The cross, a key symbol in Hosianism
|Theistic philosophy||Ranging from pure monotheistic to henotheistic|
Hosianism is a Qedarite religion centred on the teachings of Eliyahu, a reforming priest and teacher within the Yeudi Church in the first century. According to mainstream Hosian doctrine, Eliyahu was the incarnation of the Holy Spirit who came into the world to spread the word of God.
Over the nearly five millennia since it originated in Beiteynu, extremely diverse traditions and theologies have developed within Hosianism and have influenced various political and cultural systems and events throughout history. Despite differences in terms of pneumatology, church organisation, the nature of salvation and the importance of various rituals, Hosians generally hold in common that Eliyahu came to the world to bring it to God as documented in the Annunciation.
The four major traditions in modern Hosianism are: Western Patriarchalism, represented by the Aurorian Patriarchal Church and the Terran Patriarchal Church; Eastern Patriarchalism represented by the Apostolic Church of the East; Luthoranism, represented by a variety of Confessional, Ameliorate and Charismic churches; and Bishopalism, represented by the Bishopal Communion.
Patriarchalism is typically associated with an emphasis on orthodoxy and tradition, as well as a specific hierarchal structure headed by a Patriarch, Arch-Patriarch or Pápež. Luthoran churches are more closely associated with a belief in the doctrine of "salvation through faith alone" and the rejection of archpatriarchal authority. Bishopalism is a tradition that incorporates elements of both Patriarchal and Luthoran doctrine and structure.
Outside of the traditional dominant denominations, Hosianism has birthed a variety of heterodox movements ranging from specific reframings of traditional Hosian teaching as might be seen in the example of Rasezana or universalist denominations emphasising the priesthood of all believers such as the Society of Brethren.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Beliefs
- 3 History
- 4 Symbolism
- 5 Denominations
The term "Hosianism" derives from Ancient Kalopian: Ὅσιοι, Hosioi, literally the Pious Ones or the Venerable Ones.
Despite shared beliefs in the divinity of Eliyahu there are significant differences in interpretation of the Katub and various other aspects of the faith. In combination with a vareity of historical and political considerations, this has created a diverse range of views within Hosianism.
The central tenet of Hosianism is the belief in Eliyahu of Yishelem as the "Spirit of God" and the savior of all mankind. Eliyahu is believed to fulfil the ancient expectations of Yeudism and is understood to be the same as the "Spirit of God" mentioned in the Katub as the instrument of God's actions.
Different Hosian denominations disagree on the nature of Eliyahu and his relationship with God, which is encompassed in the theological field known as "pneumatology" (from Kalopian πνεῦμα pneuma, meaning "spirit"). The dominant view is known as binitarianism and forms the basis of the Council of Auroria. Binitarianism holds that there is one God but two distinct and equal persons, Eliyahu the Son and God the Father. The binitarian view is shared by the Aurorian Patriarchal Church and the Terran Patriarchal Church as well as most mainstream Luthoran and Bishopal churches.
The major alternative to binitarianism is the unitarianism emphasised by the Apostolic Church of the East, composed of various "Eastern" churches that rejected the original Council of Auroria. According to this understanding there is no plurality of persons, only a single God.
Numerous smaller Hosian denominations reject the binitarian understanding of God in favour of unitarianism or (rarely) trinitarianism. In addition there are certain doctrines that reject entirely the equality of Eliyahu and God, such as Ordism and Oseyim although some Hosians argue that this precludes these individuals from being considered part of the faith.
Within Hosianism, the "Great Hiding" refers to the belief that Eliyahu returned to heaven in an act of self-imposed exile in approximately 54 CE. Due to the belief that he is the spirit of God and the saviour of mankind, Eliyahu's exile is considered a source of shame for mankind and requires all people to seek forgiveness of sin.
According to mainstream Hosian doctrine, Eliyahu will return to Terra from heaven at some time in the future and bring justice, forgiveness and eternal salvation for all believers. Upon his return it is believe that the world will be utterly destroyed and a new messianic kingdom will bring the merger of heaven and Terra. Hosians point to various signs in the Katub that indicate that Eliyahu will return.
Eliyahu of Yishelem was the High Priest of the Yeudish Church, who was seen as very pious, well versed in the Katub, and guided by Elyon (God). His introduction of reforms in the Yeudish Church, and his attempts to promote a more humane view of Yeudism, even to the point of accepting gentile converts, have brought him the ire of the Yeudish clergy, who managed to have him removed and exiled in the desert in 1 CE. Eliyahu became the leader of a small group of dedicated disciples in his newly established ascetic community who called themselves "the pious" (Hosioi), which was to become the core of the Hosian movement. According to the Annunciation, Eliyahu prophesies that God has ordered him to go into hiding, and will return at the end of the world to bring peace and end falsehood. In 54 CE, after a Second Exile into Hell Eliyahu indeed goes into hiding in Heven, and is never seen again, beginning the Great Hiding. His disciples, believing him to be the Saviour of the world, spread his word all around the Majatran Sea, eventually leading to the establishment of Terra's first Hosian church, the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra in 533 CE.
Council of Auroria
Originally, the Hosian movement was very disorganized, being based on local churches. Gradually, these local churches began to develop a hierarchy, placing bishops above priests, and later, the bishops of important cities took the title of "patriarchs". These many churches differed widely in terms of theology and customs. In 533, after the Council of Auroria ,most of these churches agreed to adopt a common hierarchy and doctrine, and established the Patriarch of Auroria as the arch-patriarch of the whole church. The Hobrazian Orthodox Church and several smaller churches rejected the creation of a Terran Arch-Patriarchy, and eventually led to the creation of the Patriarchal Church (Eastern Rite). Those churches that did accept the Council of Auroria created the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra, which was to be the largest Hosian organization in Terra until its collapse in 1819.
In the 16th century, many groups began to resent the power and abuses of the various patriarchs, and, when their initial attempts to reform the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra were rejected, they created their own churches, independent of patriarchal authority. This movement for independence was spurred by the publishing of the "Fifteen Abjurations against the Apostolic Church", a document created by Martyn Luthor in the 16th century Holy Luthori Empire, which outlined his grievances against the rule and abuses of the Church. The Abjurations led to the creation of a number of movements and churches, with varying degrees of radicalism, which split from the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra while accepting several core beliefs, called the Luthoran Churches.
The Luthoran Churches suffered numerous splits and schisms throughout the centuries. The most important of this schisms is between the Confessional or Confessing Churches, which accept the "Scionist Confession" of 1519, and retain many Patriarchal elements, and the much more radical Ameliorate Churches, created in 1523 around the ideas of Gert van Tassel.
Together, the Luthoran churches are the second largest branch of Hosianism.
Collapse of the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church
Although the Holy Apostolic Church was based in Selucia, Hosianism remained a small minority on the Selucian islands. After a resurgence of Selucian Paganism in the 19th century, the persecution of Hosians in Selucia increased. Selucian Hosians, forced underground, continued Hosian worship in secret, but the persecutions led to a Dark Age in the Church, putting an end to the Arch-Patriarchy. The other branches of the Holy Apostolic Church, having lost contact with Auroria and believing Apostolic Succession to have ended in Selucia, became independent in 1819, putting an end to the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra.
Terran Patriarchal Church
The Terran Arch-Patriarchy was revived in Deltaria when a Tokundian serf from Doron Akigo, named Radoslav Volic, declared himself the Supreme Pontiff of the Terran Patriarchal Church as a form of protest against both the Deltarian New Traditions Campaign and Absolver Personality Cults, as well as the strong climate of Anti-Tokundian sentiment in his native land. Declaring all previous Arch-Patriarchs' tenures to have been nullified by the institution of the High Synod, he declared himself Arci-Patriarcha Petr I, and instantly became a local celebrity amongst the heavily Patriarchal population of the Povicskovo fief. His immense popularity brought him to the attention of his ruling Markiz within a month, and was summarily executed for treason.
The Absolvers realised that very few people genuinely revered them as the Gods they claimed to be, and Vojvoda Mojmir Bátory set about lobbying for the reinstatement the Patriarchal belief system in a nation largely comprised of lapsed Patriarchalists. Approval was given by the Aristocracy, and the New Traditions campaign was unofficially suspended. Mojmir Bátory accepted the offer of the Deltarian Arch-Patriarchate, and changed his name to Pius I. The Terran Patriarchal Church was officially born, and the Terran Arch-Patriarchy became widely accepted Terra-wide.
Great Schisms of 2153
For several years Arch-Patriarch Innocent I of the Terran Patriarchal Church had begun a series of infamous Cadaver Synods in which all the Kardinals in Terra tried a series of deceased clergy, saints and former Arch-Patriarchs, including Pius II, seemingly in order to discredit their legacies and pave the way for the reversal of administrative and theological changes. These changes led to a string of schisms, most notable of which those that led to the creation of the Theognosian Church, the Coburan Patriarchal Church, and the Luthori Patriarchal Church.
In early 2999, several of the Cardinals found that the Terran Patriarch at the time had been selling "tickets" to Heaven. The seven Cardinals founded the Artanian Patriarchal Church in 3000 and used local Artanian churches as meeting places for their ecclesiastical councils.
After the occupation of Pontesi by Selucia, which had been supported by the leadership of the Selucian Church leadership in Pontesi, Papa Leo I of the Selucian Church deposed and excommunicated Ansgar Þorirsson the Primate of Pontesi and all the Selucian clergy in Pontesi.
The excommunications were made both for the Creed promulgated by Archeparch Þorirsson, which was considered by the Selucian Church leadership to be at odds with the one promulgated by the Papa, and also amid allegations that the Selucian Church in Pontesi was complicit in a series of atrocities committed by the "Crimson Crusaders" during their occupation of Pontesi.
As a result of this schism, the Selucian Church was split in two, the Selucian Universal Church, based in Luthori and supporting Papa Leo I, and the Selucian Patriarchal Church, based in Selucia, led by Papa Marius I since 3333. Over time, the schism largely subsided, although the Province of Luthori remained only de iure part of the Selucian Patriarchal Church for a long time.
Synod of Aldegaria
Following a call made by Patriarch Zartosht III of the Aldegarian Patriarchal Church (ER) in 3409, the Synod of Aldegaria in 3412 reunited the Hobrazian Orthodox Church and the Patriarchal Church (ER) into a single body, the Apostolic Church of the East.
Second Council of Auroria
In 3941, Hunticus (a great Selucian philosopher) created a theory that much of Hosianism was metaphorical, creating the Huntic Metaphorical Church. God and the Devil were metaphors of good and bad, heaven and hell were metaphors of reward and punishment. The Calatian Church and Argonensis Church disagree as to whether God and the Devil; Heaven and hell are metaphors of something more scientific, or metaphors for earthly existence.
During the late 46the century, a man by the name of Fen Shang founded a branch of Hosianisim in Indrala, based on the belief that the second coming is nigh, and in order to be saved, you need to complete ordinances so you can be like God. During most of their history, the Church of Eliyahu in the last Days was driven out of Indrala and from there sought sanctuary. After almost a century, the Felenarists returned to Indrala and began building the Church. As of yet, a member has founded a party inspired by his religion.
Though Hosianism is now Terra's dominant religion, the Early Church existed underground in most places. As such, Hosian tradition has developed a strong symbolism by which Hosians can be recognised, some more open (such as the monogram) and some more cryptic (such as stylised keys, a reference to St. Michael). The symbols still pervade Hosian religious art, though they have since lost their purpose of identifying Hosians to eachother.
The Cross is considered to be the main symbol of Hosianism as a whole. The image of a cross or of crucifixion features prominently as symbolism in the Annunciation, leading to its adoption by many of the early Hosian communities as a symbol to identify by. Crucifixes can often be seen adorning the altars of many Hosian churches, as the cross is seen as a symbol of man's encounter with God through Eliyahu and the redeeming Exile in Hell of Eliyahu. In addition, because of the prevalence of crucifixion as the most horrific form of punishment in the apostolic age, many other shapes of crosses have come to be associated with apostles who were supposedly martyred on them.
In liturgy, the sign of the cross is used frequently in Patriarchalism, both in public ceremony and in private prayers. Often accompanied by the words (secretly or publicly) "in the name of God and Spirit", the sign of the cross consists of a long vertical movement of the arm from head to around the navel ("In the name of God...", then from one shoulder to the other ("... and Spirit."). In this way, the gesture is said to symbolise both the divine (vertical) nature of God and His humanity as Eliyahu (the horizontal gesture).
The Annunciation contains several references to the Cross, inspiring development of the symbolism:
- After Eliyahu returns from his Second Exile in Hell, He is described by all Annunciants as bearing the wounds of crucifixion, symbolising His absolute humiliation: crucifixion, in the time of Eliyahu, was a punishment only fit for slaves and the worst criminals.
- The Parable of the Cross, told by Eliyahu himself to explain his mission in the Annunciation according to Theodore, gives a more mystical understanding of the symbol:
|Aurorian Patriarchal Church||Terran Patriarchal Church||Apostolic Church of the East||Confessional Luthoranism||Ameliorate Luthoranism||Bishopalism|
|Pneumatology||Binitarian||Binitarian, additional worship of Blazhi||Unitarian||Binitarian||Binitarian||Binitarian|
|Scripture and Tradition||Accepts Aurorian Canon and Sacred Tradition||Accepts Aurorian Canon, Sacred Tradition and Book of Volos||Rejects Aurorian Canon because of restrictiveness, but uses it in practice||Accepts Aurorian Canon, except for deuterocanonical books; rejects Sacred Tradition||Accepts Aurorian Canon, except for deuterocanonical books; rejects Sacred Tradition||Accepts Aurorian Canon; accepts Sacred Tradition of the Church Fathers|
|Means of salvation||Through grace, with good works as expression||Through grace, with good works as expression||Through grace, by faith and good works||Through faith alone.||Through faith alone.||Various; majority view is through faith alone.|
|Organization||Episcopal, Arch-Patriarch in Auroria||Episcopal; Arch-Patriarch in Cachtiche||Episcopal; autoscephalous churches with a primus inter pares||Episcopal or presbyterian; national churches||Presbyterian or congregational||Episcopal; national churches organised into two communions|
|Sacrifices||Baptism, Revelation, Illumination, Vocation, Matrimony, Remission, Burial||Baptism, Revelation, Illumination, Vocation, Matrimony, Remission, Burial||Does not restrict the number of Hierophanies or Sacrifices, but accepts the seven in the West||Baptism, Revelation, Remission||Baptism and the Supper of Goodness||Varies; Septenterrines accept all seven, while Luthorians mostly the Luthoran view|
|Gratitudinal Theology (view of Holy Revelation)||True Revelation; consubstantiation||True Revelation; consubstantiation||True Revelation; the manner in which this occurs is an unknowable mystery||True Revelation, but only in the context of the Mass||Memorial Revelation||True Revelation; consubstantiation or sacramental union|
|Practices||Veneration of saints||Veneration of saints and Blazhi||Veneration of saints||Veneration of saints; infrequent celebration of Holy Revelation||Very infrequent Supper of Goodness||Veneration of saints|
- Apostolic Church of the East
- Confessional Ameliorate Church of Dundorf (Ameliorate)
- Duntrekker Amelioratism
- Ameliorate Church of Kuzaki
- Zyldavian Ameliorate Church
- Luthorian Communion
- The Church of Luthori (High Church)
- Church of Alduria
- Bishopal Church of Baltusia
- Bishopal Church of Ikradon
- Luthoran Church of Hulstria
- Church of Luthori in Hutori
- Bishopal Church of Kirlawa
- Bishopal Church of Klavia
- Bishopal Church of Likatonia
- Dorvish Bishopal Church
- Reformed Kalistani Church
- Church of Muzalkaz
- Voronan Church (not in communion due to perceived heresy)
- Union of Nordland (Septentrine churches)
Hunticism Metphorical Churches
- Huntic Church
- Calatian Metaphorical Church
- Argonensis Metaphorical Church
- Dragonic Church of Komodo