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CoburaCOA-1

The judiciary of Cobura is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in Cobura.

Definition Edit

The Coburan legal system is a civil law mostly based on a comprehensive compendium of statutes, as compared to the common law systems. In criminal and administrative law, Cobura uses a combination of the inquisitorial system where the judges are actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, and the adversarial system where the role of the judge is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecutor or plaintiff and the defendant.

In Cobura, the independence of the judiciary is historically older than democracy. The organisation of courts is traditionally strong, and almost all national and constitutional actions are subject to judicial review.

Judge qualifications Edit

Judges follow a distinct career path. At the end of their legal education at university, all law students must pass a state examination before they can continue on to an apprenticeship that provides them with broad training in the legal profession over two years. They then must pass a second state examination that qualifies them to practice law. At that point, the individual can choose either to be a lawyer or to enter the judiciary. Judicial candidates start working at courts immediately. However, they are subjected to a probationary period of up to five years before being appointed as judges for life.

Normal Judicial System Edit

Level Social Law Civil Law Criminal Law
Constitutional Supreme Court of Cobura -

(Supera Tribunalo de Kobura)

9 Judges

National High Court of Cassation

(Altaj Tribunaloj de Kasacio)

5 Judges, unanimous agreement required.

Governorate High Social Courts - (Alta Sociaj Tribunaloj)

3 Judges

Courts of Citizens - (Tribunalo de Civitanoj)

1 Judge and Jury

First Courts - (Unua Tribunalo)

1 Judge and Jury

Regional Social Councils - (Socia Konsilio)

1 Judge

Courts of Civil Appeal -(Tribunalo de Civila Apelacio)

1 Judge

Courts of Criminal Appeal - (Tribunalo de Kriminala Apelacio)

1 Judge (Jury presence depends)

Local Civil Courts - 1 Judge Police Courts - 1 Judge

Edit

Criminal law Edit

Courts Edit

Trial courts in criminal matters are composed of:

Trial Court Composition Jurisdiction
Offenses Police Courts 1-3 Police Judge(s) Criminal offences in which the sentence is expected to be less than two years.
Courts of Criminal Appeal 2 Judges Criminal offenses in which the sentence is expected to be between two and four years.
Minor Crimes 1 Judge + Jury Cases in which the sentence is expected to exceed four years, cases where the prosecutor decided to be not tried by Police Courts, and minor political crimes.
Major Crimes First Courts 1-3 Judge(s) + Jury Specially constituted Court of Criminal Appeal for felonies resulting in death and economics crimes.
High Courts of Cassation 5 Judges Serious political crimes.

Specialized courts Edit

Specialized courts deal with five distinct subject areas: administrative, labour, fiscal, military, and patent law. Like the ordinary courts, they are organized hierarchically with the regional court systems under a national appeals court. All specialized law cases appealed to (only in case of error of law from trial decisions made in national courts) are tried by the High Court of Settlement.

Level Administrative Labour Finance Patent Military
Appellation High Courts of Settlement (Altaj Tribunaloj de Interkonsento) High Court of Arms
National High Administrative Court High Labour Court High Finance Court Patent Courts Common Courts of Arms
Regional Regional Administrative Law Courts Regional Labour Law Courts Regional Financial Law Courts
  • Administrative law courts (Administrativaj Tribunaloj). In these courts, individuals can have wrongful administrative acts overturned. The High Administrative Law Court is the highest administrative law court.
  • Labour law courts (Laboralaj Tribunaloj) address disputes over collective bargaining agreements and working conditions. The Civil Labour Court is the highest labour law court.
  • Finance courts (Financaj Tribunaloj), also called tax law courts or fiscal courts, hear only tax-related cases. The National Finance Court is the highest tax law court.
  • Military courts (Milita Tribunalo) hear cases related to the Coburan Armed Forces, as well as violations of military law and the Military Code.
  • The Patent Courts hear certain intellectual property cases on patents, utility rights and trademarks.

Supreme Appellation Edit

In the very rare case of error of law from trial decisions made in the High Courts of Settlement or the High Courts of Cassation, the appeal will be tried by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court's decision is final and binding.

Cobura articles
History History of CoburaHistory of Cobura by periodQedarite MigrationsKingdom of IrkawaKingdom of DomaleAugustan EmpireAhmadi CaliphateKingdom of Cobura2114 RevolutionCoburan Civil WarCoburan Liberation CrisisLake Majatra WarDeltarian Intervention in CoburaAugustan Empire (3607)Jelbic-Augustan WarsMeshtikistan Independance Conflict
Geography MajatraLake Majatra
Nomes DilganatoDomaleEgatoIrkawaTokundi
Demographics Ethnicity: AugustansIrkawansMallansMajatrans | Religion: Apostolic Church of the EastCoburan Apostolic Tewahedo ChurchTerran Patriarchal ChurchAhmadismYeudism
Government Executive:List of Heads of State and GovernmentThe CrownPrime MinisterCabinetGovernorsIntelligence and Security Services of Cobura | Judiciary: Judiciary of CoburaSupreme CourtCoburan Constitution | Legislative: House of Representatives
Politics Political Parties of CoburaElections in Cobura
Economy Economy of CoburaCoburan CoburCoburan Central BankFortas GroupEnacomAhmosisBazaroHoruso Air
Notable People Leon FilayamoSisay MēsikiDomiano CoronaDelilah el-MahjadiAli Azmera MelosDeĵano CezaridoMerani BalenkoAsha ZemalaMane Iyassu SidhomFeyza HadireDeviano de HesperioAmekhan Mikhailo
Military Coburan Armed ForcesCoburan ArmyCoburan NavyCoburan Air Force
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