Istalia, officially Istalian Empire (in Istalian Impero Istaliano, in Cisavuglian Imperi Istalian, in Feranese Impero Staliano, in Nicomese Inpero Istalian, in Trivenditan Mpèriu Stàliano, in Majatran إستاليا and الامبراطورية الإستالية, translit. as 'iistalia and al'iimbraturia al'iistalia), is a country in south-eastern Majatra, in its easternmost reaches on the Sarrentina Peninsula and on the island of Alaria. The country is bordered only by Solentia on the north-west and it is surrounded by the Sea of Lost Souls on the north and by the Perarctic Ocean on the south.
Currently, the federal state in which Istalia is organized is made up of two Federal Community: the Sarrentine Federal Community, which lay on the mainland, and the Federal Community of Alaria, on the Island.
Istalia's capital is Romula and the people of Istalia are known by the demonym Istalians (istaliani in Istalian).
For most of their pre-modern history the peninsula and the island were ruled by distinct and often competing polities. Their history dates back millenia and they considered as one of the cradles of civilization where one of the most ancient and important civilization of Majatra developed, spreading from the mighty city of Qolshamih. Istalian culture however was mainly influenced by Selucian colonization, to the extent that modernday Istalian culture is primarily characterized by its Selucian legacy influenced by Augustan Hosianism. However the land of the peninsula and the island knew many foreign dominations since its conquest by the Augustan Empire in the early medieval period and then by the Ahmadi Caliphate, but the most significant was the rule of the Qanzar Emirs, a domination which had such a lasting impact that the peninsula and later the entire country were known for several centuries as Quanzar. It was only under the Qanzar Emirs that the peninsula and the island were definitively united as a single nation known as Quanzar until 2263, when the modern name Istalia was established.
Between 42th and 45th century Istalia was considered one of the Great Powers of Terra and one of the most influential actors on the international stage, until it fell into a serious crisis which greatly deteriorated its international status. In spite of a short-lived attempt to regain its international status under the Istalian Empire, Istalia failed to reach the same heights of power and prestige as under the previous republic. After the fall of the Empire Istalia was a republic, plagued by chaos and instability until it ultimately collapsed in 5032 and was replaced by the Union of Quanzar and Alaria. The Union, in turn, was as well as plagued by instability due to the strong istalian nationalist opposition to the splitting of the country and the re-adoption of the name Quanzar for part of it. Actually, the name Quanzar took a very negative meaning for the istalians after it was resumed by three short-lived authoritarian monarchical regimes established in the country by the House of Hessex, a cadet branch of the House of Kansar, which in turn was the artanianized and hosianized noble House descending from the family of the ancient Quanzar Emirs. After the restoration by part of the istalian nationalists of the short-lived Second Istalian Empire, leftist and anti-unitary istalian forces re-established the Union in the form of the popular democracy of the Istalian Union of Quanzar and Alaria which, however, soon after was turned into a social-liberal democracy but which lasted only until the beginning of the 52th century when the current Istalian Empire, the Third, was restored.
The name Istalia derives from the previous Alarian-Selucian term Estàlia, a post-medieval evolution of the term in the Nicomese language. The term Estalia, instead, derives from the early ancient name which the Selucian settlers gave to the island of Alaria, Estaliae Terra, meaning Land of the East. Although the standard Selucian word for East is Oriens, Orientis and the adjective form is orientalis, orientalis, the Selucian settlers in east Majatra prefered the term Estalia, Estaliae, a Selucian syncretism developed in the Selucian colonies in Kalopia and Solentia and itself derived from the ancient Kalopian eos and from the Enetric term ausos, "to glow, shine", from which derives also the term Aurora, the down, where the sun rises, so the east. The modern Istalian term to translate the Luthorian east, indeed, is est, with clearly the same origin, which use became common since the modern era, replacing in many contexts the older term oriente, due to the increasing influence of the Artanian nations on Majatra, which used term phonetically closer to est, especially in scientific and commercial contexts.
The name Quanzar, with which was used at the beginning of the modern era to call the peninsula and then the whole country, instead derives from the Majatran House of Kansar, ruler of the medieval Empire of Quanzar centered in neighboring Solentia. Since the establishment of democratic regime led by the majoritarian istalian ethnic people, the name Quanzar was considered an anti-Istalian name, owing to its use as the name of the entire country during periods of minority Majatran and artanianized Solentian rule (being Solentia the nation from which the House of Hessex came). During 51th century the name Quanzar was adopted as the regional name of the Sarrentina Peninsula, which became official with the independence of the Community of Quanzar and the establishment of the Union of Quanzar and Alaria.
About the names of the mainland and the island on which Istalia lies, Sarrentine Peninsula is a selucian and then estalian form of a more ancient name which derives from the ancient Kalopian form Συρρεντόν, Syrrentón, from the verb συρρέω, syrréo, "I converge", referring to the waters that descend copiously from the mountains and cross the valleys and plains of the peninsula: therefore "confluence of the waters", a lush and refreshing vision for the ancient Kalopian explorers once they have overcome the tendentially arid east-majatran territories. Alaria has been known with this name for millennia. The term alarius/-a/-um is a Selucian word meaning "of or pertaining to wings, that is upon the wing(s)", and refers to the numerous bird species that the Selucian colonists found on the island.
Excavations throughout the region revealed that the mainland was inhabitated already around 7000 BCE by eastern pre-Qedarite peoples, after which the region was impacted by the Enetric Migrations and even more by the Qedarite Migrations which established first recognized form of advanced civilization. Around 2000 BCE some Qedarite tribes arrived on the Sarrentina Peninsula and conquered the native peoples, creating a syncretic culture. The civilization which arose was known after the name of its major religious, political and economic center, the mighty city of Qolshamih (founded according to the myth in 1832 BCE, but archaeological evidence suggests that the site was inhabited at the earliest by 900 BCE). The Kingdom of Qolshamih, later known as Kingdom of Karron, is remembered as one of the first civilizations in Majatra, together with the Kingdom of Irkawa. Although the ruling class of Qolshamih descended from some of the first Quedarites on the continent, its civilization blended with that of the native people and developed its own language and culture. The Kingdom survived until the second century of the Common Era and experienced a golden ege under the kings of the Alsamite era, which saw the flurishing of a syncretic Qolshamin-Selucian culture. Since the 6th century BCE the island of Alaria and then the mainland were affected by Selucian colonization which greatly influenced the pre-existent civilizations and which in the following century, after the fall of the Kingdom of Kerron, became the primary culture of the Peninsula and in which the culture of today's Istalians has its roots. The ancient period in this part of Majatra ended with the fall of Qolshamih after natural disasters, economic downturn, the invasion of proto-Majatran tribes from the north and increasing internal crisis and fragmentation of the power.
Early Medieval period
During the medieval period the region was. like the rest of Majatra, affected by the expansions of the continental empires which marked the early and later medieval Majatra: the Augustan Empire conquered the Peninsula and the Island in 503 CE, almost two centuries after the fall of the Kingdom of Karron, after a brief war aided by the fragmentation of power in this period. Under the Augustan dominion, thanks to the affinity with their civilization, Selucians became the main political, economical, linguistic and cultural ethnic element in the area, developing a cultural melange which left important traces and, most important for the future development of the civilization in this area, the Augustans guaranteed that Hosianism would become the main religion after having supplanted the ancient polytheist faiths.
After a few centuries Augustan dominion was plagued by instability, and in the area of Solentia and the Sarrentina Peninsula seven kingdoms affirmed their power, first as vassals of the Augustan Emperor and then de facto independent. These kingdoms between the 7th and the 9th century fought constantly between them organized in fragile and ever-changing alliances. However, due to a process of centralization through political marriages and conquest, four Kingdoms emerged which marked the modern era of the region, and among them the most important was the Kingdom of Fidelia, while the Kingdom of Nicoma ruled on Alaria.
Late Medieval period
In 1225 the Armies of the newly established Ahmadi Caliphate passed the Nayar while its fleets debarked on the eastern shores, begining a campaign of conquest which eventually subjugated the Peninsula and Alaria, imposing Barmenian or Majatran rulers and spreading the new Ahmadi faith. This period was characterized by a large-scale migration of Majatran populations, who were among the most loyal to the new faith, and for this reason rose to the leadership of the new Empire, and benefited from the Ahmadi dominion to leave their overpopulated regions of origin in Kafuristan and Badara. During this period, not only the Sarrentina and Alaria, but almost the entire eastern half continent was overrun by Majatrans, whose leaders conquered and established, as vassals of the Caliphs, personal dominions and lordships, permanently changing the political and ethnic balance of most of the lands conquered by Ahmadism. The end of the Caliphate did not free the Estalian lands, where the former Majatran vassals of the Caliphs continued to rule independently, althought they had to contend with the presence of Estalian nobilty, principalities and lordships which finally, at the end of the 15th century, thanks also to the struggles within the Ahmadi lordships due to the Israi-Abadi conflict, managed to regain their independence.
Between 16th and 18th century Estalia was once again a land free from foreign occupation, allowing the former kingships to rise again but also to resume the ancient rivalries. Once again, like in the medieval times, the Kingdom which prevailed was the southernmost Kingdom of Fidelia, which increased its power on the mainland. Fidelia nearly succeeded in extending its rule over the entire the Peninsula, also planning to move its capital to Colsamia/Romula, the former Qolshamih, a city which for millennia, despite experienced prolonged period of decadence, remained one of the most important sites of Estalian culture and faith, housing the Augustan Patriarchate of the East (not to be confused with the Apostolic Church of the East).
Since the 16th century, however, the Estalians bagan to face another threat from the lands of Solentia: the raids of the powerful Emirs of Quanzar, attracted by the prosperous and lush Estalian lands. The northernmost principalities were the first to fall while the Quanzars took even more territories. Fidelia and the Kingdom of Nicoma since the beginning of 17th century attempted also an dynastic unification to safeguard the indipendence of the Estalian lands but finally, after a century of war, in 1771 the dreams of the Kings of Fidelia were definitively dashed by the Quanzar who won the decisive Battle of Reggio Ingris and then destroyed totally the city of Fidelia conquering all the Peninsula. The dominion of the Empire of Quanzar, which extended from Deltaria and Jakania to the eastern Majatran shores, lasted until the 30's of the 20th century, when nationalistic uprising in the several nations under the Quanzarian rule made fall the Empire. Unfurtunately for the Estalians, unlike Kalopia, Solentia or Kafuristan, the last Great Quanzar, the leader of the Empire, fled with the remaining forces to Estalia were, having violently crushed the attempted uprising, established the Emirate of Quanzar, an absolute monarchy ruled by the Ahmadi Majatran elites which, having learned by the fall of the Empire, enforced a Majatranization of the local people and a heavy repression of Estalian culture. Paradoxically in 1959 the Emirate managed to conquer the Kingdom of Istalia, bulwark of Istalianity since the conquest of the mainland, which had resisted the Empire until then.
The Emirate lasted for almost other two centuries as absolute monarchy but since the end of 21st century, socialist and communist ideologies spread in Quanzar and, despite the attempt of the Emirs to maintain their privileges, in the end they were forced to ever more concessions, pressed by the powerful Neosocialist Party which in 2099 managed to organize the first free elections in Quanzar. This was clearly the final act for the centuries-old dynasty which in 2110 was dethroned while in 2118 the Socialists founded the Union of Quanzari Soviets, a democratic socialist regime which allowed a multi-party system and which enforced a socialized economy. However Majatran elites remained firmly in power, and any nationalist movement, particularly Istalian nationalism, was forcibly suppressed, as it was seen as a divisive factor within the socialist society. But this situation could not survive for long time, with a Majatran population which was declining, with many prefering to move to Majatran majority nations, while Istalian nationalism was gaining traction and popular support. Finally the Union and the Majatran elites were forced to capitulate to Istalian nationalist forces, althought this transition was achieved through democratic means, which managed to found the first liberal democratic and the first Istalian regime in 2233 replacing the Union with the Quanzarian Republic, a transitional regime which lasted until 2263 when the First Istalian Republic was founded.
Since then other five Republics have been established by Istalian. Everyone of them have been all founded after three monarchical regimes established through violent coups or manipulation of the political systems during temporary crisis, thus profiting from a long lasting period of Solentian immigration and foreign interferences between the second half of the third and the early fourth millennia. All the monarchic restoration saw at their head the members of the House of Hessex, a Solentian minor branch of the House of Kansar, the Luthorized and Hosian descendant of the Emirs of Quanzar, which, exploiting this family relationship, claimed the Throne of Quanzar for themself. Despite the change of the royal title and of the official name of the nation, the House of Hessex did not acted much differently from their Ahmadi ancestors, enforcing anti-democratic regimes and actively working to expand the influence of the Solentian-Luthorian culture in Istalia at the expense of the Istalian identity. These policies never granted the monarchic regimes the internal stability needed to consolidate the power of the family in the nation. All the three monarchic regimes, in fact, were ultimately defeated by Istalian nationalist forces, and since the 3365 the Fourth Republic managed to survive for more than one millenium.
Foreign domination, however, pushed Istalia for centuries to isolate itself from the rest of the world, with limited involvement in Majatra where however became a strong supporter of the Pan-Majatranism. But after the Istalian Civil War of 4044–4045, the informally so called New Fourth Republic expressed a different tendency, became even more internationalist and began to be involved even more in the international affairs. Between the end of 42th and the second half of 45th century Istalia rose up among the most influencial and powerful nations of Terra, as one of the leading powers of the free world, maintaining this status until a serious economic crisis hit the country around the middle of 45th century, which entered into a declining phase for almost another century before to try to recover persuing the past glories. During the long lasting four centuries of stability of the New Fourth Republic, Istalia was able to reach the summit of its internal and international achievements. Istalia maintained through the decades a leading role on the global economy and arose as financial hub, especially for Majatra which, in 44th century, became the main international interest of Istalia. Romula was able to create a new continental supernational organization, the Majatran Alliance of which Istalia was a leading member until the end of 45th century.
Increasing its international influence, also because Istalia became a nation leadership of the most important International Terra's Organization, first of all the World Congress, increasead also the occasions of diplomatic and international clashes and crises. Istalia became one of the most preminent nation in the world spreading the democratic principles and often supporting also military solutions to contrast cases of extreme violations of human rights. Among the ones which arose as traditional rivals of Istalia there were the Thaller family and the numberous regimes established in several nations of Terra, first of all the Thallerist Narikaton, the segregationist regimes of Saridan, the Yeudish suprematist Beiteynu, against the Majatran Revolutionary Socialist Federation Superstate Istalia led the Free Majatra, many antidemocratic nations and regimes around Terra, like the suprematist Hulstria defeated during the Hulstrian Civil War by an international Coalition partecipated also by Istalia or against the Koeistad Pact involved in the last Badaran Civil War, Vanuku. But just Vanuku, representing one of the most ancient rivals of Istalia, became in 44th probably the closer ally of Romula, arising as dual leadership of the Majatran Alliance during a long century of peace, stability and economic growth of the entire continent.
The Fourth Republic lasted until 4546 but its decline started many decades before, begining with the serious Black Thusday, a financial crash explosed into a almost global economic crisis which involved all the continents in the first half of 45th century. Istalia tried to contrast the crisis but it was able to stabilize the markets with great difficoulties and all the ranking agencies of the world declassed the international rank of Istalia. The economic crisis was however came together many other challenges for Istalia, like a general crisis of the whole Majatran Alliance, challeged by another rival continental organization; the summit of the ongoing crisis with Solentia and the following solentians' refugees crisis; a wave of international terrorism aimed against democratic nations like Istlaia. The Republic finally entered the 46th century in troubling condition and began slowly to be even more influenced by socialistic ideology and propaganda. Many monocromatic leftist government succeeded one after another and the general arising of many socialist regimes in Majatra put in alarm the high ranks of the Armed Forces. This led the latter to be influenced by the anti-socialist Julius von Thaller which convinced them to led a coup. Julius von Thaller, supported by numberous mercenaries from aboard and voluntaries from most part of the Thallerist countries, tried however to enforce a Thallerist Revolution sizing the seats of power and this led to a general uprising aimed to stop the Thaller who was arrested and imprisoned after 2 years of anti-Thallerist war.
The first transitional government after the Thallerist regime was led by the Liberals who, however, were not able to contrast the charisma of General Michele Appiano De Borromei who, founding a new party, Glory and Rebirth, was able to gain the confidence of the Nation and to found the presidentialist Fifht Republic, leading the country through its veritable recovery from the long years of decadence and difficulties. The great achievements reached by Appiano De Borromei for the Nation make gained him the love and respect of its People, starting to being celebrated and put alognside the other Fathers of the Nation. The Republic, however, didn't lasting for long: in fact, in 4571, the National Congress approves an enthusiastic motion to enthrust Michele Appiano De Borromei of the perpetual guide of the Res Publica and the solemn role of Supreme Guardian of its democratic institutions, as first Emperor of the Istalians. The nation, approved the new Imperial Constitution, was thus actually reformed into a representative parliamentary monarchy, the first Istalian monarchy to rule all over the Island and the Peninsula.
After almost 300 years the monarchy started to lose support and if since 4862 the powers of the Emperor were held by a Representative of the Emperor, in 4892 Istalia officially became a Semipresidential Republic, marking the end of the imperial era. The sixth republic however proved to be a quite authoritarian and very conservative regime led for most part of its existence by the far-rightist National Party until its dissolution. The long lasting single rule of the National Party prompted a progressive decline and degeneration of the institutions and of the nation. When the National Party's rule collapsed at the end of 5003, a military coup was organized and Istalia was brought under a military dictatorship led by Generalissimo Tommaso Tivoli. Democratic opposition to the military dictatorship was led by separatist movements, and in 5032, seeking to avoid a bloody civil war, the military junta resigned. The democratic opposition proceeded to reform the nation and declared the independence of Quanzar and Alaria, which later, in 5034, formed the Union of Quanzar and Alaria.
Soon after the establishment of the Union, however, istalian nationalists reorganized themself founding the party Identity and Unity with the goal to put an end to the federal splitting of the country and to contrast the anti-istalian forces and their propaganda aimed against the unitary Istalian identity. After a progressive increase of the support for istalian nationalism, with the fall of the main anti-unitarian force, in 5074 the istalian nationalists were able to restore an unitarian istalian nation in the form of the Third Istalian Empire due to the reputation gained by the last istalian republican regime. The Empire, however, was short-lived after an uprising of leftist and anti-istalian forces which claimed irregularities and considered the Empire as restored through a undemocratic cup. The Empire was rapidly abolished but the istalian unitarian identity showed to have been rediscovered by the population and thus the Istalian Union of Quanzar and Alaria was established, in the form of a decentralized popular council democracy. Onca again, even faster then under the first Union, the leftist and anti-istalian forces proved to be for most part a flash in the pan and the istalian nationalists once again were able to recover ground. Furthermore, probably in reaction of the several unstable and unreliable far-leftist parties, religious-led parties began to be formed and thanks to a long lasting and solidy alliance between istalian nationalists and hosian democratics, the last anti-unitarian forces were finally backed into the corner. After a winning referendum in 5094 on the restoration of the Empire organized by the nationalists and the hosian democrats-led government, in 5103 finally the Istalian Empire was restored and the reconstruction of an unitarian istalian identity was achieved, although the new Istalia still continued to recognize and protect the sevearl sub-national local identities re-emerged during the previous century.
Istalia is located in the south-easternmost part of Majatra and it consists of the Sarrentina Peninsula, on which there are the regions of Trivendito, Ferano and Fidelia, and the island known as Alaria, shared by the Cisavugli and Nicoma regions. The large strait which separates Alaria from the mainland is known as Strait of Ingris. The country's total area is 669.600 square kilometres and, including the island, it has a coastline and border of 9,400 kilometres. Over 40% of the Istalian territory is mountainous and hilly, with on the peninusula the Nayar Range and the northern portion of the Alkhayl Mounts as the northern boundary and the rest of the Alkhayl running to south-east all along the south-western shores. Two great plains crossed by numerous rivers extend east of the Alkhayl, the Feiran Plains, and the south of the Nayar, the Teracche Plain, roughly divided by the basins of the central lakes, while a plateau reaching in some points even 1,ooo m of altitude rises in the middle of southern Fidelia. The longest river of Istalia, the Merevino, has its source in the western slopes of the northern section of the Alkhayl from which flow to south-east close to the eastern border of Ferano crossing then Trivendito until the Strait of Ingris. South-east of the Feiran Plains, south of the central lakes and north of the southern plateau, a depressed basin that reach up to 250 meters under the sea is occupied by the Desert of Pheykran, a region without streams or bodies of water and arid mainly due to the rain shadow of the higest peaks of the Alkhayl Mounts.
The island instead present in the north the Arasclari Mounts which encircle a central large plateau rich of mainly seasonal lakes while in the south extends a large plains crossed by several rivers which origin in the northern mountains.
Placed almost at the middle of the Temperate zone, Istalia has a mild climate further warmed by the Alsunt Stream coming from the north which flow from the South Ocean through the Sea of Lost Souls investing totally Alaria and the eastern shores of the mainland, while the southern shores are cooled by the influxes of the Perartic Ocean which brings from the Antartic coold waters and winds. Thanks to these various climate influences, Istalia can boast a lush and fertile environment, more majatranlike in the north and in the island and more oceanic on the southern shores of the mainland. The average precipitations is quite high but this is due to the massive rainfalls which interest the southern slopes of the Alkhayl while the rest of Istalia shows one tird less rainfalls on average.
Istalia has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Majatra, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all Majatran fauna. Istalia's varied geological structure contributes to its high climate and habitat diversity. The Sarrentina peninsula is a corridor between the Majatran mainland and Alaria, and has 8,000 km (5,000 mi) of coastline. Istalia also receives marine species from the Perarctic Ocean and the South Ocean, throuh the Sea of Lost Souls. In fact the Straits of Ingris host many endangered species such as the lost sea snake and the Cildanian dragon fish. The staights are also an important migratory pathway for the blue whale. Istalia's varied geological structure, including the Nayar Range and the Alkhayl Mountains, Central Quanzarian woodlands, and Southern Quanzarian shrublands, also contributes to high climate and habitat diversity.
Furthermore the island of Alaria is a unique hotspot for biodiversity, due to its geographical isolation from the mainland. The island is home to various endemic plants and animals found nowhere else on Terra.
Istalian fauna includes 4,777 endemic animal species, which include the Alarian lion-lizard, Alarian gorgon, spectacled salamander, brown cave salamander, Quanzarian newt, Quanzarian frog, Alkhayli yellow-bellied toad, Sarrentinan wall lizard, Cisavuglian wall lizard, Quanzarian Aesculapian snake, and Nicomese pond turtle. There are 102 mammals species (most notably the Istalian wolf, Alkhayli brown bear, Nayari chamois, Nayari ibex, crested porcupine, blue whale, Nayari marmot, Sarrentine shrew, Alarian dwarf elephant and Majatran snow vole), 516 bird species and 56,213 invertebrate species.
The flora of Istalia was traditionally estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular plant species. However, as of year 4825, 6,759 species are recorded in the Data bank of Istalian vascular flora.
Since April 2419 Istalia was a signatory to the Treaty for the Protection of Endangered Animals affording protection to Italian endangered fauna, but later the Istalian Empire did not retify it.
The Istalian empire is a democratic, federal and constitutional monarchy within a representative parliamentary system. The monarch, which official title is Emperor of the Istalians, is the Head of State, represents the Nation, preserves its unity and integrity, he is the Protector and Guarantor of the Democratic Constitution and Institutional Order, Supreme Commander of the Istalian Armed Forces, serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity, he appoints Ministers, including the Prime Minister, that was chosen and have the confidence of the national legislature to form the Imperial Government.
The Prime Minister retains executive power and presides over the Council of Ministers. The position of prime minister is allocated to the member of Parliament who can obtain the confidence of a majority into the legistlature, usually the current leader of the largest political party or, more effectively, through a coalition of parties. The prime minister nominates the cabinet, with whom he is officially appointed by the Emperor, traditionally drawn from members of the same political party or parties in the National Assembly, making up the government.
The Prime Minister organises the executive government and exercises its power as vested by the Constitutions of the Empire. The Council reviews and approves all of the monarch's actions as head of state.
The Parliament of the Istalian Empire is an bicameral legislature made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Council. The Chamber of Deputies retains larger powers, it is the house that expresses the government and approve the national budgest, although on several matters, like constitutional ones, the Federal Council has equal powers. Constitutionally, legislative power is vested with both the government and the Parliament, but the latter is the supreme legislature and all final decision is up to the legislature. Being the Istalia a representative democracy, the national legislature is central in the political system.
Political parties and the "Militant Democracy"
In Istalia, as per the constitution, there is a multi-party system. Istalia has had a prominent multi-party system for most part of its modern history, under the six Istalian republican regimes since 2233 as well as under the Istalian Imperial rules, and also under the Union of Quanzari Soviets, first modern political regime established in the country since 2118. The system however has been interrupted many times, especially during periods the restorations of Quanzarian rule, but has remained at the core of the nation. Since the establishment of the Fifth Republic in 4555, several laws granted broad powers and duties to the Government, the Parliament and the Judiciary to defend the liberal democratic order against those who want to abolish it. The idea behind the concept is the notion that not even a majority government can be allowed to install a totalitarian or autocratic regime in violation of the principles of the Constitution, the Fundamental Law. The law explicitly prohibits the formation and participation in elections of political parties, electoral lists and candidates who promote ideologies and positions against the democratic order and authorizes the powers of the State to act accordingly according to and within the limits of the provisions of the law. The Istalian authorities and scholars defined this system of self-protection as a "Militant Democracy". These laws were maintained under the Istalian Empire and the subsequent Sixth Republic, but effectively became dead letter during Generalissimo Tommaso Tivoli's military dictatorship. No mention of these laws were made under the two Union of Quanzar and Alaria in 51th century and it's also still unclear if the authories of the Third Empire are aimed to resume them.
The Judiciary in Istalia is articulated in a system of national and regional courts which provides three judicial degrees. At the top of the Judiciary there are two main bodies: the Supreme Tribunal of Cassation (Istalian: Tribunale Supremo di Cassazione) for civil and criminal affairs, the Constitutional Court (Istalian: Corte Costituzionale) for the constitutional review of laws and other measures adopted by the State and their institutions, and the Council of State for the administrative justice. The Constitution of the Istalian Empire grants special constitutional rules and protections which assures the indipendency of the Judiciary, as well as an indipendent body, the High Council of Judiciary (Istalian: Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura), to manage the careers and the positions of judges and public prosecutors, with the Ministry of Justice managing structures and administrative matters.
Law enforcement in Istalia is provided by multiple police forces. The Federal Police (Polizia Federale in Istalian) is the civil police of Istalia and the main police force of the federal state. It exercises functions of public security for the preservation of the public order, of the safety of the people and the patrimony, it carry out detective work, forensics and criminal investigation and all functions related to administrative and judicial police duty and it is specialized in combating crimes against Imperial institutions, international drug trafficking, terrorism, cyber-crime, organized crime. The Imperial Gendarmerie (Gendarmeria Imperiale) is a Gendarmerie-like military corps combating and handle with public corruption, white-collar crime, money laundering, immigration, border control, airport security and maritime policing, it patrols the Rete Autostradale d'Istalia (Express Highway network of Istalia), oversees the security of railways, bridges and waterways and in general also exercises functions of administrative and judicial police mainly in the countryside and little towns of the country. They also serve as the military police for the armed forces.
Istalia's foreign politics is determined mainly by an unilateral international approach aimed to establish friendship reletions with few selected nations and always privileged the alliance with the neighbouring Solentia with which maintains a long lasting friendship established under the Fifth Republic, although tension arose during 51th century which led to a long period of cooling of relations. Unlike the Fourth Republic, the new regime showed not to be interested in create or join larger international organizations and also its partecipation to the forum of the World Congress is actually not recorded (there is to underline that since the middle of 44th century the World Congress experienced a minimal activity). The Country, however, retained its positions about human rights and democracy continuing to spread it around the world like under the Fourth Republic, a behavior which led Istalia to intervene into Kazulian civil war against the totalitarian fascist regime around the 80's of 44th century. Under the Union of Quanzar and Alaria the country increased this unilateral international approach and turned to be mainly focused in its internal security and defense facing a wave of instability which interested most part of south and eastern Majatran nations. Since the establishment of the Third Empire it seems that such diplomatic approach is still in force.
Istalian Defense Forces
The Istalian Defense Forces are made up of the regular Istalian Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force and Gendarmerie) and of the National Guards of both the Federal Community of the Sarrentina Peninsula and Alaria. The former are high-specialized vouluntary permanent forces while the National Guards consists of citizens who didn't opt for the mandatory national service.
The Armed Forces of Istalia were, after the end of the 42nd century, one of the largest, most advanced and powerful militaries in Terra. They consisted of the Army of Istalia, Navy of Istalia, Air Force of Istalia and National Gendarmerie and had almost 600,000 personnel on active duty at the height of their power, while the Ministry of Defence employed just over 100,000 civilians. Total istalian military spending at the end of 42nd century was equal to the 6.18% of national GDP and, as per a doctrine introduced at the middle of the 41st century, important quotas were reserved to the Research and Development Department of the Defence to assure to the Armed Forces the best equipements and capabilities and their constant improvement and upgrade. During the Istalian Empire the Emperor held the title of Supreme Commander of the nation's armed forces and was the Chairman of the Supreme National Security Council. He had a great deal of discretionary power in appointing the Armed forces leaders and particularly the Chief of Defence Staff, whose appointments formally belonged to the Ministry of Defence. Military service was voluntary, though conscription could occur in wartime When Istalia was a great power it also maintained several military base abroad, among the main the Base in Costa de Oro, Baltusia, one of the closer allies of Istalia, and another one in the southern shores of Malivia, a nation that in the middle of the 43rd century became another important ally of Istalia. Thanks to these bases and especially thanks to its Navy, Istalia was able to project its force virtually all over the world.
After the middle of the 43rd century Istalia also possessed one of the larger nuclear arsenal worldwide, strategic nuclear arsenal deployable thorugh land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, strategic bombers, and submarine-launched ballistic missiles, making the nation a so called Triad Nuclear Power. However, Istalian authorities were quite reserved and elusive talking about their nuclear arsenal, having never even revealed a figure or specific technical details on power or range of its devices. With the fall of the Sixth Republic the Istalian nuclear arsenal was dismantled but after the establishment of the Third Empire, since around the half of 52th century, despite the governments never declared its existence, it is estimed that Istalia once again detains a nuclear arsenal.
The community which form the federal intelligence services, also colloquialy known as Servizi Segreti (Luthorian: Secret Services), is officially called the Imperial Services for Security and Intelligence (Fidelian: Servizi Imperiali per la Sicurezza e l'Ingelligence) (acronym: SISI) and are formed by some departments and agencies like the DISIS, the Department which oversees the Imperial intelligence, the AIDIE and the AISE, the two agencies responsible respectively of the foreign and domestic intelligence and several department depending by the Armed Forces.
According to the Imperial Constitution of 5102 the top-level political divisions of which is made up the Istalian federal state are the Sarrentine Federal Community and the Federal Community of Alaria. After the experiences of the Unions of Quanzar and Alaria of 51th century, both the istalians of Peninsula and the Island developed and wanted to maintain forms of autonomy with respect to the central government and to the other territorial component of the Istalian state and this was taken into account during the works on the Constitutions of the Second and then of the Third and current Empire, which adopted a federal structure for the reconstituted Istalian state.
Istalia traditionally, historically and administratively has always been divided into five administrative divisions called Regions (Istalian: Regioni), three on the Peninsula, Fidelia, Ferano and Trivendito, and two on Alaria, Nicoma and Cisavugli.
For most of the Istalian history the regions have been the first-level administrative division of the country but with the Imperial Costitution of 5102, which has resumed almost entirely the one of the Second Empire, and the adoption of a federal framework of the state, the regions have become the second-level administrative divisions of the country preceded by the Federal Communities.
The Regions are sub-divided into Provinces (Istalian: Province), four each region, named after their capitals. Finally, under the Provinces the last and smallest administrative divisions are the Municipalities (Istalian: Comuni) which administer the territories of cities, towns and villages. About the Government of the administrative sub-entities of Istalia, while the Provinces are mere territorial sub-divisions with no government bodies but only some administrative ones, delegated to the Provinces by the Regions at their discretion, Regions and Municipalities have elective bodies in the form of Regional and Municipal Councils and monocratic executives, the Governors for the Regions and the Mayors for the Municipalities.
The economy of Istalia is currently (51th century) recovering from the crisis which interested the country under the sixth republic but the authorities under the Unions of Quanzar and Alaria and currently under the Third Empire are working to climbe the cope aimed to come back to the status it had previously.
In fact, since 42th century and for several centuries, Istalian economy was one of the major economy worldwide. It relied mainly on the tertiary sector and so on advanced services and worldwide trade, then on heavy industry, advanced technology and on oil and gas industry. Developed, however, were also the manufacturing and agricultural sectors, mostly consisting of small and medium-size enterprises which were oriented to offer high quality and luxury products. Istalia had economic relationships worldwide, with many of the most powerful nations and several emerging economies and exports primary services and high-tech products, oil and gas and an important role was representing also by the arms export. When it was one of the Terra's economic powers, Istalia housed some of the most advanced and larger corporations worldwide,
among them Magistro-Leonardi S.A., Hasan-Mariani Holding & Investement Group, Enist, Estal, Hasan Aeductus World Shipping, Istelecom S.p.A., Oliverdi, TerraMedia, OTO Al-Mehara Armamenti, Umana Servizi, Farilla and so on (see also about the Istalian Corporations to know more). This large and highly advanced economy assured to Istalians one of highest standard of living on Terra.
As of 5044, there were 151,772,939 people residing in istalia. The most populated city is Romula with 13 million people. The population of Istalia is highly urbanized, like many other developed society and it is also quite concentrated in some specific areas, with only one tenth living in municipalities which have more then 15,000 residents. However, the avarage population of the numberous province towns and little villages is still quite elevated, this mainly due to the area of the Country, which is the 50th on the 58 nations of the developed world. For the same reason, with an average population density of 148.79 people per square kilometre, it has, in turn, one of the highest density, the 5th on the same 58. Since the end of 43th century Istalia became a multicultural nation, attracting people all over the world and becoming an immigration nation. However, with the decline of the status of the country in 49th and 50th century, immigration rate dropped and today most of the immigrates and their descendants have been fully absorbed within the istalian population, although the Majatran minority due to its long lasting history within the nation is still recognized as an important distinct ethnic and cultural part of the population.
Istalia has many megalopolis and heavily urbanized areas, such as Romula (13.9 million inhabitants), Magliano (11.6 million), Terebbìa (7.8 million), Torre d''o Sulento (7.7 million), Albeta (7.6 million), Pontolasch (6.8 million), Całeon (5.1 million), Castiell 'e Sciorenza (5.1 million) and Regio Ingris (4.7 million).
Istalian people, especially since 51th century, is ethnically and linguistically made of two main sub-istalian ethnicities and the Majatran one. the Istalians are made up of Sarrentini, who form 38% of the population and reside on the Peninsuala, and the Alarians, who constitute 35% of the total population and reside on the Island; the Majatrans share of the population is 22%. The two sub-istalian ethnic groups, although they have been present in the region for millennia and are indigenous to Istalia, as said, were only recently formally recognized as ethnic, cultural, and linguistic groups. Sarrentini and Alarians, in fact, for most part of the modern history of the country have been considered jointly as forming the single Istalian ethnicity, in spite of the mainly linguistic differences between them. Istalian Majatrans, although fully integrated within Istalian society for millennia, received fully recognition as a minority only in 4491. Most immigrants from Solentia who came in Istalia in recent centuries belong to the Majatran ethnic group and are integrated within the Istalian Majatran ethnicity, owing to close cultural and linguistic ties.
Istalia, especially between 42th and 49th centuries, welcomed numerous immigrants from many nations and other ethnic groups, who for most part have been fully integrated today within the istalian population. Those immigrants who had kept their cultural original identities today together constitute about 5% of the population. The largest of these immigrant groups are Kalopians, Baltusians, Augustans, Saridanese, and Barmenians, with the remainder consisting of people from or descending from Kanjor, Alduria, Al'Badara, Selucia, etc... although before the sixth republic society of Istalia had become very diverse and multi-ethnic, attracting people from all over the world due to the large economy and developed society, and also to long lasting pro-immigration policies, today it has returned to be again, like before the forth republic, a quite omogeneus people with only the three major ethnicities really recognizable but which, however, virtually shares most part of traditions and style of life.
Istalia official language is Istalian, which is known and spoken by the vast majority of the population, but actually it is also a very fractured nation linguistically and in practice exists in a state of diglossia. For most part of its history general culture and national intelligentia promoted a linguistical unification but since the beginning of 51th century what were considered as dialects spoken exclusively at home and in informal occasions had gained fully recogniztion as full-fledged languages belonging to the Istalian linguistic family. Most inhabitants of the country speak also their own native language in addition to Istalian, mainly at home with relatives and friends, although for most part of 51th century local languages have been thought in schools alongside Istalian and used also for official documents in local governments and in regional televisions. Since the restoration of the Third Empire the policy favouring the use of Istalian for official documents and as esclusive educational language was resumed although to the local authorities it is recognized the right to use also their local languages. The most widely spoken of these languages are Trivenditan, Feranese, Nicomese, and Cisavuglian. Fidelian is the language adopted as national language at the time of the Istalian unification and for this reason the terms Fidelian and Istalian are interchangeble: on the paper, in fact, they are almost identical. But the "true" Fidelian differes from Istalian for the regional pronunciation and for the use of archaic form and terms within the Fidelain. There is also a substantial minority of Majatran speakers in the country which use Majatran among the familiars or inside their ethnic community. Istalian is spoken by all the citizens as official language of the Union, is taught at school as a national language and is the language used for all the economic, trade, scientific and cultural activities.
Istalian is a Selucian language, forming the East-Selucic branch together with the local languages, usually called Estalian languages. The East-Selucic languages developed into the selucian colonies established on the shores of Alaria and of the Peninsula and centuries after centuries, due to the increasingly influential Selucian culture, it supplanted the ancient Qedarite language of Qolshamih and already in the first century CE Selucian was the main language for trade and business, used to be taught to the scions of the families of the wealthiest and ruler classes. With the Augustan conquest, Selucian became definitively the administrative language and the most used in ancient Istalia, spreading ever more among the commoners, developing in its vulgar form from which the various East Selucic languages will derive. Today, a part the standard Istalian which, as said, is almost identical on paper to the Fidelian, five languages are the most prominent of this family and they are used within the five regions of Istalia as their own local language, each of which also has several dialects. Standard Fidelian was codified at the end of the 17th century in the Kingdom of Fidelia, after the Ahmadi domination and during the struggle to contrast the Quanzar invasion, in an attempt to fix the grammatical rules, to offer a true common language for the entire Istalian population and thus to preserve the national language threated by the anti-Istalian policies adopted by the Ahmadi rulers. Istalian nationalists on Alaria adopted the Fidelian language used in the east of the Sarrentina Peninsula, owing to that language's already high prestige as a language of literature, and adopted the features of several other local languages to create the modern Standard Istalian language. During Majatran domination both Istalian and the local languages were relegated to the status of languages of the commoners, while the ruling elite was forced to adopt Majatran, which became the administrative language of the Quanzar Empire and then of the Quanzar Emirate. The Quanzar committed many resources into the repression of the Estalian languages, prohibiting their use in schools and even their public use by Istalian nobles and notable. Istalian became the official language of the nation only in the 23rd century, when the last Majatran regime fell replaced by the first unified Istalian nation. For most part of the unified Istalian history the national intelligentia pushed for the adoption of policies aimed to promote the Standard Istalian in any part of the Istalian society, in any occasion and thus in daylife of every Istalian. The local languages, thus, were relagated to the status of dialects and progressively their use reduced to esclusively familiar and very informal occasions and often they survived only in little and isolated towns in the countryside, while, especially in larger cities, Istalian became the language used also in very informal occasions.
Beginning with the 6th millennium a revival of the local dialects took place and for the first time in millennia they were officially recognized as distinct languages and their use promoted. This kind of policies adopted for most part of the 51th century shaped the current state of diglossia.
Nowadays 58% of the current Istalian population belongs to Hosianism (57% to the Aurorian Patriarchal Church and 1% to other denominations), the second largest religion is Ahmadism which is followed by 13% of the population (12% belonging to Israism and 1% to Abadism and other denominations), while 26% declare themselves as irreligious, mostly Atheist.
Since the second half of the 51th century the Aurorian Patriarchal Church has been elevated to the status of State Religion of the country.
Most Istalians have always had a strong bond with religious Hosian values, given that Hosianism is part of the background in which Istalian culture developed and which became probably one of the strongest ethnic unifying factors for the Estalian people, especially during the struggles against the Ahmadi denominations which tried to limit the practice of Hosianism by favoring the diffusion of the Ahmadism . This attempt to destroy one of the fundamental feature of the Istalians increased even more the hostility between the two ethnicities and especially before the rise of the communist forces Istalians have always strongly considered their Hosian faith an integral part of their ethnic identity; this is probably could be a cause for the large consensus always gained by Hosian Democratic parties. During the regime of the Quanzari Soviets all religions were banned but when the Quanzarian Republic was founded in 2235, the first modern liberal republic in Istalia, religious freedom was reintroduced and as a result of a return to Istalian rule Hosianism started to regain its position and in the following century this has caused the decrease of the proportion of Ahmadis people in the country from the 32% at the time of the end of the Emirate to the 13% of today. Soon after the fall of the Quanzari Emirate, despite the state atheism of the Union of the Quanzari Soviets, the dissident ideas of what would become the Theognosian Church began to spread in Istalia to become, after the fall of the Soviets, quickly the largest Hosian denomination in the nation, and the ancient Patriarchate of Istalia became the major Theognosian Patriarchate in Majatra extending its authority also on Solentia and Kafuristan, although almost until the end of the Church's it was always dominated by the Canrillaise element. When the Second Council of Auroria was announced, the Istalian bishops of the Patriarchate of Istalia showed themselves among the stronger unionist supporters from the Theognosian delegation to the Council and in effect the bishop of Romula, Gregorio Augustani, head of the Istalian part of the Patriarchate of Istalia, emerged as the most charismatic leader of the Theognosian Church, more than the Thognosian Arch-Patriarch in Ville de Saints of the time. Bishop Gregorio became so influential that when the previous Arch-Patriarch died Gregorio was elected as new Arch-Patriarch of the Theognosian Church, the first to break away from centuries of Canrillaise domination of Ville de Saints, as well as the first to adopt a non-Canrillaise pontifical name, Benedetto V. Thanks to his efforts the entire Theognosian Church finally merged into the new Aurorian Patriarchal Church, recognized as the legitimate heir of the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra, which is still the official name, and thanks to the new influence of the Istalian element into the Theognosian rite the Patriarchy was renamed Patriarchate of Istalia, Solentia and Quanzar. Currently however, after the end of the last isolationist period of Istalia in the 41st century, and the penetration of a more globalist culture, the religious influence is decreasing even more, a situation showed also by the increase of those which consider itself "not-religious".
Since 5087, for the first time in its history, despite the long lasting bonds with the Hosian tradition and values, the Aurorian Patriarchal Church has been elevated to the status of State Religion of the country, but the laws of Istalia nonetheless guarantee freedom of conscience and religious worship.
The strongly secular principles which dominated the Fourth Republic since its foundation also greatly impacted Istalian Majatrans who, being fully integrated into the secular society of the country, are seen as the most progressive and modern followers of the Ahmadi Faith and which practice what is called informally as Modern Ahmadism, Liberal Ahmadism, Progressive Ahmadism or Corrupt Ahmadism, the latter in a derogatory sense by the more conservative communities. Despite the criticism, however, most of the believers consider themself fully Ahmadi due to the fact that they they believe in all the fundamental dogmas of Ahmadism: the Articles of faith and the Five Foundamental Practices. The majority of the Ahmadis in Istalia officially belong to the Israi branch of the Ahmadism, which is considered the orthodox branch of this religion, but the great majority of Istalian Majatrans doesn't strictly follow the traditional Ahmadi prescriptions, while a large number of Majatrans are either atheist or agnostic or Hosian. Regarding the rights of the women and gender relations, as well as other traditional Ahmadi societal principles, virtually no one strictly respect these provisions and actually there is no gender segregation apart from a few more traditionalist Mosques. This is due to the fact that in Istalia Ahmadi believe in an individual and ethical interpretation of scripture rather than a literal interpretation; they don't consider the original revelation as a single, precise and valid interpretation of the Book of Bliss handed down by the Prophet for all times, but believe that only the meaning of the Holy Text is considered to be a revelation, with its expression in words seen as the work of the prophet Ahmad in his particular time and context. Furthermore, they focused themself just on the Book of Bliss, considered as the only true divine revelation, while the scriptures added by Ahmad and the first Ahmadi schoolars are seen as not originating from Akim and considered as Ahmadist reviews of social, economic and personal principles charaterizing the pre-ahmadi Barmenian and then Majatran cultural customs and traditions of the 12th century.
Primary and middle education in Istalia are free and mandatory from age five to sixteen and it is organized in four stages:
- Scuola dell'infanzia (Preschool): 2-4 yo, not mandatory.
- Scuola primaria (Primary school): 5- 12yo
- Scuola di Indirizzo (Profil school): 13-15 yo
- Scuola superiore (High school): 16-18 yo
Primary school lasts eight years. The students are given a basic education in Fidelian, Luthorian, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, physical education and visual and musical arts. The Profile school provides 3 course types: Social & Humanist Subject, Sciences & Physical Subjects, Artistic and Design Subjects. It will be formed to ensure the most personalized education for each student, and help them prepare themselves for the future. The names tell what will be the main focus of each profile. The students are obliged to follow at least 2 of the course types in the first 2 years and a third year of an in-depth course on the lasted choiced course type. The High school finally is divided three different types: the liceo is mainly focused to give an improved education with classical, scientific or linguistic curriculum and prepares students for university, while the istituto tecnico and the Istituto professionale prepare pupils for vocational education with teaching staff formed by experts from the world of the work and professions and that involve the students also in internship. There are four compulsory final exams: one at the end of Primary School, one at the end of each of the two maian class in Profile School and one at the end of High School.
To the Istalian students since the primary until the end of the Profile school is required to dress an uniform when attending the lessons, however it is allowed and also promoted the personalization of the school uniforms.
Tertiary education in Istalia is divided between public universities, private universities and the prestigious and selective superior graduate schools, such as the Alta Scuola di Economia di Milona or Scuola Normale Superiore di Florentia. The last ones are completely independent institutions from a legal point of view, recognized by the Minister of the Education, which offers advanced training and research through university-type courses or is dedicated to teaching at graduate or post-doctoral level. Alongside the Public schools exist also private institutions for each stages of education and form of charter school which should have specific focus.
About the university tuitions policy, Istalia has always traditionally had a policy to stimulate their young to attend university, mainly covering the university cost for the student with low income. Since the middle of 42nd century the Public Education provides a system of university tuituions calculated for each student on the basis of its income (individual or familiar) and a total exemption for the low income students, it includes scholarship programs. The Agenzia Nazionale per il Supporto all'Istruzione Superiore (Luthorian: National Agency for the Support of the Higher Education) is the national agency under the Ministry of Education and Culture which manages the tuition and scholarship policies in Istalia. Following the provisions of the law, the Agency assure fully subsided tuition for the low-income students while for all the rest the Agency adopt the mentioned progressive scheme.
Currently the Federal Health System (Istalian: Sistema Sanitario Federale - SSF) is the government body which manages the healthcare system in Istalia, organized since 5166 as an universal multi-payer system based on private compulsory and optional insurances with multiple private providers of services which costs are covered by the state through the taxation collecting contributions from both employers and employees. The Federal Health System oversees the good functioning of the system, quality of the care offered to patients, the respect by part of private insurances and providers of the provisions of law, negotiates with privates to determine prices and services and act as public healthcare insurer for those who cannot access to the system. The SSF superseeded the long-lasting and well known National Healthcare Service (Istalian: Servizio Sanitario Nazionale - SSN).
The governments and regimes of Istalia tendentially have always recognized forms of universal public healthcare to the citizens administered most of the time through a nationawide publicy-funded system, with just a handfull of very shorts periods without any sort of public healthcare and several times when healthcare was managed through private insurances payed by the state for all the citizens or just for the low incomes and poors. Since the second half of the Fourth Republic, the most successfull and long lasting public healthcare service established in Istalia was the already mentioned National Healthcare Service, reformed several time in order to be adapted to the reforms and changements adopted in Istalia under its various governments and regimes to handle the matter of public health, acting, as mentioned, as fully publicly funded universal healthcare system as well as just as a regulatory and overseeing body tasked to oversee and regulate the several public-private or private health insurance service-based systems in which several time the healthcare in Istalia was organized.
The Istalian state traditionally, for most part of its history, has always recognized to its citizens forms of social security providing in several ways forms of social insurances, unemployment benefits, pensions, etc... Currently the main national agency managing the social security system is the Federal Istalian Welfare Agency (Istalian: Agenzia Federale Istaliana per la Sicurezza Sociale - AFISS) which works alongside public and private insurances companies and bodies at federal, communitarian and regional level. Between 4172 and 5034, instead, most part of the social security services, as well as the pension system, were managed by the National Agency for Social Insurances (Istalian: Agenzia Nazionale Assicurazioni Sociali - ANAS), the longest lasting institutions of its kind in the Istalian history.
Currently the State at federal level through the AFISS erogates mainly unemployement benefits and provides child benefits, the latter following criteria based on the economic conditions of families.
Several other form of social insurances against illness, disability, permanent or partial inability to work, etc... are administarted through a series of public and private insurances and bodies at federal, communitarian and regional level. The state finally operates a mandatory public pension system covered by the national taxations through employees and employers contributions, alongside optional private ones.
The culture of Istalia is the culture of the Istalians, a Selucic ethnic group speaking east-selucic languages, the Istalian alongside several other regional languages and dialect (collectively refered to as Estalian languages), and is incredibly diverse spanning the entirety of the Sarrentina Peninsula and the island of Alaria. The culture of Istalia have certainly its roots in the Selucian and Hosian legacy but its unique culture has been shaped by a multitude of regional cultures and many traditions and customs that are now recognized as distinctly Istalian can be identified by their regions of origin which, although they have many elements in common, owing to their different histories they present many differences as well. This is due to its comparatively late unification, centuries of political and geographycal divisions, migrations, invasions and several foreign dominations that influenced the country with thier different civilizations, religions and cultures.
For this reason the country can boast an immense legacy of monuments, paintings, music and literature produced from the very beginning of civilizations.
Recently the several regional cultures and traditions of Istalia have been grouped by historicians and choolars in two main sub-national Istalian cultures, the Sarrentine and the Alarian cultures, encompassing the people of the Peninsula and of the Island respectively.
In Istalia, given the fact that here Selucian culture and civilization found a second home, the ancestors of the Istalians also became known as skilled seamen and merchants, whose trade networks reached most of Majatra, as well as Seleya, but at the time they were not distinguished from their Selucian cousins. The mariner vocation of the Istalians charaterized most of the history of the nations and cultures which developed in Istalia, as the sea became the main means of trade, allowing the different city-states, principalities and kingdoms to greatly enrich themselves. Unlike Selucia itself, the civilization which developed in Istalia was more heavily influenced by foreign cultures, particularly in Peninsula, which was greatly influenced by Augustan, Kalopian, and especially Majatran cultures. For this reason Istalia is a nation where is possible find a rich artistic heritage, an eclectic expression of the cultural variety which the countries have experienced throughout the millennia as a result migrations, the emergence of civilizations, colonization, and foreign domination.
Despite its turbulent history, charaterized by wars, internal and external conflicts, foreign conquests and struggles to re-gain the freedom, which contributed to shape a strong national and cultural pride, Istalians are warm and friendly people who like to enjoy the most genuine pleasures of life together to a notable sense of the respect for the principles and values of freedom, democracy and solidarity.
Customs and Tradition
Istalians have developed a sophisticated sense of taste thanks to the eclecticism of their culture which in the contemporary era has determined the success of Istalian products especially in the field of luxury and fashion. Istalians love the mundanity and they like socializing in public but they are also attached to their traditions, especially the folkloristic ones, and for this the country presents a real galaxy of fairs, rural festivals and patron celebrations in most part of the towns and villages. Many of these events are related to religious recurrences. Numerous are the quaint villages all over the territories, each one charaterized by its own local tradition and each region and provice can boast many different particular tradition and the middle/little villages, many dedicated to the agriculture, are an important element in the demography of the country alongside the several megalopolies that rises both on the Peninsula and the Island.
Istalians enjoy numerous kind of sport activities, invited since the school age to practice some kind of sport while the Government promotes the sport activities supporting clubs at any levels all over Istalia and organizing athletic programs (in schools and through the controlled or subsided clubs and associations). However, the most diffused sport in Istalia, considered as the national sport, is the Football (or Soccer), called in Istalian Calcio. Istalians have a genuine passion for the football which is well organized in the country under the Istalian Football Federation at any level, with professionist as well as amateur competitions at the provincial, regional and national level. The Istalian National Team is the well known Blue Team which, among the others, was the winning team of the 4235 edition of the Terran FIFA World Cup, hosted in Istalia and passed to the history to be one of the most followed events of history, broadcasted worldwide by the PMI Media Group, today the multinational giant conglomerate TerraMedia. Among the sports which become very popular over the past few years in Istalia, instead, there is the chariot races of Zardic origins, organized internationally under the United Chariot League which was enthusiastically supported by Istalia and by Istalian firms.
Renowned all over the world, the very particular Istalian cuisine if it has its roots in the cuisine spread throughout the basin and the mainland of Majatran (majatran diet), it has been particularly influenced by the Canrillaise culinary tradition but also by the easthern ones, given the fact that Istalia lying on the easternmost point of Majatra and the long lasting maritime and trade traditions which allowed Istalians to enter easily in contact with these lands and thier traditions and customs. All this has produced a delightful unicum in the world panorama. Some typical Istalian food, in fact, the pizza and the pasta, find their origins in recipes bring back from the south-eastern areas of Seleya and Dovani, recipes in which the rice flour, dominant in the eastern continents, has been replaced with the most typical wheat flour of Majatran and Seleyan tradition.
|New Year's Day||January 1|
|Hosian Passover||No fixed date|
|Istalians' Day||May 2|
|Democracy and Freedom Day||June 17|
|Empire Day||November 5|
|Dissolution of the Quanzari Restorationists||September 22|
|All Saints' Day||November 1|
|Nations of Majatra|