Jakania (Turjak: Cakaniye), officially known as the Republic of Jakania (Turjak: Cakaniye Cumhuriyeti), is a sovereign state in southern Majatra. Jakania borders Deltaria to the north, Kalopia to the east, the South Ocean to the south and Cobura to the west. The national capital is the centrally-located Dokuz but the largest city by population and the country's major economic and cultural centre is the coastal city of Mesul.
Recent political history in Jakania has been complex and the country has shifted between democracy and dictatorship since its invasion by Deltaria and subsequent liberation in the Deltarian–Coalition War in the mid-4630s. Since the approval of the 4737 Constitution through a special referendum, the country has operated as a stable, functioning democracy with free and fair elections.
The current political structure is a presidential republic, following the 4781 Jakanian constitutional reforms. The popularly-elected President serves as both the head of state and the head of government, leading the national government. Within this system though, the Assembly of the Republic retains significant influence and extensive legislative power.
Jakania's economy is dominated by the oil and gas industry. For many years the dominant firm in this industry was the State Oil Company, a public corporation. Following a series of modernising reforms in the sector, the company was split up into two separate companies known as the Southern Petroleum Corporation and Ganşehir Oil and Gas.
In international affairs, Jakania has been a vocal advocate for the principle of state sovereignty and was elected to the World Congress Security Council on this platform for the 44th and 45th Sessions. In addition, the country has been fiercely critical of perceived imperialism by countries like Kazulia and Lourenne. Within the region of Majatra, Jakania retains strong ties to Vanuku, Badara and Istalia, and has an emerging relationship with Deltaria.
The native and Luthorian names of the country have been a matter of significant controversy and debate historically. Prior to the formation of the First Jakanian Republic, the country was usually known to foreigners by some version of the name "Turjak"- such as "the Turjak" or (inaccurately) "Turjakistan".
With the formation of the First Republic under Temiz Ozkan, the decision was taken to designate the country's official name as "Jakania" in order to avoid the association of the Turjak name with certain forms of Turjak nationalism and Pan-Tukarism. Jakanian is known by different names in its three native languages. In Turjak it is called Cakaniye and in Kalopian it is Τζακανία (Tzakanía).
The region that compromises the modern state of Jakania has a history of conquest by various different imperial powers throughout pre-modern history. The earliest example is the rule of the Augustan Empire in the region from the 5th century CE, the Empire controlled the area for several centuries but was eventually displaced by the Ahmadi Caliphate through the Great Empire of Turjak. Under the Caliphate, Ahmadism took root in the region and persists as the dominant religion in the modern day.Although the Great Empire was originally a vassal of the Caliphate, it eventually broke away and became an self-governing state in its own right. Until the 16th century, the Great Empire controlled modern Jakania and certain surrounding regions but during this time it experienced significant political and economic stagnation. Eventually it collapsed and was replaced by the Turjak Confederation.
The modern Jakanian state was born in the wake of the democratic movements and revolution led by Temiz Ozkan. Ozkan and his movement founded a secular republic that has persisted in some form to the modern day. In the centuries since the revolution, there have been administrations and regimes that have attempted to restore the monarchy as well as to undermine Ozkan's revolutionary principles but in the modern day, most have been discredited.
The northern regions of Jakania have a semi-arid climate while much of the south is verdant grassland.
Government and politicsEdit
The current constitutional framework is based on democratising reforms instituted in the late 4730s and the later 4781 constitutional reforms. The 4737 Jakanian Constitution, approved by a special referendum, provides the primary structure and functioning of Jakania's political institutions. According to this constitution, Jakania is an Ahmadi republic rooted in the principle of popular democratic sovereignty that traces its origin in the country to the thought of Temiz Ozkan.
Within this framework, the President is the formal head of state and the head of government, serving to represent the unity of the nation. Within this system though, the national legislature retains significant power over the legislative agenda.
The Assembly of the Republic must approve any cabinet proposal before they can be sworn into office, restricting the power of the President to appoint the cabinet. In spite of this the President retains the exclusive power to submit cabinet members for approval, meaning that the legislature is unable to appoint members without his explicit approval.
Politics and electionsEdit
Since the period of democratisation, Jakania has become a multi-party democracy in which various political parties compete in elections at the national, regional and local level. In terms of national government, Birlik and the Democratic Alliance have emerged as the two dominant political parties. Between the two they have won every post-4737 presidential election and led every cabinet.
General elections are ordinarily held every five years, with the President elected at the same time as all three-hundred members of the Assembly. In exceptional circumstances, the Assembly is empowered to call early elections. In the past decade, this provision has been used to resolve political deadlock in the formation of governments and to deal with empty seats following the collapse of political parties.
The country is divided into five districts, controlled by governors. Gubernatorial elections follow a different schedule to national elections since there is no provision for the early election of a district governor, aside from impeachment or resignation.
Elections for governor always happen in the last November within the five year period after the last election was held.
Despite its relatively weak international position, Jakania retains a role in regional affairs. In recent years, the country has developed close relations with key Majatran powers Vanuku and Istalia as well as fellow Ahmadi countries like Solentia and Badara. Traditionally Jakania has maintained a difficult relationship with its northern neighbour Deltaria, primarily due to repeated Deltarian imperialist conquest of the country.
The economy of Jakania is primarily export-led, based around the oil and gas industry as well as the agricultural sector.
The agricultural sector has been a traditionally important part of society and the economy, particularly in the country's southern reigons.
The majority of the country is ethnically Turjak. Significant minorities are Kalopian and Majatran. Majatran people in Jakania have traditionally been over-represented in institutions of economic and political power for a variety of historic and cultural reasons.
According to the Constitution, there are three officially recognised languages of Jakania: Turjak, Kalopian and Majatran. In each case, legislation specifies that it is the Jakanian form of the language that is officially recognised. The Jakanian Language Institute is the primary body in charge of regulating languages in Jakania, including the three official languages as well as other minority languages and some non-native languages.
Ahmadism is the official religion of Jakania.
In recent centuries there has been an increasing trend of urbanisation within the country and the country's major economic centres: Dokuz and Mesul have experienced a significant increase in their population since Jakania's liberation in the Deltarian–Coalition War.
Nonetheless rural village communities retain an important role in the country's culture and politics. Traditional culture and lifestyle in these communities is particularly important and has had a major influence on political debate within the country, especially in terms of the role of religion in public life.
Republic Day is an important part of Jakanian culture.
Over the past century, the Jakanian film industry has undergone an international resurgence. Led in principal by the international streaming service evFilm, the country has achieved success at prestigious events such as the Rittersheim Film Festival and the Academy Awards. Notable figures in the Jakanian cinematic revival include documentarian Yilma Bal and Lost Space star Acun Sunay.
Music in Jakanian incorporates a diverse set of musical traditions and trends, ranging from classical to modern. Among the country's most well-known and successful exports is Sezgin Yakin, who gives his name to the largest airport in Dokuz. Yakin became an international pop sensation in the 42nd century and continued to sell records and large tours for decades after his breakthrough.
Notable within the country's music industry is the Jakanian folk tradition, especially popularly among rural populations in the northern regions of the country. Among the most significant names in this genre is Aktay Demirkan, who represented the country at the Festival of Musical Arts in Terra in 4782.
The cuisine of Jakania is an example of the country's position at the centre of a cultural crossroads in Majatra. Despite heavy influence from Majatran dominance in the region, particularly during the second millennium, Jakanian cuisine shares many elements and customs with other Jelbo-Tukaric countries and even with some Goa-Shown regions.
Oil wrestling, known in Turjak as yağlı güreş, is the official national sport of Jakania, as affirmed by the passage of legislation. A native and traditional sport within the country, wrestlers wear a type of trouser known as kisbet or kispet, and are doused in olive oil. Oil wrestling is a culture tradition shared by many of the Jelbic peoples and festivals are common throughout western Majatra.
In modern times the most popular sport, however, has typically been football. Jakanian domestic club football and the Jakania national football team are both overseen by the Jakanian Football Federation. In international competitions, the country has achieved moderate success, having competed in many IFF World Cups and Majatran Cups.