Kazulia, officially the Kingdom of Kazulia (Kazulianisk: Kongeriket Kazulmark) and alternatively known as Kazulmark, is a nation located in Northern Dovani. Kazulia is bordered by Dankuk to the northwest, Greater Hulstria to the south, North Dovani and Degalogesa to the east, and Ostland to the southeast. It is the 43rd largest nation on Terra and has a population of 57 million.
Kazulia is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with its current constitution enacted in August 4930.
The name "Kazulmark" literally means "March of the Kazuls", and has been used on and off since the Middle Ages before becoming the nation's proper name in modern times. The suffix "-mark" is generally interpreted as referring to the medieval kingdom's independent location on the borders of the Empire of Gao-Soto, which dominated medieval Dovani, whereas "Kazul" refers to the Kazulian people (though this reference is strictly speaking metonymic, as Skjölds and Danskha constituted separate identities within the kingdom). The international name "Kazulia" is of Luthori origin, being used to describe the nation in colonial times. It is still the official name used when referring to the nation in the Luthori language.
Main article: History of Kazulia
It is accepted that the Kazulian people migrated from present day Dundorf and Dorvik eastward during the time period where a land bridge across northern Terra was present. They settled the mountainous territory in Kazulia, and removed many of the Gao-Showan clans which lived prior, ousting them further eastward into the plains of Northern Dovani. From 700-1493 the realm of Kazul was a loose confederation of different Kazulian tribes. Those living by the sea lived mostly off of fishing and plundering, and soon the Kazulians became famous for their ships, which were among the fastest and strongest of their time. The three main tribes of Kazulia were the Kazul, Sullestian, Skrigeres, Befäskars, and Skjöld. Upon the Luthorian colonisation of Greater Hulstria and the surrounding areas Luthorian settlers found there way north into Kazulian territories, shaping the modern Kazulian language and culture. The Kazul, Skrigeres, Befäskars have mostly melded together and now identify as Kazulians, but the Skjölds and Danskhas were more geographically isolated and remained more traditional in beliefs and customs as well as ethnically distinct. Regional languages have and still exist, marking a large difference between fylkes.
Main article: Economy of Kazulia
The centre of Kazulian economics is small to moderate businesses, as well as overall private, worker owned and operated enterprises. All businesses and enterprises in Kazulianare legally government owned, but run individually by democratic workers councils, with elected leaders maing the decisions for the companies. Promotion of inventions as well as ideas, the Kazulian economy from its earliest days has been innovative and problem solving which allows for export of Kazulian inventions, as well as other projects made by Kazulians. Being united by transportation and water systems, Kazulia has a well integrated economy with regions dependent on each other and economic cooperation between the individual regions. The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector, hydroelectric energy production, aluminium production, the Kazulian bank and telecommunication provider. The government controls 54.3% of publicly-listed companies. Those companies are run directly by a board of officials from the Ministry of the Economy that make decisions for all the induvidual workplaces under that company. Highly progressive income taxes, the introduction of value-added tax, and a wide variety of special surcharges and taxes made Kazulia one of the most heavily taxed economies in the world. Authorities particularly taxed discretionary spending, levying special taxes on automobiles, tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic items, and so on. Kazulia's long-term social democratic policies, extensive governmental tracking of information, and the homogeneity of its population lent themselves particularly well for economic study, and academic research from Kazulia proved to make significant contributions to the field of macroeconomics during this era. When Kazulia became a petroleum-exporting country, the economic effects came under further study.
Agriculture has been an important and key element of the Kazulian economy for decades. Named the breadbasket of the world, Kazulia produces a majority of fruits and vegetables of the world and above all wheat. Due to a small population in proportion to the size of the nation and production of fruits, vegetables and wheat, Kazulia actively exports food related products to many different areas of the world. Animal husbandry constitutes the second most important component of agricultural production. Kazulia is the world's leading producer of pigs, chickens, and eggs, and it also has sizeable herds of sheep and cattle. Since, greater emphasis has been placed on increasing the livestock output. Kazulia has a long tradition of ocean and freshwater fishing and of aquaculture. Pond raising has always been important and has been increasingly emphasised to supplement coastal and inland fisheries threatened by over-fishing and to provide such valuable export commodities as prawns. The vineyards of Northern Hent are considered to produce some of the most finest wines in all of Terra.
Mining has been an important industry in Kazulia. Already in early colonial times many different minerals have been found and due to its size, Kazulia has one of the largest coal, iron ore, oil, gas, gold and diamond reserves. Many of these minerals have been exploited, exported and still researched. Until recently, coal, oil and gas remained internally in the country with very little export. However, due to ecological legislation this has been in constant change and countries reliant on coal, oil or gas have been becoming important export partners for Kazulia. As such, the industry is still developing however this is a key point of the Kazulian economy as it employs in fact millions of people and allows for profit.
Industry and construction accounted for 40% of gross domestic product, and employed 20% of the workforce. Kazulia exceeds other nations in the production of weapons, chemicals and machinery. Weapons manufacturing in Kazulia accounts for 15% of weapons and munitions found of the international market.
The Kazulian economy is built on the concept of small-to-medium sized; specialised businesses with an extreme emphasis on science and technology. From small chemical manufactures to medium sized technology companies, the Kazulian economy is extremely dependent on the output of said companies. Although these companies are worker owned, they still have massive outputs that are even higher than before the socialist party took power.
Kazulia is the largest weapons manufacturer in the eastern hemisphere, surpassing the arms industries of Indrala and Kalistan combined. Due to the nation's specialisation in the field of science and technology, the nation has zoomed into the arms manufacturing industry with ease.
Main article: Geography of Kazulia
Kazulia is mostly a mountainous region due to the Barrier Range, a large chain of mountains that separates all four Dovanian countries from the rest of Dovani. However, about one third of Kazulia is quite plain because of Kazulia's two coastal regions. Also the Krigsvatn, the biggest river in Kazulia, runs through the southern plain into the sea. Kazulia could be divided into three main geographical areas. First would be the Kazulian Barrier Range, the highest level in Kazulian regions, with its two highest peaks, the Snøhuset(5,687 m) in the west, and the Jotunstolen (5,804 m) in the east. Second would be the foothills of the Kazulian Barrier Range, also called the Woodland, and the third would be the plains, namely the southern, larger plain which also hosts the river Krigsvatn, and the smaller northern plane in Agatha.
Government and politics
Kazulia is a unitary socialist theocratic republic with a parliamentary system of government, wherein the Chairman is the head of state and government. Considered a semi-representative democracy, the State Affairs Commission and Chairman of the country are elected by a majority of votes (211 or more) in the Supreme Council, then confirmed by the Holy Commission for the Kazulian Democratic Republic, which consists of 5 Provincial Cardinals. Only a third of the Supreme Council is actually elected by Universal vote, with the other 2 thirds being allocated to the national church and labor union respectively. This has led some to classify Kazulia as a meritocracy or theocratic oligarchy.
Power is separated among the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, as defined by the Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. The judicial branch is appointed by the national church of Kazulia, including the High Court, in which supreme judicial rule is vested. De facto, most Church decisions regarding the judiciary are more pragmatic than dogmatic in contemporary history. All executive power is vested in the Chairman of the State Affairs Commission, who is commander-in-chief of the Kazulian Armed Forces, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad among other duties.
Constitutionally, legislative power is vested within the unicameral legislature. The Legislature of Kazulia, called the Øverste Sovjet (meaning Supreme Council), ratifies national treaties developed by the executive branch, and proposes bills and laws. The Council is divided into 3 sectors; 140 members are elected through universal elections, 140 members are elected through the National Confederacy of Labor, and 140 members are appointed by the Kazulian Church. It can impeach members of the government if their acts are declared unconstitutional. If an indicted suspect is impeached, the Council has the power to remove the person from office. In a similar manner, the Supreme Council can call for the removal of the government from power through a Motion of No Confidence, which requires a 60% vote with a 50% threshold from each sector. It should be noted that while the Council is vested with the power to remove the government from office, only the Holy Commission may impeach the Chairman.
The Constitution maintains that the state religion is Hosianism, but conversion and membership is completely optional, and all religions are treated equally under the law. Legally, the only organization under Kazulian law representing Hosianism is the national church of Kazulia, the largest religious organization in the country. The Kazulian Church is constitutionally a branch of the government of the KDR, subjugated to the rule of the head of the church, who is traditionally the Chairman of the State Affairs Commission. It is however independent from the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches, an independent organization which confirms the executive, is represented in the Legislative, and appoints the Judicial. The Chairman of the State Affairs Commission is the official head of the church and is confirmed to carry out god's will by the Holy Commission. However, the Commission may impeach the Chairman if it feels that he has failed to uphold god's heavenly mandate. If impeached, the Chairman will remain in power and as head of State and Government, but he will be removed from his position as head of the church, and the Holy Commission will elect one of their own as acting head until a new government can be confirmed. A chairman has not been impeached but not removed from office, nor removed but not impeached from office in the history of Kazulia, which has worried some constitutional scholars over the ramifications of such an event.
Kazulia has five provinces — Agatha, Dreton, Flindar, Hent and Kelvon — and two special territories — the City of Skalm and Arenheim. In most respects, these two special districts function as states, except that the Supreme Council has the power to modify or repeal any legislation passed by the legislatures of the territories. Every province is ruled by a Provincial Sovjet (Council) under a provincial cardinal. Council members are elected by local workers' committees under guidance of the national Labor Confederacy, while Cardinals are elected and appointed from within the National Church. Council members have term limits, but Cardinals do not. However, Cardinals must be continuously reelected and approved every 5 years, and may be recalled by the Holy Commission or a vote of no confidence with a 60% threshold in the Provincial Council. Cardinals additionally form the Holy Commission, which can be called by the church at any time with a quorum of all 5 members. Traditionally, the Commission has only assembled to confirm new cardinals, new governments, and to reaffirm old Cardinals, but it is additionally vested with the power to remove any member of the church from a position directly controlled by the church, or to excommunicate any individual from the church. Special Territories are run by Special Sovjets and elect their representatives by universal vote. Special Sovjets elect a Governor by plurality through a 2 round system, and any party represented can nominate as many candidates as they please.
Under the constitution, the provinces essentially have plenary legislative power to legislate on certain subjects, whereas the Federal Parliament may legislate within all subject areas. For example, state legislatures have the power to legislate with respect to education, criminal law and state police, health, transport, and local government, however the parliament has the ability to legislate on laws that prevail over state laws. In addition, the parliament has the power to levy income tax which, coupled with the power to make grants to States, has given it the financial means to incentivise states to pursue specific legislative agendas.
The Kazulian Armed Forces – officially, the Holy Templar – consists of four professional service branches: the Kazulian Army, the Kazulian Air-Force, the Kazulian Navy, the Cybernetic Security Management Centre and the Kazulian Home Guard. The forces are managed by the Department of Defence and controlled by the Defence Council, chaired by the Minister of Defence. The Armed Forces are charged with protecting Kazulia and its overseas territories, promoting Kazulia's global security interests and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They are active and regular participants in the Three Mountains Agreement, NORDIC and other worldwide coalition operations. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained in Kalopia, Keymon, Hutori, Lourenne, Hulstria, Rildanor, Kanjor, Luthori, North Dovani.
Kazulia maintains conscription and has done so for five (5) centuries. Annually, the Kazulian Armed Forces sees around 5,000 conscripts being brought into the armed forces; a significant reduction since the introduction of conscientious objector laws and civilian national service as an alternative route to military service. Kazulian forces maintain one of the fastest mobilisation speeds in the world. Kazulian forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 5 active aircraft carriers, and combined expeditionary units at sea with the Navy's Dovanian and Majatran fleets.
The Kazulian Armed Forces relies heavily on high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured in Israel as well as some foreign imports. Kazulia is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons as well as chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. It maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity toward its nuclear capabilities. The Kazulian Armed Forces have been involved in several major wars and border conflicts in its long history, making it one of the most battle-trained armed forces in the world.
Main article: Culture of Kazulia
Kazulia's Culture is rich in its history and closely related to the thousands of years of Kazulian history. Despite being settled by colonists from Luthori, Hulstria as well as other nations, Kazulia has maintained its regions uniqueness thanks to its mountainous homeland which isolates them for their neighbours. The arrival of foreign settlers were a great change for the native Kazulian tribes which survived in the harsher conditions of their Kazulian fatherland. The introduction of new, more modern ways as well as Hosianism was a great change for the native Kazulians, however they successfully adapted to the new ways and after merging with the colonists the modern Kazulian was created. The importance of Kazulian culture has waxed and waned over the centuries, depending on its economic, political and military importance. Kazulian culture today is marked both by great regional and socioeconomic differences and by strong unifying tendencies.
Main article: Tourism in Kazulia