voter dissatisfaction of the government's handling of the refugee crisis and the marginalization of minority groups at the hand of the ultra-Hosian party. During her term in office she converted to Paganism by being initiated in the Terekian mysteries, in solidarity with the Felinist refugees, and in 3826 she supported the candidacy of the other major leader of the opposition, controversial businessman Caius Cassius Sophus. Sophus was the CEO of Sophus et Dives Incorporatus who, finding the restrictive policies of the Imperium distasteful and harmful to his business, entered politics as leader of the Noble Party, later renamed as the Union of Capitalists and Patricians.
Together, Octavia Flavia Hadriana and Caius Cassius Sophus managed to form a new government that put an end to the deportation and killing of refugees in Selucia. Selucian policy towards the refugees gradually became more permissive, and by 3829 all victims of the Edict of Expulsion, whether residing in Selucia or not, were granted Selucian citizenship. After a brief but very tense period of rule by the Conservatives, the crisis was brought to an end in 3838, and the Imperium itself was overthrown and replaced by a new Republic.
Fifth Republic (3838-3920)Edit
The political couple were successful in establishing a new political system in 3838 known as the Selucian Republic, a regime taking direct inspiration from the political system of the First Republic and led by a coalition of Hosians and Pagans. The Fifth Republic's institutions and symbolism proved to be long-lasting and influential. Among the notable legacies of the 3838 Republic are the restored system of dual Consulship, the modern Selucian flag and coat of arms, the restored names of regions and cities, and a successful and unprecedented collaboration between Hosianism and Paganism. The two founders of the Fifth Republic, Caius Cassius Sophus and Octavia Flavia Hadriana, are considered heroes by Selucians of all political leanings, in spite of their conflictual relationship. It was also during the Fifth Republic that one of the most important events in Terra's religious history took place. The Second Council of Auroria was first called in 3797 but was interrupted in 3804 due to the Jelbic War, the Barmenian Refugee Crisis, the successive dictatorships of Caius Cassius Sophus and Octavia Flavia Hadriana, the brief Selucian Civil War, and the rise in religiously-motivated violence. With peace restored in Selucia and after the normalization of relations between the Church and the Republic the Council was reconvened in 3857. Lasting until 3876 the Second Council of Auroria led to the unification of the Selucian Patriarchal Church and the Theognosian Church into the Aurorian Patriarchal Church headquartered in the Selucian capital of Auroria, granting Selucia renewed prestige and influence as the headquarters of Terra's largest religious denomination.
Invasion of PontesiEdit
Sophus and Hadriana became the first Consuls of Selucia under the new constitution, and for the following few years the political couple collaborated closely on a number of issues, settling down the constitutional structure of the young Republic. Disagreements between the two equally ambitious politicians soon began to emerge, however. The political division of power between the two Consuls was the result of a power-sharing agreement that would in theory have given each of the two leverage of the other. The growing tensions between the popular Hadriana and her aristocratic colleague would in time expose the inherent weakness behind their power sharing agreement. In 3840 Consul Hadriana was authorized to intervene in the Pontesian Civil War, a conflict that had been raging between the Sun's Sons militia and other religious and ethnic paramilitaries. The Consul was sent to Pontesi with the goal of protecting the rights of Seluco-Pontesians there, who were targeted for execution by the Sun's Suns. Hadriana had hoped to regain some of her lost popularity by emerging victorious in the Pontesian war, and Sophus was eager to expand his control over Selucia in his colleague's absence. Hadriana's invasion was far more successful than initially expected. Organized opposition collapsed within a month, and by April the following year she managed to install a friendly government that could lay claim over the entire Pontesian territory.
As the Selucian invasion was progressing faster than expected, Hadriana's co-consul introduced a Consular motion to the Senate recalling Hadriana from Pontesi, with the argument that she had overstepped her boundaries by not limiting her intervention solely to Selucian-populated areas. Bribery, threats, and persuasion convinced the Senate to vote for the motion in April 3841, giving her two weeks to bring all her legions back to Selucia or be branded a traitor. Due to the very limited time frame for Hadriana's return, she elected to ignore the warning and continued her invasion of Pontesi. In response she was removed from office, and Caius Cassius Sophus was elected Dictator by the Senate, legally granting him supreme and absolute authority over the Repulic. As Sophus was consolidating his rule over Selucia, so was Hadriana over Pontesi. In March 3846 she felt confident enough in the stability of the Pontesian government and returned with her legions to Selucia, occupying the island of Oleria with the assistance of anti-Dictatorship Anarchist riots on the island. The Selucian armed forces retreated to the other islands, leaving Hadriana under blockade but in full control over Oleria. In March 3847, after a disastrous and ill-planned invasion of Oleria by Sophus's forces, Hadriana emerged triumphant while Sophus lost his life in battle, and in February 3848 the Senate confirmed her control over Selucia by appointing her Dictatrix.
One of Hadriana's first actions as Dictatrix was a thorough reform of the Constitution so that future ambitious politicians would not be able to follow the same path to power as she herself did. The election process for the Dictatorship was ammended, as was the power ballance between the two Consuls and the Senate. In addition to these reforms, Hadriana also implemented the murder of most of her political opponents in an action known as the proscriptions. Hadriana had the Senate draft a list of persons believed to continue opposing her rule, whose citizenship and legal rights she then had revoked, allowing anyone to murder them with impunity. An estimated 5,000 people were killed as a result of the proscriptions, most of them wealthy Selucians and political opponents who had failed to pledge their loyalty to her. Octavia Flavia Hadriana ruled Selucia as a strongwoman until, on the Kalends of April 3849, the Dictatrix was killed in a shootout between her lictors and those of Consul Caeso Cassius Sophus, the son of former Dictator and founder of the Republic Caius Cassius Sophus. Following her death, political forces loyal to her legacy formed the Pagan Republican Party, led by Hadriana's lover and closest associate, Lucius Aquilinus, who in 3852 married Nonus Cassius Sophus, the son of former Consul Caeso Cassius Sophus and grandson of Dictator Caius Cassius Sophus, thus legally joining the Gens Cassia and changing his name to Lucius Cassius Aquilinus.
Hadriana's political heirs managed to regain political power under Lucius Cassius Aquilinus, who was elected to the Senatorial Consulship in 3858 and later served as Consul Popularis after 3861. During his Consulship Aquilinus spearheaded the "Fuck the Pirates Act", granting him consular imperium over the Majatran Sea and starting the Pirate War. During the war he led a large armada that battled Majatran piracy for twelve years, successfully removing piracy from most of the Majatran Sea. During the war Imperator Aquilinus strong-armed several SOTO nations, including the Pápežský States and the Ahmadi Republic of Barmenistan, to provide supplies and military assistance and even transfer sovereignty over several harbors and territories to Selucia. In 3873 Aquilinus brought his navy into the Cildanian Civil War on the side of the Imperial government. He was however defeated in the naval battle of Qart Ramesh by the Cildanian rebels, and his own ship was sunk during the battle. Aquilinus himself was confirmed dead several months afterwards. With the disintegration of the Selucian armada, the territories that had been annexed by Selucia were returned under the sovereignty of their original nations. In spite of Selucia's defeat, the Pirate War was successful in bringing Majatran piracy to an end and allowed trade on the Majatran Sea to flourish once again, leading to the reconstruction of the continent's economy. Following the end of the war the Fifth Republic continued for several decades, but it was ultimately brought under monarchist control.
Selucian monarchy (3920-4086)Edit
In 3920 the monarchist and Hosian Unity Party succeeded in establishing a monarchy under Augustus I of the House of Calatia, and for the first time in its history Selucia was proclaimed a Kingdom. In 3981 Augustus of the house of Calatia, a close relative of the Selucian Queen, was crowned Augustus Adonis I, the King of Cildania, owing to the rise of a pro-Selucian party in neighboring Cildania. Selucian monarchy collapsed in 4086 when the nation became a Republic once more.
Republic of Selucia (4086-4799)Edit
"Kingdom of Selucia" (4086-4236)Edit
For the following centuries Selucia alternated between republicanism and monarchism under an elected Imperator. Until 4236 Selucia was officially known as the Kingdom of Selucia, although the throne was vacant and Selucia was de facto if not de iure a semi-presidential republic. The Republic was dominated by a new political party which would go on to be the longest active political force in Selucian history, left-leaning In Marea. The party was founded in 4098 by university students and professors and contested the 4100 elections in spite of a threatened ban by the ruling Conservative Party, emerging victorious.
Seventh republic and Clodian monarchy (4236-4274)Edit
In 4236 In Marea had Selucia formally recognized as a Republic, renouncing all monarchist pretense. This however led to a backlash from monarchist forces, which in 4256 succeeded in having Lucius Clodian elected as Imperator of Selucia. Shortly afterwards a terrorist attack in Corgana led to the death of In Marea leader Arria Ivmarus and the temporary dissolution of the party. Imperator Clodian would continue to reign unchallenged for nearly twenty years, until, in 4274, a resurgent In Marea forced him to abdicate.
Regency and Eight Republic (4274-4313)Edit
After In Marea-Civis Sinistram forced Imperator Lucius Clodian to resign, the Secretary of the left-wing party Jerzyr Laskaris, elected as Head of Government of Selucia in 4265, initiated a number of progressive reforms after a period of strong conservatism in the nation, while Spuria Vedrix and Fabianus Cato were in charge of the Head of State, taking turns every 4 years.
Fascist regime and downfall (4313-4320)Edit
With the new century, a group of far-right parties appeared in Selucia, including the Fascist Regimen Immutata, the Factio Liberum Insulae (Marestella nationalism) and the Factio Foedarati. The Consul at that time, Petrus Viator from In Marea-Civis Sinistram, had to face a declaration of independence from Marestella, which was rejected, and after years of political tensions and almost a civil war, the Fascist Regimen Immutata and the other parties were dissolved.
Ninth Republic and Tatius monarchy (4320-4347)Edit
Elective monarchy was briefly restored between 4320 and 4347 under Imperator Claudius Tatius Cnaeus Gaius, with the sole opposition of In Marea.
Tenth Republic (4347-4799)Edit
In 4347 In Marea, with the support of the Conservative Liberal Party, forced the Imperator to resign, therefore establishing a new Republic that chose as its new Head of State Athena Gavrus, the candidate of the left-wing party. The Tenth Republic established in 4347 is seen by many as the golden age of Selucian democracy, marked by a mature and stable multi-party democratic system and a broad pro-democratic and pluralistic consensus. For centuries the republic saw an alternation in power between In Marea and a new political party founded in 4367, the Republican Party, both of which were, in spite of their significant and sometimes irreconcilable differences, committed to a democratic and republican form of government. A new political ideology also emerged during these centuries, at first championed by the Republican Party, namely Selucian republicanism.
The nation was selected to host the 4360 Terran Olympics in the city of Victoria, Insularia, in 4354. In 4361, an agreement between the two major parties made history by declaring illegal nationwide the salary difference between men and women and other minorities.  The nation lived one of its major political crisis in its modern history during the 4400 Selucian political crisis. After the crisis all political parties to the right of the Republican Party gradually disintegrated or merged with the party, leaving the Republicans as the flag-bearers of Selucia's right-wing, a position they would hold until the dissolution of the party.
After the disintegration of the Republican Party in 4551 the nation found itself under the sole rule of In Marea. Whereas before the Republicans campaigned for the rights of both Hosians and Pagans as well as religious minorities and presented itself as a united front of all religious groups, the party's dissolution removed all opposition to the full secularization of Selucian society. In January 4578 In Marea opened the possibility of forcing the leadership of the Aurorian Patriarchal Church to leave Selucia, thus starting the Selucia-Aurorian Patriarchal Church conflict. Although a proposal to establish the sovereignty of the Church over a small strip of land in Auroria proved acceptable to all parties involved, the proposal never materialized and the conflict continued. The conflict led to a Hosian reaction to the perceived secularist excesses of In Marea.
Following the disintegration of In Marea Selucia was governed by a succession of Hosian theocratic regimes, some more restrictive than others. In 4775 the nation was brought under the rule of a moderate Hosian democratic party known as Nova Harmonia. In spite of its moderate nature, Nova Harmonia implemented a number of policies targeted against the Pagan population, including a ban on animal sacrifice. These policies, as well as a number of conservative laws banning, among others, abortion and contraceptives, led to anti-government protests. Although the Augustus, ruler of the nation at the time, called on the military to quell the riots, his government did not count on the fact that there were many within the armed forces who were sympathetic to Paganism. For this reason, instead of dispersing the crowds and restoring public order, the armed forces joined the opposition, and in 4793 they overthrew the government. The armed forces and the protest movement established a provisional government known as the Duodecimviri, literally meaning "twelve men" and empowered to write a new constitution for the nation. During Duodecemvirate rule the conflict with the Church was reignited. In 4794 the Duodecimviri introduced the Constitution of the Clergy, a law requiring all clergy to swear an oath of loyalty to the Republic and demanding that all new clergy, irrespective of denomination, be democratically elected. The Constitution led to a lasting and profound schism, as over a third of the Aurorian clergy accepted the Constitution and were excommunicated by the Arch-Patriarch, while most of the Church hierarchy, including the Arch-Patriarch himself, did not accept the Consitution. After a brief but intense standoff, Arch-Patriarch Thomas Justus agreed to leave Selucia for Ville de Saints, in exchange for a reversal of the government's anti-Hosian measures.