Istalia is a nation which can boast a long history which date back to millenia and it is considered as one of the cradles of civilization where one of the most ancient and important civilization of Majatra developed, spreading from the mighty city of Qolshamih.
Afterwards Istalian culture was heavily influenced by Selucian colonization, to the extent that modernday Istalian culture is primarily characterized by its Selucian legacy influenced by Hosianism (initially of the Augustan and then of the Selucian variety).
However the land of the peninsula and the island knew many foreign dominations since its conquest by the Augustan Empire in the early medieval period and then by the Ahmadi Caliphate, but the most significant was the rule of the Qanzar Emirs, who first conquered the peninsula in 1771 as part of the larger Empire of Quanzar and then, since 1934 after the fall of the Empire, moved their center of power in Istalia renaming it as Emirate of Quanzar, a domination which had such a lasting impact on the nation that Istalia was known as Quanzar until 2263.
Between 42th and 45th century, Istalia was considered as one of the Great Power of Terra and one of the most influential actors on the international stage, with diplomatic, strategic, commercial and economic relations with most part of the nations. It was a leading member of some of the most important international organizations, first and foremost into the World Congress. The economic and diplomatic growth of the country was boasted by a vigorous expansion of the defensive and warfare capabilities started in the second half of 41st century which allowed the country to become one of the most powerful military of Terra, detaining one of the largest nuclear arsenal and with the ability to project its forces all over the world maintaining several military bases in allied countries.
The nation realized all this through an economic expansion which made Istalia one of the largest economies of the world, with an advanced and powerful industrial sector and an highly developed Tertiary whose services sector was one of the most advanced of Terra. It had advanced and well-known shipbuilding and aerospatial industries and it is a leading military exporters.
Since the second half of 45th century Istalia fell into a serious crisis, both for internal and external causes (and affecting also the whole Majatran continent), which greatly deteriorated its international status: its economy and its military power decrees and Istalia lost also its seats into the Security Council of the World Congress.
The foundation of the Istalian Empire in 4571 represented the modern renaissance of the country which began to reassert its status worldwide.
The name Istalia derives from the previous Alarian-Selucian term Estalia, as post-medieval evolution of the term in the Sarregnan, or Nicoman, dialect.
The term Estalia, instead, derives from the early ancient name which the Selucian settlers gave to the island of Alaria, Estaliae Terra, meaning Land of the East. Now, in Selucian the correct term to translate east is Oriens, Orientis and the adjective form is orientalis, orientalis, so a more correct form in Selucian would be Orientalis or Orientis Terra. However, one of the island of the Selucian Archipelago, or part of it, already had a similar name derived directly from the term Oriens. For this reason, and maybe also because the cities which colonized Alaria were in competion with the cities in the eastern part of Selucia, it was prefered the term Estalia, Estaliae, a selucian sincretism developed in the Selucian colonies in Kalopia and Solentia and itself derived from the ancient Kalopian eos and from the Enetric term ausos, "to glow, shine", from which derives also the term Aurora, the down, where the sun rises, so the east. The modern Istalian term to translate the Luthorian east, indeed, is est, with clearly the same origin, which use became common since the modern era, replacing in many contexts the older term oriente, due to the increasing influence of the Artanian nations on Majatra, which used term phonetically closer to est, especially in scientific and commercial contexts.
Excavations throughout the Nation revealed that the mainland was inhabitated already around 7000 BCE by eastern pre-Qedarite, after which the region was impacted by the Enetric Migrations and even more by the Qedarite Migrations which established first recognized form of advanced civilization.
Around 2000 BCE some Quedarite tribes arrived in the Sarrentina Peninsula and conquered the native peoples but then mixing with them. The civilization which arose was known after the name of its major religious, political and economic center, the mighty city of Qolshamih (founded according to the myth in 1832 BCE but archaeological evidence suggests that the site was inhabited at the earliest by 900 BCE). The Kingdom of Qolshamih, later known as Kingdom of Karron, is remembered as one of the first civilization of Majatra, together with the Kingdom of Irkawa, but despite the ruling classes descended from some of the first Quedarite arrived in the continent, it was never classified as a Qedarite civilization, too much mixed with the native people and which developed its own language and culture, with very few Quedarite charateristic, although recognizable.
The Kingdom survived until the second century of the hosian era, knowing its golden ege under the kings of the Alsamite era which saw the flurishing of the syncretic Qolshamin-Selucian culture. In fact, since the 6th century BCE, the island of Alaria and then the mainland were interested by the Selucian colonization which influenced largely the pre-existent civilizations and which in the following century, after the fall of the Kingdom of Kerron, became the primary culture of the Peninsula and in which the culture of today's Istalians has its roots.
The ancient period in this part of Majatra ended with the fall of Qolshamih after natural disasters, economic downturn, the invasion of proto-majatran tribes from the north and increasing internal crisis and fragmentation of the power.
Early Medieval period
During the medieval period, Istalia, like the rest of Majatra, has been interested by the expansions of the continental empires which marked the early and later medieval Majatra: the Augustan Empire conquered Peninsula and Island in 503 CE, almost two centuries after the fall of the Kingdom of Karron, after a brief war greased by the fragmentation of power in this period. Under the Augustan dominion, thanks to the affinity with their civilization, the Selucians became definitively, as said, the main political, economical and cultural ethnic element in the area, developing an interesting cultural melange which left important testimoniancies in Istalia and, most important for the future development of the civilization in this area, the Augustans assured to the Hosianism the place of main religion which in few years supplanted all the ancient polytheist faiths.
After few centuries the Augustan dominion became aver more unstable and in the area of Solentia and Istalia slowly seven kingdom affirmed their power, first as vassals of the Augustan Emperor and then fully indipendent.
These kingdom between the 7th and the 9th century fought constantly between them organized in fragile alliance ready to change in any moment. However, thanks to a process of centralization, through political marriages and obviously through the conquests, in Istalia emerged four Kingdoms which marked the modern era of Istalia and among them the most important was the one of Fidelia which, before the conquest by part part of the Ahmadi Caliphate, almost managed to conquer all the Peninsula, contrasted, however, by the Kingdom of Nicoma on Alaria.
Late Medieval period
In 1225 the Caliphate Armies passed the Nayar while its fleets debarked on the eastern shores begins a conquest campaign which reached to subjugate all Istalia imposing Barmenian or Majatran rulers and spreading the new Ahmadi faith. During this period began a constant penetration of Majatran populations who, among the most loyal to the new faiths and for this reason arising among the leadership of the new Empire, profited of the Ahmadi dominion to leave their overpopulated regions of origin in Kafuristan and Badara: during this period, not only Istalia, almost all the continent has been flooded of Majatrans ethnicities which leaders conquered and established, as vassals of the Caliphs, personal dominions and lordships changing definitively the political and ethnic balance of most part of the lands conquered by the Ahmadism. The Istalians, however, were one of the people who resisted most to the Ahmadization.
Despite this, the end of the Caliphate didn't free the istalian lands, where the former Majatran vassals of the Caliphs continued to rule indipendently, althought forced to fight against the istalian nobilty, city-states, principalities and lordships which finally, at the end of the 15th century, thanks also to the struggles within the Ahmadi lordships due to the Israi-Abadi conflict, achieved to retake their independence.
Between 16th and 18th century Istalia was still again a land free from foreign occupation, allowing to the former kingships to rise again but also to resume the ancient rivalities. Once again, like in the medieval times, the Kingdom which prevailed was the southernmost Kingdom of Fidelia, which increase its power on the mainland: Fidelia almost managed to extend its rule on all the Peninsula, also planning to move the capital in Colsamia/Romula, the former Qolshamih, a city which for millennia, despite experienced prolonged period of decadence, remained one of the most important site for the istalian culture and faith, housing the Aurorian, and then Theognosian, Arch-bishop of Istalia, depending from the Patriarchate of the East (which should not be confused with the Apostolic Church of the East).
Since the 16th century, however, the istalians bagan to face another threat from the lands of Solentia: the raids of the powerful Emirs of Quanzar, attracted by the prosperous and lush istalian lands. The northernmost principalities were the first to fall while the Quanzars took even more territories.
Fidelia and the Kingdom of Nicoma since the beginning of 17th century attempted also an dynastic unification to safeguard the indipendency of the istalian lands but finally, after a century of war, in 1771 the dreams of the Kings of Fidelia were definitively dashed by the Quanzar which won the decisive Battle of Reggio Ingris and then destroyed totally the city of Fidelia conquering all the Peninsula. The dominion of the Empire of Quanzar, which extended from Deltaria and Jakania to the eastern majatran shores, lasted until the 30's of the 20th century, when nationalistic uprising in the several nations under the Quanzarian rule made fall the Empire. Unfurtunately for the Istalians, unlike Kalopia, Solentia or Kafuristan, the last Great Quanzar, as was known the leader of the Empire, ran off with the remaining forces right on Istalia were, crushing with violence the attempted uprising, established the Emirate of Quanzar, an absolute monarchy ruled by the ahmadi majatran élites which, having learned by the fall of the Empire, enforced a majatranization of the local people and an heavy repression of the istalian culture. Paradoxically in 1959 the Emirate reached to conquer the Kingdom of Istalia, bulwark of the istalianity since the conquest of the mainlan, which had resisted to the Empire until then.
The Emirate lasted for almost other two century as absolute monarchy but since the end of 21st century, socialist and communist ideologies spread in Quanzar and, despite the attempt of the Emirs to maintain their privileges, in the end they were forced to ever more concessions, pressed by the powerful Neosocialist Party which in 2099 managed to organize the first free elections in Quanzar. This was clearly the final act for the centuries-old dynasty which in 2110 was dethroned while in 2118 the Socialists founded the Union of Quanzari Soviets, an almost democratic regime which allowed a multi-party system but which enforced a socialized economy. For the Istalians, however, hadn't yet arrived the time to reclaim their nation, with the majatran élites which also under the Union continued to retain the power and enforcing a neutralization of the ethnicities, see as divisive factors of the socialist society, thus any istalian nationalistic movements or claims was heavily sanctioned. But this situation could not survive for long time, with a majatran population which was decreasing costantly, many prefering to move in veritable majatran nations, and the istalians who couldn't suffer anymore this eradication of their legacy. Finally the Union and the not-istalian élites were forced to capitulate to the istalians political and cultural forces, althought always through democratic means, which managed to found the first fully democratic and, most important, first istalian regime in 2233 replacing the Union with the Quanzarian Republic, a transitional regime which lasted until 2263 when was founded the First Istalian Republic
Since then other three Republics have been established by the Istalians. Everyone of them have been all founded after three monarchical regimes established through violent coups or manipulation of the political systems during temporary crisis, thus profiting of a long lasting period of solentian immigration and foreign interferences between the second half of the third and the early fourth millennia. All the monarchic restoration saw at their head the members of the House of Hessex, a solentian minor branch of the House of Kansar, the luthorized and hosian descendant of the Emirs of Quanzar, which, exploiting this family relationship, claimed the Throne of Quanzar for themself. Despite the changement of the royal title and of the official name of the nation, the House of Hessex, didn't acted too much differntly from their ahmadi ancestors, enforcing anti-democratic regimes and actively working to expand the influence of the solentian-luthorian culture in Istalia and thus to supprime the istalian culture and features. Obviously this kind of policies never assured to the monarchic regimes an internal stability so to consolidate the power of the family in the nation.
All the three monarchic regime, in fact, have been finally defeated by the Istalian democratic forces and since the 3365 the Fourth Republic managed to survive for more than one millenium.
The foreign domination, however, pushed Istalia for centuries to isolate itself from the rest of the world, with limited involvement in Majatra where however became a strong supporter of the Pan-Majatranism. But after the Istalian Civil War of 4044–4045, the informally so called New Fourth Republic expressed a different tendency, became even more internationalist and began to be involved even more in the international affairs.
Between the end of 42th and the second half of 45th century Istalia rose up among the most influencial and powerful nations of Terra, as one of the leading powers of the free world, maintaining this status until a serious economic crisis hit the country around half of 45th century, which entered into a declining phase for almost another century before to try to recover persuing the past glories. During the long lasting four centuries of stability of the New Fourth Republic, Istalia was able to reach the summit of its internal and international achievements. Istalia maintained through the decades a leading role on the global economy and arose as financial hub, especially for Majatra which, in 44th century, became the main international interest of Istalia. Romula was able to create a new continental supernational organization, the Majatran Alliance of which Istalia was a leading member until the end of 45th century.
Increasing its international influence, also because Istalia became a nation leadership of the most important International Terra's Organization, first of all the World Congress, increasead also the occasions of diplomatic and international clashes and crisis. Istalia became one of the most preminent nation in the world spreading the democratic principles and often supporting also military solutions to contrast cases of extreme violations of human rights. Among the ones which arose as traditional rivals of Istalia there were the Thaller family and the numberous regimes established in several nations of Terra, first of all the Thallerist Narikaton, the segregationist regimes of Saridan, the Yeudish suprematist Beiteynu, against the Majatran Revolutionary Socialist Federation Superstate Istalia led the Free Majatra, many antidemocratic nations and regimes around Terra, like the suprematist Hulstria defeated during the Hulstrian Civil War by an international Coalition partecipated also by Istalia or against the Koeistad Pact involved in the last Badaran Civil War, Vanuku. But just Vanuku, representing one of the most ancient rivals of Istalia, became in 44th probably the closer ally of Romula, arising as dual leadership of the Majatran Alliance during a long century of peace, stability and economic growth of the entire continent.
The Fourth Republic lasted until 4546 but it became to die many dacades before, starting with the serious Black Thusday, a financial crash explosed into a almost global economic crisis which involved all the continent in the first half of 45th century. Istalia tried to contrast the crisis but it was able to stabilize the markets with great difficoulties and all the ranking agencies of the world declassed the international rank of Istalia. The economic crisis was however came together many other challenges for Istalia, like a general crisis of the whole Majatran Alliance, challeged by another rival continental organization; the summit of the ongoing crisis with Solentia and the following solentians' refugees crisis; a wave of international terrorism aimed against democratic nations like Istlaia. The Republic finally entered the 46th century in troubling condition and began slowly to be even more influenced by socialistic ideology and propaganda. Many monocromatic leftist government succeeded one after another and the general arising of many socialist regimes in Majatra put in alarm the high ranks of the Armed Forces. This led the latter to be influenced by the anti-socialist Julius von Thaller which convinced them to led a coup. Julius von Thaller, supported by numberous mercenaries from aboard and voluntaries from most part of the Thallerist countries, tried however to enforce a Thallerist Revolution sizing the seats of power and this led the Armed Forces to persue another brief coup to stop the Thaller who was arrested and imprisoned after just 2 years of attempted revolution.
The first transitional government after the Thallerist regime was led by the Liberals who, however, were not able to contrast the charisma of General Michele Appiano De Borromei who, founding a new party, Glory and Rebirth, was able to gain the confidence of the Nation and to found the presidentialist Fifht Republic, leading the country through its veritable recovery from the long years of decadence and difficulties. The great achievements reached by Appiano De Borromei for the Nation make gained him the love and respect of its People, starting to being celebrated and put alognside the other Fathers of the Nation. The Republic, however, didn't lasting for long: in fact, in 4571, the National Congress approves an enthusiastic motion to enthrust Michele Appiano De Borromei of the perpetual guide of the Res Publica and the solemn role of Supreme Guardian of its democratic institutions, as first Emperor of the Istalians. The nation, approved the new Imperial Constitution, was thus actually reformed into a representative parliamentary monarchy, the first really istalian monarchy to rule all over the Island and the Peninsula.
General Historic Overview
|4000 BCE-850 BCE||First civilizations and City-States||Divine Monarchies and Chiefdoms|
|850 BCE-590 BCE||Kingdom of Qolshamih (on the mainland)||Monarchy|
|742 BCE-590 BCE||Kingdom of Sokyll (on the island)||Monarchy|
|590 BCE-545 BCE||Kingdom of Qolshamih and Lordship of Alaria||Monarchy|
|545 BCE-223 CE||Kingdom of Kerron||Monarchy|
|223 CE-503 CE||Post-Qolshamin Kingdoms, Warlordhips, Tribes Lordships and Selucian Colonies||Monarchies and Aristocratic and Maritime City-States|
|640-880||The Seven Kingdoms||Monarchies and Aristocratic and Merchant City-States|
|880-1245||Four Kingdoms||Monarchies and Aristocratic and Merchant City-States|
|1245-1486||Ahmadi Caliphate||Feudal Theocracy|
|1486-1771||Estalian Kingdoms||Monarchies and Aristocratic republican city-states|
|1771-1934||Empire of Quanzar||Absolute Monarchy|
|1772-1848||Kingdom of Istalia||Absolute Monarchy|
|1934-2097||Emirate of Quanzar||Absolute Monarchy|
|2118-2233||Union of Quanzari Soviets||Socialist Republic|
|2233-2263||Quanzarian Republic||Parliamentary Republic|
|2263-2562||First Istalian Republic||Parliamentary Republic|
|2685-2716||Royal Union of Quanzar||Constitutional Monarchy|
|2716-2738||Holy Empire of Quanzar||Constitutional Monarchy|
|2738-2751||Transitional Parliamentary Republic|
|2751-3077||Second Istalian Republic||Parliamentary Republic|
|3077-3078||Serene Regency of Quanzar||Constitutional Monarchy|
|3078-3079||Kingdom of Quanzar||Constitutional Monarchy|
|3119-3133||Transitional Parliamentary Republic|
|3133-3178||Third Istalian Republic||Parliamentary Republic|
|3291-3351||Southern Majatran Union and Kingdom of Quanzar||Constitutional Monarchy|
|3351-3364||Union of Quanzar and Istalia||Constitutional Monarchy|
|3364-3383||Fourth Istalian Republic||Parliamentary Republic|
|4547-4552||Thallerist Revolution||Authoritarian regime|
|4552-4555||Transitional Government||Parliamentary Republic|
|4555-4571||Fifth Istalian Republic||Presidential Republic|
|4571-||Istalian Empire||Constitutional Monarchy|
Placed almost at the middle of the Temperate zone, Istalia can boast a mild climate which, however, is warmed in the north by the Alsunt Stream which flow from the South Ocean through the Sea of Lost Souls investing totally Alaria and the eastern shores of the mainland, while the southern shores are cooled by the influxes of the Perartic Ocean which brings from the Antartic coold waters and winds.
On the Peninsula the main relieves are the Nayar Range, in the north-east, and the Alkhayl Mounts, in the north-west and along all the south-western shores. Two great plains crossed by numerous rivers extend at the east of the Alkhayl and the south of the Nayar while in the south a plateau rise in Mezzodiurno. In the middle of the Peninsula a depressed basin is occupied by the Desert of Pheykran, arid region which origins from the rain shadow of the higest peaks of the Alkhayl Mounts, bordered in the north-east by four great lakes.
The island instead present in the north the Arasclari Mounts which encircle a central large plateau rich of seasonal lakes while in the south extends a large plains crossed by several rivers which origin in the northern mountains.
Thanks to its position and the various climate Influenes, Istalia can boast a lush and fertile environment, more majatranlike in the north and in the island and more oceanic in the south.
The average precipitations is quite high but this is due to the massive rainfalls which interest the southern slopes of the Alkhayl while the rest of Istalia shows one tird less rainfalls on average.
Istalia is a democratic, secular, unitary and constitutional monarchy with a representative parliamentary system. The monarch, which official title is Emperor of the Istalians, is the Head of State, represents the Nation, preserves its unity and integrity, he is the Protector and Guarantor of the Democratic Constitution and Institutional Order, Supreme Commander of the Istalian Armed Forces, serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity, he appoints Ministers, including the Prime Minister, that was chosen and have the confidence of the national legislature to form the Imperial Government.
The Parliament of Istalia is an unicameral legislature called National Assembly of the Istalian Empire. Constitutionally, legislative power is vested with both the government and the Parliament, but the latter is the supreme legislature and all final decision is up to the National Assembly. Being the Istalia essentially a representative democracy, the national legislature is central in the political system. The Parliament can pass a law by simple majority of the 681 representatives, who are elected on the basis of proportional representation from 5 constituencies for 50-month terms. Obviously the National Assembly ratifies national treaties developed by the executive branch. It can impeach members of the government as well as the whole Government through both a constructive or destructive vote of no confidence.
Political parties and the "Militant Democracy"
In Istalia, as per the constitution, there is a multi-party system. Istalia has had a prominent multi-party system that existed under the current monarchical representative system, all the five istalian republican regime since 2233 and also under the previous Union of Quanzari Soviets, since 2118. The system however has been interrupted from time to time, especially under the restorations of the quanzarian rule, but has remained at the core of the nation.
Since the establishment of the Fifth Republic in 4555, several laws attributed to the Government, the Parliament and the Judiciary broad powers and duties to defend the liberal democratic order against those who want to abolish it. The idea behind the concept is the notion that not even a majority government can be allowed to install a totalitarian or autocratic regime in violation of the principles of the Constitution, the Fundamental Law. The law explicitly prohibits the formation and participation in elections of political parties, electoral lists and candidates who promote ideologies and positions against the democratic order and authorizes the powers of the State to act accordingly according to and within the limits of the provisions of the law. The istalian authorities and schoolars defines this system of self-protection as a "Militant Democracy". The Istalian Empire maintains all the defensive democracy's laws adopted during the previous republic.
The Judiciary in Istalia is articolated in a system of national and regional courts which provides three judicial degrees. At the top of the Judiciary there are three main bodies: the Supreme Tribunal of Cassation (Istalian: Tribunale Supremo di Cassazione) for civil and criminal affairs, the Supreme Court (Istalian: Corte Suprema) for the constitutional review of laws and other measures adopted by the State and their institutions, and the Council of State for the administrative justice. The Istalian Constitution grants special constitutional rules and protections which assures the indipendency of the Judiciary, as well as an indipendent body to manage the careers and the positions of judges and public prosecutors, with the Ministry of Justice managing structures and administrative matters.
Law enforcement in Istalia is provided by multiple police forces, three of which are national agencies. The State Police (Polizia di Stato in Istalian) is the civil national police of Istalia and the main police force of the Country. Along with patrolling, investigative and law enforcement duties, it patrols the Rete Autostradale Istaliana (Istalia Express Highway network), oversees the security of railways, bridges and waterways and it is also responsible customs.
The National Gendarmerie (Gendarmeria Nazionale) is a Gendarmerie-like military corps with police duties which jurisdiction extends mainly in the countryside and little towns of Istalia. They also serve as the military police for the Istalian armed forces.
The Financial Police (Polizia Finanziaria), finally, is a militarized police force under the authority of the Minister of Finance which is essentially responsible for dealing with financial and economic crime and smuggling.
The Istalian Empire's foreign politics is determined mainly by an unilateral international approach aimed to establish friendship reletions with few selected nations and always privileged the alliance with the neighbouring Solentia with which maintains a long lasting friendship established under the previous Fifth Republic.
Unlike the Fourth Republic, the new regime showed not to be interested in create or join larger international organizations and also its partecipation to the forum of the World Congress is actually not recorded (there is to underline that since the middle of 44th century the World Congress experienced a minimal activity).
The Country, however, retained its positions about human rights and democracy continuing to spread it around the world like under the Fourth Republic, a behavior which led Istalia to intervene into Kazulian civil war against the totalitarian fascist regime around the 80's of 44th century.
Total istalian military spending at the end of 42nd century was equal to the 6.18% of national GDP and, as per a doctrine introduced since the middle of 41st century, important quotas are reserved to the Research and Development Department of the Defence to assure to the Armed Forces the best equipements and capabilities and their constant improvement and upgrade.
The Emperor holds the title of Supreme Commander of the nation's armed forces and is the Chairman of the Supreme National Security Council. He has a great deal of discretionary power in appointing the Armed forces leaders and particularly the Chief of Defence Staff, whose appointments formally belongs to the Ministry of Defence.
Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime
Currently the Istalian Armed forces, being the Country one of the world powers, maintain several military base abroad, among the main the Base in Costa de Oro, Baltusia, one of the closer allies of Istalia, and another one in the southern shores of Malivia, since the middle of 43rd century became another important ally of Istalia.
Thanks to these bases and especially thanks to its Navy, the Istalian Empire is able to project its force virtually all over the world.
Istalia, since the middle of 43rd century, detains one of the larger nuclear arsenal worldwide, strategic nuclear arsenal deployable thorugh land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, strategic bombers, and submarine-launched ballistic missiles, making the nation a so called Triad Nuclear Power. However, the Istalian authorities have always been quite reserved and elusive talking about their nuclear arsenal, having never even revealed a figure or specific technical details on power or range of its devices.
The community which form the istalian intelligence services, also colloquialy known as Servizi Segreti (luthorian: Secret Services), is officially called Imperial Community of Information and Security Services (istalian: Comunità Imperiale dei Servizi d'Informazione e Sicurezza) (acronym: CISIM) and are formed by some departments and agencies like the DESIS, the Department which oversees the national intelligence, the SISDE and the SISDI the two agencies responsible respectively of the domestic and foreign intelligence and several department depending by the Armed Forces.
Istalia traditionally, historically and administratively has always been divided into five administrative divisions called, as mentioned, Regions (Istalian: Regioni), three on the Peninsula, Mezzodiurno, Padagna and Trivendito, and two on Alaria, Sarregna and Silicia.
In turn, the Regions are sub-divided into Provinces (Istalian: Province), four each region, named after their capitals.
Finally, under the Provinces the last and smallest administrative divisions are the Municipalities (Istalian: Comuni) which administer the territories of cities, towns and villages.
About the Government of the administrative sub-entities of Istalia, while the Provinces are mere territorial sub-divisions with no government bodies but only some administrative ones, delegated to the Provinces by the Regions at their discretion, Regions and Municipalities have elective bodies in the form of Regional and Municipal Councils and monocratic executives, the Governors for the Regions and the Mayors for the Municipalities.
As of 4199, there were 99,679,814 people residing in Istalia. The most populated city is Romula with 13 million people. The istalian population is highly urbanized, like many other developed society and it is also quite concentrated in some specific areas, with only one tenth of the istalian municipalities which have more then 15,000 residents. However, the avarage population of the numberous province towns and little villages is still quite elevated, this mainly due to the area of the Country, which is the 50th on the 58 nations of the developed world. For the same reason, with an average population density of 148.79 people per square kilometre, it has, in turn, one of the highest density, the 5th on the same 58. Since the end of 43th century Istalia became a multicultural nation, attracting people all over the world and becoming an immigration nation. Today most part of the immigrates and of their descendants comes from Majatran nations and from the most close allies of Istalia.
Istalia has two main recognized ethnic groups, the Istalians, who are the 76% of the population and the Majatrans, who are the 15% (12% Quanzarans, also know as Quanzarans-Majatrans, and 3% other Majatrans). The latter, knwon as Istalian Majatrans, despite they are fully integrated within the istalian society for millennia, were formally recognized as ethnic, cultural and linguistic national minority only in 4491.
About the other ethnic minorities present in Istalia, originating from migratory flows in the last 400 years, according to the last official census, are 2% Solentians, 2% Kalopians, 1% of Baltusians, 1% of Zardics, 1% of Saridanes, 1% of Barmenians and another 1% of other ethnicities consisting of people from or descending from Kanjor, Alduria, Al'Badara, Selucia, etc... Thus, it is a population which is missing its homogeneity and is becoming ever more multi-ethnic, attracting, as said, people all over the world due to the large economy and the developed society, and also to long lasting pro-immigration policies. It is foreseen in the future an increasing presence of foreigners and descendants of precedent immigrants. The largest community of immigrants in Istalia is formed by Solentians.
The language spoken in Istalia is the Istalian, however, there is a substantial minority of Majatran speakers in the country which use majatran among the familiars or inside their ethnic community. The majatran speakers, however, are slowly decreasing in Istalia since 37th century and among the new generation often it's used just with old relatives.
Istalia is spoken by all the citizens as official language of the Empire, used for the most part of the day-by-day dialogues, taught at school as national language and it's the language used for all the economic, trade, scientific and cultural activities.
Istalian is a Selucian language, the only member of the so called eastern-seleucic. The istalian developed into the selucian colonies established on the shores of Alaria and of the Peninsula and centuries after centuries, due to the increasingly influential selucian culture, it arrived to supplant the ancient qedarite language of Qolshamih and already in the first century CE selucian was the main language for trade and business, used to be taught to the scions of the families of the wealthiest and ruler classes. With the Augustan conquest, the selucian became definitively the administrative language and the most used in ancient Istalia, spreading ever more among the little people and the commoners, developing in its vulgar form from which the various istalian dialects will derive.
In fact, each istalian regions presents its own dialect from which, howver, derived many other provincial sub-dialects. The modern official istalian, finally, was codified at the end of the XVII century, after the Ahmadi domination and during the struggle to contrast the Quanzar invasion, in an attempt to fix the grammatical rules, to offer a true common language for the entire Istalian population and thus to preserve the national language threated by the anti-istalian policies adopted by the Ahmadi rulers.
During the Quanzar domination the istalian was relegated to be the language of the little people, forcing the élite to adopt the majatran which became the administrative language of the Quanzar Empire and then of the Quanzar Emirate. The Quanzar committed many energy into the repression of the istalian culture, prohibiting its teaching in schools and even its public use by part of istalian nobles and notable.
The Istalian became the official language of the nation only in the 23rd century when the last Quanzarian regime fell replaced by the first unified istalian nation.
Nowadays 66% of the current Istalian population belong to the Hosianism (63% to Aurorian Patriarchal Church, 2% to Terran Patriarchal Church and 1% to other denominations), the second larger religion is Ahmadism which is followed by 12% of the population (11% belonging to Israism and 1% to Abadism and other denominations), while 18% declare themselves as irreligious, most part Atheist.
Most Istalians have always had a strong bond with religious Hosian values, given that Hosianism is part of the background in which Istalian culture developed and which became probably one of the strongest ethnic unifying factors for the Istalian people, especially during the struggles against the Ahmadi denominations which tried to limit the practice of Hosianism by favoring the diffusion of the Ahmadism which however never constituted more than 35% of the population.
This attempt to destroy one of the fundamental feature of the Istalians increased even more the hostility between the two ethnicities and especially before the rise of the communist forces Istalians have always strongly considered their Hosian faith an integral part of their ethnic identity; this is probably could be a cause for the large consensus always gained by Hosian Democratic parties.
During the regime of the Quanzari Soviets all religions were banned but when the Quanzarian Republic was founded in 2235, the first modern liberal republic in Istalia, religious freedom was reintroduced and as a result if a return to Istalian rule Hosianism started to regain its position and in the following century this has caused the decrease of the proportion of Ahmadis people in the country from the 32% at the time of the end of the Emirate to the 16% of today.
Soon after the fall of the Quanzari Emirata, despite the state atheism of the Union of the Quanzari Soviets, the dissident ideas of what would become the Theognosian Church began to spread in Istalia to become, after the fall of the Soviets, quickly the largest Hosian denomination in the nation, and the ancient Patriarchate of Quanzar became the major Theognosian Patriarchate in Majatra extending its authority also on Solentia and Kafuristan, although almost until the end of the Church's it was always dominated by the Canrillaise element.
When the Second Council of Auroria was announced, the Istalian bishops of the Patriarchy of Quanzar showed themselves among the stronger unionist supporters from the Theognosian delegation to the Council and in effect the bishop of Romula, Gregorio Augustani, head of the Istalian part of the Patriarchate of Quanzar, emerged as the most charismatic leader of the Theognosian Church, more than the Thognosian Arch-Patriarch in Ville de Saints of the time. Bishop Gregorio became so influential that when the previous Arch-Patriarch died Gregorio was elected as new Arch-Patriarch of the Theognosian Church, the first to break away from centuries of Canrillaise domination of Ville de Saints, as well as the first to adopt a non-Canrillaise pontifical name, Benedetto V. Thanks to his efforts the entire Theognosian Church finally merged into the new Aurorian Patriarchal Church, recognized as the legitimate heir of the Holy Apostolic Hosian Church of Terra, which is still the official name, and thanks to the new influence of the Istalian element into the Theognosian rite the Patriarchy was renamed Patriarchy of Istalia, Solentia and Quanzar.
Currently however, after the end of the last isolationist period of Istalia in the 41st century, and the penetration of a more globalist culture, the religious influence is decreasing even more, a situation showed also by the increase of those which consider itself "not-religious".
About the Ahmadism in Istalia, the strongly secular principles which dominated the Fourth Republic since its foundation affected greatly also the Istalian Majatrans who, being fully integrated into the secular society of the country, are seen as the most progressist and modern followers of the Ahmadi Faith and which practice what is called informally as Modern Ahmadism, Liberal Ahmadism, Progressive Ahmadism or Corrupt Ahmadism, the latter in a derogatory sense by part of the more conservative communities. Despite the criticism, however, most part of the believers consider themself fully Ahmadis due to the fact that they they believe in all the fundamental dogmas of Ahmadism: the Articles of faith and the Five Foundamental Practices. Actually, the majority of the Ahmadis in Istalia belong officially to the Israi branch of the Ahmadism, which is considered the orthodox branch of this religion, but the great majority of Istalian Majatrans doesn't follow strictly the traditional ahmadis prescriptions and, of course, among them there are many that declares themself to be atheist or agnostic. About the rights of the women and the genders relations, as well as other traditional ahmadi societal principles, virtually no one strictly respect these provisions and actually there is no gender segregation a part in few more traditionalist Mosques.
This is due to the fact that in Istalia, the Ahmadis believe in a individual and ethics interpretation of scripture rather than a literal interpretation; they don't consider the original revelation as a single, precise and valid interpretation of the Book of Bliss handed down by the Prophet for all times, but believe that only the meaning of the Holy Text is considered to be a revelation, with its expression in words seen as the work of the prophet Ahmad in his particular time and context. Furthermore, they focused themself just on the Book of Bliss, considered as the only veritable divine revelation, while the scriptures added by Ahmad and the first Ahmadi schoolars are seen as not originating from Akim and considered as ahmadist reviews of social, economic and personal principles charaterizing the pre-ahmadi Barmenian and then Majatran cultural customs and traditions of the 12th century.
Primary and miggle education in Istalia are free and mandatory from age five to sixteen and it is organized in four stages:
- Scuola dell'infanzia (Preschool): 2-4 yo, not mandatory.
- Scuola primaria (Primary school): 5- 12yo
- Scuola di Indirizzo (Profil school): 13-15 yo
- Scuola superiore (High school): 16-18 yo
Primary school lasts eight years. The students are given a basic education in Istalian, Luthorian, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, physical education and visual and musical arts.
The Profile school provides 3 course types: Social & Humanist Subject, Sciences & Physical Subjects, Artistic and Design Subjects. It will be formed to ensure the most personalized education for each student, and help them prepare themselves for the future. The names tell what will be the main focus of each profile. The students are obliged to follow at least 2 of the course types in the first 2 years and a third year of an in-depth course on the lasted choiced course type.
The High school finally is divided three different types: the liceo is mainly focused to give an improved education with classical, scientific or linguistic curriculum and prepares students for university, while the istituto tecnico and the Istituto professionale prepare pupils for vocational education with teaching staff formed by experts from the world of the work and professions and that involve the students also in internship. There are four compulsory final exams: one at the end of Primary School, one at the end of each of the two maian class in Profile School and one at the end of High School.
To the Istalian students since the primary until the end of the Profile school is required to dress an uniform when attending the lessons, however it is allowed and also promoted the personalization of the school uniforms.Tertiary education in Istalia is divided between public universities, private universities and the prestigious and selective superior graduate schools, such as the Alta Scuola di Economia di Milona or Scuola Normale Superiore di Florentia. The last ones are completely independent institutions from a legal point of view, recognized by the Minister of the Education, which offers advanced training and research through university-type courses or is dedicated to teaching at graduate or post-doctoral level.
Alongside the Public schools exist also private institutions for each stages of education and form of charter school which should have specific focus.
The Istalian Government at least for most part of the last two century has maintained a policy against the public financing of private educational institutions.
About the university tuitions policy, Istalia has always traditionally had a policy to stimulate their young to attend university, mainly covering the university cost for the student with low income. Since the middle of 42nd century the Public Education provides a system of university tuituions calculated for each student on the basis of its income (individual or familiar) and a total exemption for the low income students, it includes scholarship programs.
The Agenzia Nazionale per il Supporto all'Istruzione Superiore (Luthorian: National Agency for the Support of the Higher Education) is the national agency under the Ministry of Education and Culture which manages the tuition and scholarship policies in Istalia. Following the provisions of the law, the Agency assure fully subsided tuition for the low-income students while for all the rest the Agency adopt the mentioned progressive scheme.
HealthThe Istalian health care system, currenlty since the reform of 4583, is one of universal health care financed by national health insurances handle by private contractors which cost is covered by the State through fiscal detractions and remboursements and which is globaly overseen by the National Healthcare Service (Istalian: Servizio Sanitario Nazionale).
Healthcare in Istalia is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:
- the General Healthcare Insurance (Istalian: Assicurazione Sanitaria Generica), often called Basic Insurance, which covers common medical care.
- the Long Term Healthcare (Istalian: Assistenza Sanità a Lungo Termine) or LTH which covers long-term nursing and care.
While Istalian residents are automatically insured by the government for LTH, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance, except those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium.
Those who don’t take out insurance risk a fine. The State, however, provides the so-called Healthcare Supplementary Allowance (Istalian: Assegno Supplementare - Assup) for poor and low income families to enable them to afford the mandatory basic insurance. This allowance will take shape in a monthly payout and can only be used for covering the costs of basic insurance.
Insurers have to offer a universal package for everyone over the age of 18 years, regardless of age or state of health. In fact, it’s illegal to refuse an application or impose special conditions for basic insurances. In contrast to many other Majatran systems, this system is responsible for the accessibility of the healthcare system in the country, but not in charge of its management.
A key feature of this system is that premiums may not be related to health status or age. Risk variances between private health insurance companies due to the different risks presented by individual policy holders are compensated through risk equalization and a common risk pool. Funding for all short-term health care is 50% from employers, 45% from the insured person and 5% by the government.
To oversee the entire sector, the already existing National Health Service, following the most recent reform, assumed a more regulatory status, charged to graant the quality of the service and to handle the public covered assurances or the part of it entitled to be covered by the State. The National Healthcare System is organized under the Ministry of Health and financed by the general taxation of the state representing one of the public services which accounts for most of the national budget.
Previously the most recent reforms, the SSN managed directly a public healthcare service and provided itself the health care services to the citizens.
However, despite the long lasting existence of such a well-founded and regulated public health care services, the istalians always have enjoyed largely the private healthcare sector too: the data in 4218 suggested that almost 65% of istalians declared to recourse occasionally to private services while almost 39% declared to use exclusively them. For this reason, and then the recent reform on the matter, in Istalia the private healthcare is one of the largest and and most developed of the world.
Thanks to a well funded administration and to an universal coverture for all the citizens, the Istalian healthcare has alwyas been able to offer high quality services. Thanks to this, together with cultural tendencies to follow healthy habits and a majatran-canrilles diet, Istalians can benefit of an high life expectancy and low obesity rates. However not overly restrictive smoke policies determined a proportion of daily smokers slightly above the world average.
Previously a short period around the middle of 44th century which saw the State run only a national social insurance to cover the health care expenses of poor and low-income families and/or individuals, since the beginning of 43th century, the State offered a system similar to the current one, which was an universal single-payer national system which covered the healthcare expensses for all citizens through a progressive universal scheme of subsidies and tax deduction and relief. The citizens were free to choice among several private actors managing all the healthcare services and the facilities, while the SSN managed and oversaw the national insurance system and the respect of the healthcare regulations by part of the privates actors. The reform was accompanied by very detailed regulations focused on the safeguard of the citizens by abuses and unethical behaviors and on the protection of the Right to Health. Such regulations were maintained also under all the successive reforms.
Social SecurityThe Istalian State traditionally has always recognized to its citizens a broad and universal social security system which provides a minimum income which acts also as unemployment benefits as universal minimum pension for those unable to work for illness, disability, permanent or partial inability to work, etc... and also as social pension for the elders. Since 4172 most part of the social services, as well as the pension system, are managed by the Agenzia Nazionale Assicurazioni Sociali (Luthorian: National Agency for Social Insurances) (ANAS).
The State, furthermore, supports the Istalian family providing child benefit for all the family, which ensure monetary support for all the children up to 16, parental leave for both the parents which ensure the 80% of the pay for 68 weeks per child to be divided between the parents and Disable child benefits (this last benefits is automatically replaced by the universal minimum pension when he comes of age).
Finally the State operates a voluntary public pension system alongside private ones leaving to the citizens decide which to choose or if combine them. The public pension is called National Public Pension Scheme (NPPS) and it is calculated on the years of work and on the work income and is covered by the national taxation; however, the public social security offers to the citizens also what is called Public Investment Pension Scheme to integrate the first one: the pensioner can use this second option to invest (their saving or part of the NPPS) in many public and private funds managed by the national agency of the social security so to increase in this way his pension amount.
Istalia has a very rich culture which has been influenced during the long history of these lands by numbers of different civilizations, religions and cultures.
As already said several time, the modernday istalian has their roots in the selucian and hosianist legacy which then developed and assumed its own features.
For centuries divided by politics and geography and also dominated by foreign rulers until its eventual liberation and unification as istalian nation in 2235, Istalia has developed a unique culture, shaped by a multitude of regional customs and local centres of power and patronage.
During the Middle Ages and the Modern era, before of the Ahmadi rule and under the previously hosian domination and the indipendent periods, a number of magnificent courts competed for attracting the best architects, artistis and scholars, thus producing an immense legacy of monuments, paintings, music and literature which can boast today Istalia which have been added to the equally impressive testimonies of the earliest epoches.
In Istalia, given the fact that here the selucian culture and civilization found a real second home, also the ancestors of the istalians became known as skilled seamen and merchants reaching most part of Majatran but also Seleya, but at the time they were not distinguished by their selucian cousins.
The sea vocation of the Istalians charaterized all the future history of the Nation, the sea became the main trade way and the merchants and the different principalities and kingdom which suceeded obtained great benefits and enriched themself.
However the selucians which developed in the early Istalia were more open to the foreign culture and influences and the cities and the courts in the ancient Istalia were always even more influenced than the selucians itself which for century more or less preserved better its own traditions and features.
For this reason Istalia is a nation where is possible find a rich artistic heritage, an eclectic expression of the culture variety which has experienced the country through millennia thanks to migrations, emergence of civilizations, colonization, domination, etc...
Despite its turbolent history, charaterized by wars, internal and external conflicts, foreign conquests and struggles to re-gain the freedom, the istalians are a warm and friendly people who like to enjoy the most genuine pleasures of life together to a notable sense of the respect for the principles and values of freedom, democracy and solidarity.
Customs and Tradition
Istalians have developed a sophisticated sense of taste thanks to the eclecticism of their culture which in the contemporary era has determined the success of Istalian products especially in the field of luxury and fashion.
Istalians love the mundanity and they like socializing in public but they are also attached to their traditions, especially the folkloristic ones, and for this the country presents a real galaxy of fairs, rural festivals and patron celebrations in most part of the towns and villages. Many of these events are related to religious recurrences.
Numerous are the quaint villages all over the territories, each one charaterized by its own local tradition and each region e provice can boast many different particular tradition and the middle/little villages, mony dedicated to the agriculture, are an important element in the demography of the country.
Istalians enjoy numerous kind of sport activities, invited since the school age to practice some kind of sport while the Government promotes the sport activities supporting clubs at any levels all over Istalia and organizing athletic programs (in schools and through the controlled or subsided clubs and associations).
However, the most diffused sport in Istalia, considered as the national sport, is the Football (or Soccer), called in Istalian Calcio. The Istalians have a genuine passion for the football which is well organized in the country under the Istalian Football Federation at any level, with professionist as well as amateur competitions at the provincial, regional and national level. The Istalian National Team is the well known Blue Team which, among the others, was the winning team of the 4235 edition of the Terran FIFA World Cup, hosted in Istalia and passed to the history to be one of the most followed events of history, broadcasted worldwide by the PMI Media Group, today the multinational giant conglomerate TerraMedia.
Among the sports which become very popular over the past few years in Istalia, instead, there is the chariot races of Zardic origins, organized internationally under the United Chariot League which was enthusiastically supported by Istalia and by Istalian firms.
Very particular instead the Istalian cuisine that if it has its roots in the kitchen spread throughout the basin and the mainland of Majatran (majatran diet) has been particularly influenced by the Canrillaise culinary tradition but also by the easthern ones, given the fact that Istalia is the easternmost point of Majatra which allowed them to enter easily in contact with the Dovanian traditions, so all this has produced a delightful unicum in the world panorama.
Some typical Istalian food, in fact, the pizza and the pasta, find their origins in recipes bring back from the south-eastern areas of Selyea which in turn came from Yingdala, recipes in which the rice flour, dominant in the eastern continents, has been replaced with the most typical wheat flour of Majatran and Seleyan tradition.
|New Year's Day||January 1|
|Istalians' Day||May 2|
|Democracy and Freedom Day||June 17|
|Empire Day||September 1|
|Dissolution of the Quanzari Restorationists||September 22|
|All Saints' Day||November 1|
|Nations of Majatra|