|Writing system||Gao characters and syllabaries, Selucian script|
|Official language in||Gao-Soto, Sekowo, Bailon|
Kunikata (國語) is a language mostly spoken by people of Kunihito heritage. It is a member of the Gao-Indralan language family. However, while Kunikata shares many words, as well as part of the writing system to Indralan and other Gao-Indralan languages, recent studies on the syntax of these languages have raised questions on whether these language share a common ancestor (commonly believed to be Classical Kunikata), or just have a long time of co-development due to trades between the Empire of Gao-Soto and Indrala.
Kunikata is, along with Indralan, the most popular and culturally significant languages, and the language itself has become a beacon of Pan-Gao-Showan nationalism. Since the rise of this movement, many reforms on Kunikata has been proposed to suit the nationalist movement, including the revival of old Gao characters and pronunciation, which has been preserved by Indralan.
Because of its pivotal significance for Gao-Showan people, the language is sometimes referred to as "Standard Gao-Showa" as well, although since it is an exonym used by foreigners, the use of it is discouraged by many of the more radical Pan-Gao-Showan nationalists.
- 1 History
- 2 Geographic Distribution
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Writing System
- 5 Note
- 6 External Links
It is most commonly believed that Kunikata, Indralan, Kyo, and Đinh shared a common ancestor, named Classical Kunikata, or Old Kunikata, that was used by the ancient Gao-Showa population during the early times of the Empire of Gao-Soto, before it derived into the modern Gao-Indralan languages.
However, modern studies on the syntax and evolution of these languages revealed that the difference between the Gao-Indralan languages is wider than previously believed. It is believed that either these languages are not genealogically related, but only share a long time of co-development, or these languages have absorbed many aspects of local languages when the ancestors of these modern languages colonised the region. The different pronunciation methods of many Gao characters in Kunikata supported the latter hypothesis, for it encompass both Indralan pronunciation of the character, as well as one of another language, possibly the Soto nomads that was assimilated by the Empire of Gao-Soto.
Originally spoken by inhabitants of the Empire of Gao-Soto, which formed the core of the modern Mikuni-Hulstria, Kunikata, along with Kunihito diaspora formed following the colonisation, has been spread to numerous places in Dovani and surrounding regions. After the Hulstrian Apartheid, which effectively ended Kunihito as a major political player in the country, the biggest Kunikata-speaking population exist in Sekowo. About 20%-30% of the population of Mikuni-Hulstria is of Kunihito heritage, and a majority of them still use Kunikata for daily communication. With the restoration of the Empire of Gao-Soto in 3388, Kunikata became the sole official language of that empire, and is a co-official language, with Hulstrian at the central level.
Because of the cultural significance of the language, Kunikata is also spoken in countries with Gao-Indralan languages in use, as well as Kunihito diaspora outside western Dovani. One of the more notable examples of it is Bailon of Beluzia in Artania, of which the majority of the population descend from Kunihito settlers and refugees.
Kunikata is the official language of Sekowo, and of Bailon of Beluzia, of which Kunihito formed the majority of the population. It is also a co-official language of Mikuni-Hulstria, together with Hulstrian Dundorfian and Hulstro-Mikun, and one of the official languages of the Commonwealth of Gao Nations
Because of the wide-spread diaspora of the Kunihito population across Dovani and Terra, there are at least dozens of dialects of Kunikata currently in use. "Standard" Kunikata is often defined by the dialect used in Hilgar, where the ancient capital of the Empire of Gao-Soto is. Another common standard is one used in western Hulstria, which is spoken by more people than the Hilgar dialect, and is considered quite similar to it apart from some shift in pronunciation.
The Sekowan language, a language closely related to Kunikata, is often considered to be one of its dialects; if so, it is by far the most divergent dialect. The use of Sekowan is generally restricted to informal contexts in Sekowo, however, and Standard Kunikata is usually the preferred language for official and formal purposes, although Sekowan has recently received some form of official recognition. Because of this, Sekowan is undergoing a language shift towards Standard Kunikata.
The phonology of Kunikata is simple and usually regular, and one karina usually only represent one consonant and one vowel, with some exceptions depending on the dialects. All Kunikata vowels are also pure, which means there are no diphthongs. Vowel clusters are thus either pronounced separately, or in the case of repeated vowels or ou, pronounced as a long vowel. Such long vowel is usually transliterated with a macron, or in the same way as it is written in karina (such as aa or ou).
- Si (し) [si] is sometimes pronounced as shi [ɕi].
- Diacritic si [zi] is sometimes pronounced as ji [dʑi] or [ʑi].
- Digraphs based on si is usually pronounced with [ɕ] instead of [sj]. Same applies to its diacritics.
- Ti (ち) [ti] is sometimes pronounced as chi [tɕi].
- Diacritic ti [di] is sometimes pronounced as ji [dʑi] or [ʑi] as well. Same applies to its diacritics.
- Digraphs based on ti is usually pronounced with [tɕ] instead of [tj].
- Tu (つ) [tɯ] is sometimes pronounced as tsu [tsɯ].
- H /h/ is sometimes pronounced as f [ɸ] or [f].
- /b/ and /g/ are sometimes pronounced as [β] and [ɣ] respectively.
- R /r/ has various pronunciation, varying between [l], [r], [ɾ], [ɺ] and [ɾ̠].
- Ha (は) [ha], he (へ) [he] and wo (を) [wo] as word particles are sometimes pronounced as [wa], [e] and [o], respectively.
- Wi (ゐ) [wi] and we (ゑ) [we] are sometimes pronounced as [i] and [e] respectively. In some dialects, they are completely replaced by the karina of the same sound.
Traditionally, Kunikata is, in most cases, written in the combination of two systems of scripts: Gao characters, and a collection of syllabic scripts collectively known as Karina ("borrowing characters"). Since the Luthori colonisation of Gao-Soto, the Artanian script is also used in modern Kunikata in some places, especially by non-native speakers when learning the language.
Gao character is a logographic writing system believed to be the original writing system of Classical Kunikata. It originated as neolithic signs used by proto-Gao-Showan people, but had been stylised for the ease of identification and writing ever since. Because of that, Gao characters often represent the meaning, pronunciation (Gaodoku), as well as radicals of the word, or derived from characters that represent these aspects.
For a long time, Gao character is used for most words, with Karina used only for reading notation or, in most cases, syntax particles. However, in the Empire of Gao-Soto, since the Warring States Period, Gao characters had been gradually replaced by Karina due to its relative ease to learn, as well as the nomadic background of many of the ruling clans. Gao characters and their reading, however, was preserved in other Kunikata-derived languages, especially in Indralan, which is completely composed of Gao characters. Since the rise of Pan-Gao-Showan nationalism, Gao characters have become popular in Kunikata again, as part of the plan to re-establish a common language and heritage for all Gao-Showa people.
For some of the more complicated Gao characters, there are two forms (or, rarely, even more) of the characters: Old Character (舊字體), and New Character (新字体). Old Character is the traditional way of writing the character, which involve more strokes, while the New Character is a simplified method of writing, which involve less strokes and, in some case, change of character to a simpler character that share the same sound.
The extent of New Character usage differs from time, place, dialect, as well as education level and even ideology. In general, nationalists and traditionalists, as well as those of higher education, tend to use Old Character, while the others tend to use New Characters.
Most Gao characters in Kunikata have multiple readings. These readings are usually categorised in two category: Gaodoku or Oshiyomi. In some cases, a Gao character can have multiple readings in either or both category, depending on the context of the word used, as well as dialectic differences. Some characters also only have either a Gaodoku or Oshiyomi, mostly because the original reading was lost (lack of Gaodoku), or it was created for foreign concepts (lack of Oshiyomi).
Gaodoku, or Gaoyomi (高讀), is the approximation of the pronunciation of Gao characters in Classical Kunikata. It is widely believed to be the original pronunciation for Classical Kunikata before it was gradually replaced by Oshiyomi since the Warring States Period. While it fell into disuse during the later Gao-Soto periods, Gaodoku was preserved in Indralan, Kyo, and Đinh, places that are no longer under direct control of Gao-Soto since the Warring States Period. Since the Luthor colonisation and, later, rise of Pan-Gao-Showan nationalism, Gaodoku saw a revival back into everyday use of the language, as a political statement in support of the nationalist idea of re-establishing a common language for all Gao-Showa people.
Oshiyomi, or Kundoku (訓讀), is a reading based on the pronunciation of a foreign language, presumably one used by nomads in the eastern plains, that share a similar meaning of the Gao character. Originally, it was believed to be developed by colonists to teach the nomads to write in Classical Kunikata, and shared the social stigma of inferiority. However, ever since the Warring States Period, it saw a rise in social status due to the increase of power of nomad-descended clans, such as Clan Tokehiko and Clan Tokugawa, and had gradually replaced Gaodoku as the official reading of Gao characters. While its usage decreased since the rise of Pan-Gao-Showan nationalism in favour of Gaodoku, it still retained widespread usage in Kunikata, especially in syntax-related words.
In some cases, such as the use of foreign concepts that Kunikata lacks a native word for, or to inspire foreign sensations, words can also be pronounced in approximation of foreign words. One of the most common examples of these foreign pronunciations is baito or arubaito for the Gao word 仕事, which means work (part-time ones specifically). Traditionally pronounced as shigoto (which is a mix of Gaodoku and Oshiyomi), the Hulstrian pronunciation was used to refer to part-time jobs, presumably from the time where Gao-Showa people would work for Hulstrians for extra income. These foreign pronunciations is technically categorised as Oshiyomi, but in practice, they are considered their separate category, of which the use was discouraged by some nationalists.
Karina (借り名, "borrowed names/characters") is the common name for a collection of syllabic scripts made from modified and simplified Gao characters. It is believed that KArina originated as either a script used by nomads to learn Classical Kunikata, a simplified form of Gao characters, scripts used to denote pronunciation and inflexion, or a combination of the above. Because of the multitude of usage of Karina, as well as the various modification method from Gao characters, there are numerous Karina scripts in use. However, two of them, Kusana and Nottona, are the most common Karina scripts, together taking up more than 95% of Karina used today.
Kusana (草名, "grass characters" or "rough characters") is derived from cursive Gao characters. It is slightly more common than Nottona, and is most often used for syntax particles of Kunikata. Nottona (則名, "regular characters") is derived from regular Gao characters. It is usually used for transliteration of foreign names, onomatopoeia, technical terms and proper nouns, as well as emphasis of words. In a way, Nottona can be compared with upper case letters and bold letters of Artanian scripts.
Traditionally, Karina utilise the Iroha ordering. It is based on an archaic Daenist poem, which, when translated from Gao characters into Karina, use all Karina exactly one time (thus a perfect pangram), not including n, diacritic or digraph. Because of that, it can be used for ordering with ease. It is similar to the Luthori sentence "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog".
|Ordering||Poem in Kusana||Translation (Literal)||Translation (Poetic)|
|1~7||い (i)||ろ (ro)||は (ha)||に (ni)||ほ (ho)||へ (he)||と (to)||Even the blossoming flowers||Although its scent still lingers on
|8~12||ち (ti)||り (ri)||ぬ (nu)||る (ru)||を (wo)||Will eventually scatter|
|13~18||わ (wa)||か (ka)||よ (yo)||た (ta)||れ (re)||そ (so)||Who in our world||For whom will the glory
|19~23||つ (tu)||ね (ne)||な (na)||ら (ra)||む (mu)||Is unchanging?|
|24~30||う (u)||ゐ (wi)||の (no)||お (o)||く (ku)||や (ya)||ま (ma)||The deep mountains of vanity--||Arriving today at the yonder side
|31~35||け (ke)||ふ (hu)||こ (ko)||え (e)||て (te)||We cross them today|
|36~42||あ (a)||さ (sa)||き (ki)||ゆ (yu)||め (me)||み (mi)||し (si)||And we shall not see superficial dreams||We shall never allow ourselves to drift away
|43~47||ゑ (we)||ひ (hi)||も (mo)||せ (se)||す (su)||Nor be deluded.|
|(48)||ん (n)||(Not part of the poem, but added in for the sake of ordering.)|
A similar poem, Torinaku, is also occasionally used for ordering purpose, since it is also a perfect pangram of all 48 Karina, and also include n, which Iroha lacked. However, it is believed to be a later invention than Iroha, and because of the lack of deeper meaning as opposed to Iroha, it is not very commonly used.
|Ordering||Poem in Kusana||Translation (Literal)|
|1~7||と (to)||り (ri)||な (na)||く (ku)||こ (ko)||ゑ (we)||す (su)||Waking up from dream in the sound of bird|
|8~12||ゆ (yu)||め (me)||さ (sa)||ま (ma)||せ (se)|
|13~19||み (mi)||よ (yo)||あ (a)||け (ke)||わ (wa)||た (ta)||る (ru)||Looking into the bright east|
|20~24||ひ (hi)||ん (n)||か (ka)||し (si)||を (wo)|
|25~31||そ (so)||ら (ra)||い (i)||ろ (ro)||は (ha)||え (e)||て (te)||At the shore decorating the colour of sky|
|32~36||お (o)||き (ki)||つ (tu)||へ (he)||に (ni)|
|37~43||ほ (ho)||ふ (hu)||ね (ne)||む (mu)||れ (re)||ゐ (wi)||ぬ (nu)||A disjointed group of sail ships bathing in the morning haze|
|44~48||も (mo)||や (ya)||の (no)||う (u)||ち (ti)|
- In some dialects, wi, we and wo is replaced by i, e and o. Old words that possess them (such as the name of the nation itself) are sometimes written as ui, ue and uo instead.
|a||が ガ||ざ ザ||だ ダ||ば バ||ぱ パ||わ゙ ヷ|
|i||ぎ ギ||じ ジ||ぢ ヂ||び ビ||ぴ ピ||ゐ゙ ヸ|
|u||ぐ グ||ず ズ||づ ヅ||ぶ ブ||ぷ プ||*|
|e||げ ゲ||ぜ ゼ||で デ||べ ベ||ぺ ペ||ゑ゙ ヹ|
|o||ご ゴ||ぞ ゾ||ど ド||ぼ ボ||ぽ ポ||を゙ ヺ|
|Iteration mark, indicating that the previous karina should be repeated.|
〲 (Same for both Karina)
|Iteration mark, indicating that the previous few (two to four) karina should be repeated.|
|々 (Gao character only) 〻 (Vertical form)||Iteration mark, indicating that the previous Gao character should be repeated.|
|ヶ (Nottona only)||Small form of Ke. Usually used as counter for counting months and objects. Also used for place names as possessive noun.|
|ゟ (Kusana only)||Combination of よ and り. より means "like", as in comparison.|
|ヿ (Nottona only)||Combination of コ and ト. コト means "things" or "matters", and following a verb 〜スル (スルヿ), turn it into a related noun.|
|〼 (Same for both Karina)||Symbol for 枡 (masu, a traditional Gao-Showan measure for size). It is also used as a simplified form of auxiliary verb 〜ます.|
|〆 乄||Pronounced shime ("close", "tie", "joint"), it is used as abbreviation of しめ/シメ, as well as used to close a letter or a line, such as the sum of total on a cheque.|
OOC: All notes are OOC, and serve to assist non-Japanese speakers to understand the differences made from Japanese to Kunikata.
Ha, He and Wo
Similar to Wi, We and Wo mentioned below, Ha, He and Wo, as word particles, have undergone a change of sound into Wa, E and O respectively. However, they are still marked in the kana that mark their original sound. Because officially, they are still transliterated into these words, it is assumed that these sound changes did not occur in PT either.
Wi, We and Wo
Wi, We and Wo is no longer used in contemporary Japanese, with the exception of Wo being used as a particle. During the Tokugawa period, the pronunciations of Wi, We and Wo were merged with I, E and O respectively, and, with the exception of Wo as a particle, completely removed from Japanese writing system in 1946. However, since such event do not happen in PT, they remained in Kunikata, and in order to create a more exotic feeling, the shift in pronunciation is also pretended to not happen. As such, words that once use these kana will have their sounds changed, as listed below.
Because it is difficult enough for many non-speakers to find the suitable words, this change is not enforced, and players are free to ignore it and justify it with dialectic differences. However, the "standard" Kunikata will have these changes.
Translations for on'yomi will not be provided, for there are too many of them, and the majority of them are proper nouns that cannot be translated.
- Oshiyomi (Kun'yomi):
- Adisai -> Adisawi (紫陽花, Hortensia)
- Ai -> Awi (藍, blue)
- Inui -> Inuwi (乾, warming principle of the sun)
- Kurai -> Kurawi (位, grade, rank, throne, crown, place, position)
- ~gurai -> ~gurawi (～ぐらい -> ～ぐらゐ, approximately)
- Kurenai -> Kurenawi (紅, red)
- Kuwai -> Kuwawi (慈姑, genus Sagittaria)
- Sikii -> Sikiwi (敷居, threshold)
- Sibai -> Sibawi (芝居, acting)
- Sihosai -> Sihosawi (潮騒, sea roar)
- Sei -> Sewi (所為, because)
- Torii -> Toriwi (鳥居, Torii)
- Hikiiru -> Hikiwiru (率いる, lead (verb))
- Mairu -> Mawiru (参る, visit, come)
- Motiiru -> Motiwiru (用いる, use (verb))
- Motoi -> Motowi (基, group, basis)
- I -> Wi (井/堰, water well, Weir)
- I -> Wi (猪, boar)
- I -> Wi (亥, north-northwest, Pig (zodiac))
- I -> Wi (居, residence)
- I -> Wi (藺)
- Igusa -> Wigusa (藺草)
- Itakedaka -> Witakedaka (居丈高, domineering)
- Inaka -> Winaka (田舎, farmland, Inaka (surname))
- Ibaru -> Wibaru (威張る, swagger, proud)
- Imori -> Wimori (井守, newt)
- Iru -> Wiru (居る, have)
- Iru -> Wiru (率る/将る)
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Go-on:
- Kuwi: 軌, 鬼, 貴, 毀, 喟, 詭, 愧, 暉, 戯, 麾, 燬, 虧, 瞶, 燹
- Kuwyau: 兄, 礦
- Kuwyaku: 掴, 硅, 幗, 膕, 馘, 钁
- Guwi: 危, 偽, 馗, 逵, 跪, 匱, 櫃, 簣, 餽, 饋, 巍
- Wi: 位, 委, 威, 胃, 倭, 韋, 尉, 萎, 帷, 偉, 為, 渭, 逶, 違, 葦, 痿, 幃, 彙, 痿, 蔚, 慰, 熨, 蝟, 緯, 謂, 鮪, 鰄
- Wiki: 域, 閾
- Wiku: 郁, 囿, 墺, 澳, 燠, 礇
- Wyau: 永, 泳, 咏, 詠
- Win: 隕, 殞
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Kan-on:
- Kuwi: 卉, 虫, 軌, 皈, 鬼, 帰, 逵, 貴, 毀, 喟, 揮, 詭, 愧, 暉, 跪, 戯, 輝, 麾, 匱, 燬, 虧, 瞶, 徽, 燹, 櫃, 簣, 餽, 饋
- Kuwyau: 匡, 况, 狂, 況, 筐, 筺
- Kuwyaku: 矍, 攫
- Kuwyoku: 洫
- Guwi: 危, 偽, 魏, 巍
- Wi: 囗, 位, 囲, 委, 威, 胃, 畏, 倭, 韋, 尉, 萎, 帷, 唯, 惟, 偉, 為, 渭, 逶, 違, 葦, 痿, 幃, 彙, 痿, 蔚, 維, 慰, 熨, 蝟, 緯, 謂, 鮪, 鰄
- Wiku: 郁, 囿, 奥, 墺, 澳, 燠, 礇
- Win: 員, 殞, 贇
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Kan'yō-on:
- Wi: 痿
- Win: 均, 院, 韵, 韻
- Wi: 痿
- Oshiyomi (Kun'yomi):
- Isizue -> Isizuwe (礎, foundation)
- Ueru -> Uweru (植える -> 植ゑる, plant (verb))
- Ueru -> Uweru (飢える -> 飢ゑる, starve (verb), hungry)
- Koe -> Kowe (声, voice)
- Kozue -> Kozuwe (梢, tree top)
- Sue -> Suwe (末, end)
- Sueru -> Suweru (据える, lay (verb), place (verb))
- Tue -> Tuwe (杖, cane)
- Tomoe -> Tomowe (巴, Tomoe)
- Hohoemu -> Hohowemu (微笑む, smile (verb))
- Yue -> Yuwe (故, late (verb), cause (noun), reason (noun))
- Yu'en -> Yuwen (所以, reason (noun))
- Egaku -> Wegaku (描く, draw (verb))
- Egui -> Wegui (えぐい -> ゑぐい, harsh)
- Eguru -> Weguru (抉る, excavate, gouge, bore)
- Esa -> Wesa (餌, feed (noun), bait (noun))
- Ehu -> Wehu (酔ふ, drunk)
- Emi -> Wemi (笑み, smile (noun))
- Emu -> Wemu (笑む, smile(verb))
- Enzyu -> Wenzyu (槐, locust)
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Go-on:
- Kuwe: 匕, 化, 夬, 瓜, 卉, 会, 圭, 灰, 虫, 花, 快, 怪, 卦, 乖, 悔, 咼, 挂, 恢, 奎, 枴, 皈, 恠, 華, 帰, 胯, 掛, 晦, 袿, 揮, 喙, 傀, 罫, 誇, 靴, 塊, 賄, 褂, 詼, 魁, 瑰, 閨, 誨, 輝, 蝸, 鮭, 檜, 膾, 徽, 蹶
- Guwe: 外, 瓦, 找, 華, 崋, 嘩, 嵬, 隗, 樺, 樺, 磑, 譁, 鮠, 魏
- Kuweti: 血, 刔, 決, 抉, 刮, 訣, 鴃, 譎
- Guweti: 穴, 滑, 猾, 磆
- Kuwen: 犬, 丱, 串, 呟, 巻, 涓, 娟, 眷, 捲, 絢, 慣, 関, 綸, 夐, 鵑, 羂, 鰥
- Guwen: 幻, 玄, 県, 狠, 拳, 眩, 莞, 宦, 倦, 衒, 患, 惓, 捲, 皖, 湲, 鉉, 頑, 豢, 蜷, 圜, 寰, 環, 還, 懸, 鐶, 鬟, 顴
- We: 囗, 会, 回, 囲, 画, 歪, 廻, 徊, 畏, 哇, 茴, 娃, 恵, 迴, 淮, 畦, 絵, 猥, 蛔, 隈, 携, 罫, 話, 匯, 窪, 槐, 潰, 慧, 踝, 壊, 懐, 衛, 穢
- Weti: 抉, 粤, 越
- Wen: 円, 員, 院, 湾, 援, 淵, 媛, 湲, 綰, 圜, 彎, 灣
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Kan-on:
- Kuwei: 冂, 兄, 圭, 冏, 迥, 奎, 炯, 桂, 珪, 恵, 畦, 袿, 蛍, 烱, 絅, 携, 閨, 慧, 鮭, 蹶, 攜
- Kuweki: 鴃, 鵙, 闃
- Kuwetu: 穴, 血, 刔, 決, 抉, 訣, 掘, 厥, 獗, 蕨, 鴃, 蹶, 譎
- Guwetu: 月
- Kuwen: 犬, 玄, 呟, 券, 巻, 県, 涓, 娟, 拳, 眩, 倦, 眷, 衒, 惓, 捲, 圏, 絢, 喧, 萱, 勧, 暄, 煖, 鉉, 夐, 蜷, 綣, 権, 諠, 鵑, 羂, 懸, 讙, 顴
- Guwen: 元, 芫, 原, 源, 愿, 願
- Wei: 永, 泳, 咏, 詠, 衛
- Wetu: 曰, 戉, 抉, 粤, 越, 鉞
- Wen: 円, 宛, 苑, 怨, 垣, 爰, 員, 院, 婉, 援, 淵, 媛, 湲, 猿, 遠, 蜿, 鋺, 鴛, 圜, 轅
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Kan'yō-on:
- Wen: 豌
- Oshiyomi (Kun'yomi):
- Ao -> Awo (青, ao (colour) (noun))
- Aoi -> Awoi (青い, ao (colour) (adjective))
- Isao -> Isawo (功, merit, achievement)
- Io -> Iwo (魚, fish)
- Uo -> Uwo (魚, fish)
- Katuo -> Katuwo (鰹, bonito (fish))
- Kaori -> Kawori (香/薫, incense, also as a name)
- Kaoru -> Kaworu (香る/薫る/馨る, fragrant, smell sweet (verb))
- Sao -> Sawo (竿/棹, pole)
- Siori -> Siwori (栞, bookmark, guidebook)
- Sioreru -> Siworeru (萎れる, wither (verb))
- Tao -> Tawo (撓, flexible)
- Taoyaka -> Tawoyaka (嫋やか, graceful)
- Taoyame -> Tawoyame (手弱女, graceful woman)
- Taori -> Tawori (撓)
- Taoru -> Taworu (手折る, break (verb), pluck (verb))
- Too -> Towo (十, ten)
- Masurao -> Masurawo (益荒男/丈夫/大夫, brave man, hunter)
- Misao -> Misawo (操)
- Mio -> Miwo (澪, cold, also as a female name)
- Meoto -> Mewoto (夫婦, husband and wife)
- Yaora -> Yawora (やおら -> やをら, easily, slowly, quietly)
- ~wo (～を, direct object marker)
- O -> Wo (尾, tail, end)
- O -> Wo (小, small)
- O -> Wo (峰/丘, peak, hill)
- O -> Wo (雄/男/牡, male, buck)
- O -> Wo (麻)
- O -> Wo (緒, cord, tie (noun))
- Oka -> Woka (岡/丘, hill)
- Oka -> Woka (陸, land)
- Oka -> Woka (傍/岡, side, edge, hill)
- Okasu -> Wokasu (犯す/侵す/冒す, violate (verb))
- Ogamu -> Wogamu (拝む, worship (verb))
- Okame -> Wokame (傍目/岡目, looking on by an outsider)
- Ogi -> Wogi (荻, Amur silver-grass)
- Oke -> Woke (桶, tub, bucket)
- Okera -> Wokera (朮, Atractylodes)
- Oko -> Woko (痴/烏滸/尾籠)
- Okogamasii -> Wokogamasii (烏滸がましい, presumptuous, ridiculous)
- Okoze -> Wokoze (鰧/虎魚, Scorpaeniformes (fish))
- Osa -> Wosa (長)
- Osa -> Wosa (筬, reed)
- Osa -> Wosa (訳語, translation)
- Osaosa -> Wosawosa (おさおさ -> をさをさ)
- Osanai -> Wosanai (幼い, young, childish)
- Osameru -> Wosameru (収める/納める/治める/修める, obtain, rule (verb), repair (verb))
- Osii -> Wosii (惜しい, regrettable, disappointing)
- Osidori -> Wosidori (鴛鴦, Mandarin Duck)
- Osi'eru -> Wosiheru (教える -> 教へる, teach (verb), instruct (verb))
- Osu -> Wosu (雄/牡, male, buck)
- Osu -> Wosu (食す, eat)
- Osowaru -> Wosowaru (教わる, taught (Verb))
- Oti -> Woti (復/変若, recovery)
- Oti -> Woti (遠/彼方, faraway)
- Odi -> Wodi (叔父/伯父, uncle)
- Odisan -> Wodisan (叔父さん/伯父さん, uncle (with standard honorific))
- Otto -> Wotto (夫, husband)
- Otoko -> Wotoko (男, man)
- Odosi -> Wodosi (縅, believed by)
- Ototosi -> Wototosi (一昨年, two years ago)
- Ototohi -> Wototohi (一昨日, two days ago)
- Otome -> Wotome (少女/乙女, maiden)
- Otori -> Wotori (囮, decoy, lure)
- Odoru -> Wodoru (踊る, dance (verb))
- Ono -> Wono (斧, axe)
- Ononoku -> Wononoku (戦く, shiver, shudder)
- Oba -> Woba (叔母/伯母, aunt)
- Obasan -> Wobasan (叔母さん/伯母さん, aunt (with standard honorific))
- Obasan -> Wobasan (小母さん, lady)
- Owaru -> Wowaru (終わる, end (verb))
- Ohi -> Wohi (甥, nephew)
- Oeru -> Woeru (終える, finish (verb))
- Omenahesi -> Womenahesi (女郎花, Patrinia scabiosaefolia (flower))
- Ori -> Wori (檻, cage)
- Oru -> Woru (居る, have)
- Oru -> Woru (折る, fold (verb))
- Oroti -> Woroti (大蛇, Orochi)
- Onna -> Wonna (女, woman)
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Go-on:
- Wo: 乎
- Woku: 屋
- Woti: 曰, 戉, 粤, 越, 鉞, 榲, 膃
- Won: 宛, 苑, 垣, 怨, 爰, 袁, 冤, 温, 椀, 援, 寃, 媛, 園, 榲, 猿, 蜿, 瘟, 薀, 穏, 鴛, 薗, 轅, 鋺, 鰛, 贇, 鰮
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Kan-on:
- Wo: 汚, 於, 烏, 悪, 嗚, 塢
- Wou: 瓮, 翁, 蓊, 甕, 鶲
- Woku: 屋
- Wotu: 榲, 膃
- Won: 温, 榲, 瘟, 穏, 鴛, 薀, 鰛, 鰮
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Tōsō-on:
- Wo: 和
- Gaodoku (On'yomi) - Kan'yō-on:
- Woku: 奥
- Won: 愠, 慍, 褞
|Peoples||Central: Kunihito • Sekowans • Kyo | Northern: Utari • Welang | Southern: Indralans • Đinh • Phra | Western: Tukarese • Mu-Tze • Bianjie|
|Languages||Gao-Indralan: Kunikata • Sekowan • Kyo • Indralan • Đinh • Phra • Utari | Jelbo-Tukaric: Panmuan • Bianjie|
|Regions||Dovani • Seleya • Gao-Soto • Sekowo • Dankuk • Indrala • Tukarali • Jinlian • Dalibor • Great North Dovani Plain • Kalistan • Bianjie|
|History||Empire of Gao-Soto • Kingdom of Sekowo • History of Sekowo • History of Indrala • History of Dranland • History of Tukarali • Great Sekowian War • Southern Hemisphere War|
|Religion||Gao-Showan Religions • Daenism • Mazdâyanâ • Zenshō • Kamism • Guidao • Jienism • Kanzo|