| Kingdom of Istalia|
Flag Coat of Arms
"Pro Istalia Libertate"
|Capital Calliari and Villareale|
|Government Constitutional Monarchy|
King of Istalia
First Francesco III Mano di Ferro
Last Arturo Gabriele III
President of the Council of Minister
First Camillo Intenso
Last Gen. Michele Belli
|Legislature Camera dei Rappresentanti|
|Area 247,500 km²|
|Population 16,500,000 (1959)|
The kingdom is today seen as the cradle of Istalian culture and of Istalianity, whose influence on the mainland was always very extendend, continuing to fight against the Quanzari and attemping to unify the Istalian lands. The Kingdom and its rulers devoted their same existence to the cause of the reconquest of the lost lands and as proof of this, the first King assumed as motto of the Kingdom Pro Istalia Libertate, meaning in Selucian Devoted to rid Istalia.
The Kingdom of Istalia was officially proclaimed in 1772 by Nicoman King Francis III Iron hand, after the conquest of the Sarrentina Peninsula by the Quanzari Empire, but its history dates back centuries as the Island had for most of its ancient history been separated by the mainland and so governed by other state entities. Known under various names, including the Kingdom of Estalia, the Kingdom on the Island, or the Kingdom of Nicoma, the unified Istalian kingdom on the island emerged after all the other Principalities, since the end of the Augustan dominion, were progressively subjugated by the so called Selucian-Nicomese Dynasty of Nicoma, officially House of Nacosia, descendant of Selucian lords which took power in the kingdom of Nicoma in medieval period.
During its history, thanks to a long tradition of serious centralized administration, entrusted to a meritocratic administrative class formed by career officials, a system supported by well-trained Monarchs, the Kingdom grew in richness by establishing fruitful exchanges with many nations on Seleya, the rest of Majatra and also with the eastern lands (Dovani and in particular Indrala).
During second half of 18th and the 19th century the Kingdom experienced its peak in prosperity and power and the kings of the time had ambition to defeat the Quanzaris and unify the istalian lands. In this period one of the most prominent monarchs was Arthur Gabriel I, second king, remembered for its committment against the Quanzar Emirate but also for the opulence of its court. A symbol of the wealth of that period is the well-known Palace of Villareale, a magnificent example of Istalian Baroque, also known as Neoselucian Baroque.
During the first half of 19th century the Kingdom grew in wealth and power, and commerce became the real engine of that growth. Society evolved and the bourgeoisie, the most prominent class, began to demand more political rights. An intellectual élite started to demand the creation of a Parliament with the power to control the Government, especially in regards to budget and taxation, given the fact that the bourgeoisie contributed significantly to the expensses of the Kingdom. The bourgeoisie was accompanied by the rise of the working class, which used by the former in its fight against the absolutist regime. In order to avoid a revolution, after months of turmoil and civil disorders, king Victor Alexander II finally accepted in 1848 to form a Parliament in Calliari, the House of Representatives, the first modern Parliament in the istalian lands with the power to control the Government.
One of the first serious crises between the Crown and the new Parliament arose during the reign of Arthur Gabriel II: the king, recognizing the need for the island to have an even more powerful Navy to fight the Quanzaris, since the begining of his reign pushed on the Government to authorize a project to modernize the Royal Navy, but for almost 4 years Parliament refused to approve allocating the necessary funds, considering such an expense as motivated by the King's militaristic ambitions. However, the seizure of the mercantile ship Vento del Sud by the Quanzar Navy in 1859 finally convinced Parliament: two vessels of the Istalian Navy were not able to resist a large new vessel of the Emirate, causing embarassement for a nation which based its fortune on the sea. The growth of the Navy thus became part of the ordinary policy of the Kingdom which at the dawn of the next century was able to boast the most powerful Navy of eastern Majatra, a project that enriched many businessmen and newborn companies and also pushed for the modernization of entire industries. The naval crisis definitively discredited the old Aristocracy, opening the doors to the enriched burgioisie.
As a result the bourgeois-liberal forces led Istalian politics for the rest of the century, and capitalism caused rapid economic and social development, but also created the background of the difficulties of 20th century.
The new century in fact was a very difficult period for the Kingdom, shaken by socialist revolutionary ferments and class struggle. In this period the kingdom experienced two military coups (1921 and 1952), all led by the Army with the support of king Eugene II and his son Arthur Gabriel III to suppress the even more strong socialist movements. However, in 1923, the Kingdom reported one of its greatest military victories: After 5 years of skirmishes between the Kingdom and the Emirate, the King ordered his commanders to plan a definitive counteroffensive to stop Quanzar's forces. The plan was a success: the Battle of Triesta saw the Istalian fleet destroy almost all the Quanzari ships while the Battle of Angona saw the Istalian forces take the first territories on the mainland in over three centuries. As a result Quanzar was forced to ratify the Treaty of Calliari by which the Emirate agreed to respect the Kingdom's independence.
After the death of Eugene I, however, the Emirate, which in the years after the Treaty of Calliari started to operate in the dark to rebuild its forces, profiting from the second military coup of 1952 launched a great campaign to conquer the island. The Istalian resistence fiercely opposed the invaders for almost 7 years, but finally the Quanzari forces managed to defeat the Kingdom's armies and definitively annexed the island to Quanzar in 1959.
Arthur Gabriel III, the last king, was initially imprisoned with his family on the Fortress of Saint Luculliana, a former military barracks somewhere in the desert of Pheykran, but then, after five years, the Quanzar Emir decided to exile the former Royal Family.
Kings of IstaliaEdit
This is a list of the Monarchs of the Kingdom of Istalia since its official foundation in 1772 to its fall in 1959.
|Francis III Iron hand|
(Francesco III Mano di Ferro)
|1772-1774||1704-1774 (70)||First to assume the title King of Istalia, he did not renumber himself after assuming the new royal title, however|
|Arthur Gabriel I the Tenacious|
(Arturo Gabriele I il Tenace)
|1774-1799||1721-1799 (78)||Considered the greatest king of Istalia|
|Victor Alexander I|
(Vittorio Alessandro I)
|Francis IV the Simple|
(Francesco IV il Semplice)
|1801-1808||1763-1808 (45)||Mentally ill, his son, Vittorio Alessandro II, acted as Regent during all the reign of the father|
|Victor Alexander II|
(Vittorio Alessandro II)
|1808-1855||1786-1855 (69)||He accepted the creation of the first modern parliament in the istalian lands, the House of Representatives of the Kingdom of Istalia, based in Calliari, with the power to control the Government|
|Arthur Gabriel II|
(Arturo Gabriele II)
|1855-1863||1800-1863 (63)||He is considered as the founder of the first modern Istalian Navy whose motto is attributed to him|
|Eugene I the Dolorous|
(Eugenio I l'Addolorato)
|1863||1825-1892 (67)||He has abdicated after four months in favor of his brother Francesco V due to the grief over the death of his beloved wife|
|Francis V the Fair|
(Francesco V il Bello)
|1863-1883||1826-1883 (54)||Officialy dead during a hunting accident, actually dead during a duel for a matter of honour due to one of his numerous mistresses|
|Victor Alexander III|
(Vittorio Alessandro III)
|Eugene II the Victorious|
(Eugenio II il Vittorioso)
|1917-1948||1866-1948 (82)||He is remembered to have destroyed an entire fleet of Quanzar during the Battle of Triesta in 1925 and to have defeated a Quanzarian Army close to Angona. These military success led to the Treaty of Calliari|
|Arthur Gabriel III|
(Arturo Gabriele III)
|1948-1959||1897-1986 (89)||He never abdicated and continued to claim the sovereignty of Istalia from the exile|
See Alaria for the geographic and climate info.
The economy of the Kingdom was almost entirely trade-oriented, but the agricultural sector was also developed, especially in the southern lush plains, as well as the livestock sector, concentrated into the north, and later the mining sector, concentrated in the northern massif where there have always been important gold deposits.
The island also hosted a developed shipbuilding industry which developed in parallel with the expansion of the trade activities toward the rest of the world. Since the 19th century the wealthy mercantile nobility and then the first businessmen of the bourgeoisie increased their fortune through trade with the rest of Majatra, Seleya, the eastern continent and then with Artania, especially after cooperation with the Artanian powers against the Quanzari Empire became even closer.
In the middle of 19th century the Istalian vessels navigated across the seas of all the world, from the continent and the desertic island of Majatra the request of agricultural products was increasing and the proto-capitalism that had developed in the 18th century fully grew into rampant capitalism in the next, and several ancient manufactures evolved into real industries. The main industrial products of the island were the textile, ceramic, and chemical imdustries.
The banking sector also experienced substantial growth: the Istalian kingdom, in fact, became one of the main financiers of the resistance against the Quanzari Empire, financing organizations as well as rebel groups on the Istalian mainland and in Solentia, Kalopia, and Kafuristan. This however caused troubles in 20th century due to the refusal of different debtors to repay the debts made with the island: this contributed to the economic slowdown of the first years of the century and then to the social turmoils which characterized the Kingdom during its last decades.