Libertà e Progresso (in Luthorian: Liberty and Progress, Majatran: الحرية والتقدم, transl. al-huriyat wal-taqadum), known since 4051 and until 4203 as Partito Social Liberale Istaliano (Istalian Social Liberal Party), was an istalian political party originally founded in Romula the 19 March 4030 as Partito Socioliberale Istaliano (Istalian Socioliberal Party) by Alessandro Senna and first contested elections in 4032.
In 4348, after 318 years of activity which saw first PSLI and then LP became one of the most influent and important parties in Istalia, leading the evolution of the country and especially its emerging as World's Great Power, due to a serious internal crisis and a series of negative electoral outcomes, during an extraordinary National Congress 1200 delegates from all over Istalia decided to disband the party and to found a new one: the Radical Alliance, considered as the heir of the long lasting social liberal party.


Libertà e Progresso (LP) was a social liberal party which supported high political, civil, religious and economic freedom, it pursued a secular and permissive approach to the public affairs, rejecting all forms of discrimination and protecting the human, political, civil and social rights.
Economically the party supported the liberal theory, kodonomic one to face severe economic crisis, but proposed a form of corporative-state welfare system which foreseen tax relief and subsidies to cover partially or totally the cost of welfare services based on privates companies (for example, LP proposes a single payer system for the healthcare system, formed by a network of private firms and facilitiws) and to persue that the party supports a progressive taxation system aimed to redistributive policies.
The party had a vision very internationalist of Foreign Policy, more open to international cooperation pursuing the goal of making Istalia a major player on the international stage, a objective that the party actually reached in the 42nd century.
Very sensitive to environmental issues L&P had a realistic and scientifical approach, applying a strong environmental regulation but not disdaining for example nuclear energy to limit greenhouse gas emissions and the use of fossil resource.

Party policiesEdit

  • Assure the respect of democracy and of a plural society.
  • Assure to all citizens the respect and protection of its political, civil and social rights.
  • Promote a Progressive policy to the Society.
  • Defend the secular state and treat all its citizens equally regardless of religion.
  • Persue the social justice and the redistribution of incomes through a progressive taxation and the coverage of the cost of citizens for their needs about helathcare and welfare.
  • Support a regulated free-market to prevent the failures of unbridled capitalism and ensure equal opportunity and social justice to every citizen and enterprise of the nation.
  • Promote a cooperation public-private with the objective to assure a constant simulus to the economy.
  • Promote a strong international role for Istalia and promote friendly relationship with the other nations.
  • Promotion of the Pan-Majatranism with a strong cooperation with the other Majatran nations.
  • Promotion of a sustainable development while respecting the environment.



The party was founded as Istalian Socioliberal Party when Alessandro Senna came out of the Socialist Democratic Party to propose a liberal and progressive alternative to the far leftist and very statism and nationalist PDS leaded by the authoritarian Antonio Battisti who face turn the party into too nationalistic and populist position, too extreme for Senna who decided in the 4030 to leave the party.

ISLP Symbol 2

The historic party logo of the PSLI

Senna's EraEdit

Under the leadership of Senna the newly formed party express clear liberal position, in the civil and social rights as well as in the economic field. The first great conquest of Senna was the passage of the reform of the right to citizenship to grant it to all the nationals. In the first years however the party cooperate with the SDP and also with the Alliance of the Democratic Centre, and with the latter Senna reached various economic goal to liberalize the economy. The second election of the party's history gave to the ISLP a great victory becoming the first party and having granted the support for the presidential election to Battisti, Senna was appointed as Head of Government, role which he held during the next legislative period too, even if the emergency due to the terroristic attack of the Istalian People's Brigades lead to the Istalian Enabling Act referendum, 4039 to increase the presidential power to face the threat.

Civil War periodEdit

Senna supported the referendum for the good of the Nation but when he realized Battisti was using the emergency power to increase its personal power began to clash more and more with the President until its resignation as Prime Minister. Banned all political parties except the SDP, Senna escaped to the political arrests requested by Battisti who replaced the parliament with a select National Security Council and appointed himself as Capo Supremo. Gave himself to the bush Senna quickly became the Leader of the Democratic Resistance fighting the fortunately brief Istalian Civil War, 4044–4045 and then leading it to victory.

Post Civil WarEdit

After the Civil War the ISLP suffered a drastic decline of consensus, this is because many party members had supported Battisti, but the second half of the 41st century was a real political, social and cultural renaissance with many party which was formed or reformed, first of all the Populars for Istalia which became quickly the main antagonist party of the ISLP leading the right-wing coalition and leading the country toward the Presidential Reform. The first election with the new constitution gave the victory to the Populars for Istalia and to its leader Mario Adinolsi.

President Alessandro Senna

President Alessandro Senna

But at the 4062 elections, which saw compete only the PSLI and the PPI, Senna was elected President of the Republic and launched foundamental reform to liberalize the society and to regulate the extreme libertarian reforms of the precedent administration.

Senna won also the 4066 elections but due to the parliamentar crisis opened by Adinolsi and the increasingly intrusive demands of the ally LDE in 4069 was forced to resign to leave definitively the politics. Senna is remembered as one of the greatest heroes and characters of Istlian history so that the day of the victory of the civil war, which became a national holiday, was also dedicated to Senna: in future during it became a practice for the Presidents of the Republic to visit the Senna's Mausoleum at Romula during the celebrations).

Antani PeriodEdit

The successor of Senna was his historical heir Eleonora Antani which to oppose the libertarian politics of the Populars and its allies led the ISLP toward more leftist positions giving primacy to the socialist current. During this period increased the welfare and the social services while the free market economy was regulated so to give more protection to the workers. In alliance with the LDE the center-left governed Istalia for most part of the second half of 41st century while the birth of new parties and the political fragmentation began to creak the presidential system.

The Parliamentary ReformEdit

Became National Secretary Marcantonio Borgiese, was him to led the Nation to return on the Parliamentary System, bringing together all the other parties except the PPI, which was the only to oppose to the reform which came after two Presidential term of Borgiese. The strong influence and political position of the PSLI, also facing the right-wing majority legislatures, guaranteed the country a long period of freedom and protection of civil and social rights.

Between the two centuryEdit

After Borgiese the Leadership was taken by Emanuele Paolelli but was a brief Secretariat due the internal coup leaded by Al-Mahmud who accused Paolelli, and his eminence grise the former president Antani, to maintain the party on too far left positions, to flatten and excessively accept the LDE political positions. Al-Mamhud, became National Secretary after after outvoted the Socialist component, led the party on more economic liberal position and between the end of the 41st and the begin of the new century came to form Government Coalition with the right-wing parties, politics continued by its successor, Giorgio Accorsi, especially because the birth of the extremist Communist Party which became the only opposition party to face the "Tetrapartito" coalition (ISLP, PPI, Democrazia Istaliana and Partito Socialista Democratico d'Istalia, this latter subsequently replaced by the Partito del Patriota d'Istalia). In this period the ISLP virtually controlled almost without interruption the istalian foreign policy, with several former foreign ministers later became Presidents (above all Claudio De Michelis and previously Francesco Toso, the last one of the main protagonist of the race to the majatran seat to the Security Council of the World Congress). Thanks to this strong international involvement the Istalian economy continue to grew exponentially, continuing the economic boom of the second half of the 41st century, and became one of the members of the Security Council of the newly founded World Congress, increasing more and more its international influence.

42nd centuryEdit

Accorsi had to drive extremely composite and varied Governments, which did lose votes to ISLP at the end of the first half of the century, to which was added a major scandal involving a candidate for the national secretariat for the post-Accorsi which opened a serious crisis which was solved only after four years when was elected as new leader the universitary professor and political philosopher Michele Scialoja. Under the leadership of Michele Scialoja the ISLP returned to being one of the nation's major parties, winning several times the primacy into the Parliament and leading various center-left paty. In this period Istalia became one of the most influential nations of the world and the ISLP cemented its internationalist and interventionist positions continuing to erect the country as one of staunchest defenders of human rights in the world. In the same period internally the ISLP had to face the victories of the right-wing in the half of the century and became the leader of the center-left opposition founding with the newly birth party Verdi Istaliani the coalition Alliance of the Progressist for Istalia to facing the extremely libertarian policies which caused high unemployment rate and a general collapse in incomes and consumption (due to draconian cuts in public spending and especially to social and health services). In the 60's and 70's the A.P.I. (formed by the PSLI, Verdi Istaliani, Social Democratic Party and Istalian Federalist Movement) reforms the social security improving even more the universal welfare and begins an important devolution program.

Verhoeven's EraEdit

In 4170 the leadership of the Party goes to the younger Secretary ever elected, Lorenzo Verhoeven, the youngest son of Willem Verhoeven, who came from Saridan when he was just five years accompanying their parents, Isaac and Rielle Verhoeven, refugees escaped Saridanese regime arrived in Istalia in 4093. As most close colaborator of Scialoja, Verhoeven find a party solid and united and thanks to its committment into the A.P.I. quickly he become the most prominent representatives of the Progressive Alliance. Under the leadership of Verhoeven the A.P.I. continues to cover the role of Government's coalition until the end of the century and during this period Verhoeven and the PSLI became the party of the coalition charged to mediate between the different forces and political ideologies and the work of the PSLI was foundamental to coordinate the Government policies. During this period, after the rule of the Federalists, Verhoeven acted as President of the Council of Ministers, Ministers of Foreign Affairs and then in 4186 he gained the Presidency of the Republic.


Lorenzo Verhoeven

Thanks to the 30 years of continuative A.P.I's Government the Nation experimented in the second half of the 42nd an ever increasing of the civil liberties and of the progressive policies, but also a large federative period during the 60's and 70's under the influence of the Istalian Federalist Mouvement, with the PSLI which reached manies political objectives. Under the 4191 Presidency (the second for Verhoeven) Istalia was blow by terrible terrorist attacks which continued to menace the Nation for most part of the last decades of 42nd century and to face the greatest crisis of Istalia in more than 150 years, Verhoeven decided to take the control of the situation and to put himself at the head of a Government of National Unity which in the next years gave the special powers of Verhoeven to contrast the terrorist menace with more efficency. But during this difficult period the A.P.I. and the U.o.L., the two coalition that for more than 50 years ruled on the polical stage, dissolve also due to the end of the National Unity Government and the formation of a Democratic Front (Nuova Socialdemocrazia, Partito Ambientalista Istaliano and Democrazia Istaliana) to oppose the excessive restrictive policies adopted during the terrorist crisis. Gained also the fourth consecutive presidency Verhoeven started finally a process of normalization to put an end to the emergency situation in Istalia and at the same time decided to establish an istalian administration, first military than civil, into the kalopian region of Mossavi to attack directly in Wantuni the Revolutionary Front of Wokers for the Liberation of Wantuni, responsable of the terrorist attacks, to respond to the scandal which involved the istalian multinational in Wantuni and to go toward the needs of the kalopian people under the istalian territory to face the increasing anarchy which at time was raging Kalopia/Wantuni. In 4202 came out another serious scandal involving PPC, PPI and Social Liberals, a corruption scandal which showed a deep-rooted system aimed to enrich the involved politicians and to favurite some companies. Verhoeven, also if not involved in the scandal, decided to resigns and put an end to his long presidency after being heavily criticized by the opposition and screditated toward the people. Today he is one of the most controversial statesman of the recent history of Istalia, remembered as the President which led the Nation during the wantunian terroristic crisis, which defeated the terrorist threat and created the Istalian Protectorate of the Kalopian Free State of Mossavi, but also as an authoritarian leader which closed his eyes on the affairs of his allies, some saying that acted for the interest of the Country, other only to maintain himself to the power.

From the PSLI to Libertà e ProgressoEdit

In 4203 the 48th Party National Congress saw the take of power of the Libertarian Collective, an internal wing of the party which during the last decades of the 42nd century growth in influence and internal and external support. Camilla Fiorenti, exponent of the Collective, became the National Secretary and the new leadership decided to change the party name in the current one and change radically its economical position.
Approached the liberals side, one of the new party faces, Filippo Marra, as Minister of Finance he was the main responsible of the reforms to face the Global Financial crisis of 4204 adopted under the presidency of the Republicans Marko Berlusconi, in 4208 the party became the second of the nation while Marra was elected President of the Republic intentioned to carry on the other reforms for the crisis.
Marra was elected to the presidency other three times: in 4211 and in 4219. Under Marra Presidency Istalia achieved many international success among them the creation of the Majatran Alliance with Zardugal and then the reapprochement with Saridan with which were established two treaty. But under Marra Presidency Istalia risked also to fall into a war against the MRSF and Kafuristan, a situation perfectly managed which finished without conseguences. Marra decided to not run for the elections 4223 leaving the Party followed after the elections by Camilla Fiorenti: the party infact fell became the 5th party so Fiorenty resigned.

43rd centuryEdit

The National Congress elected as new Secretary Nicola Gasbarro, right hand of Fiorenti, chosing on the path which under Gasbarro made shift definitely the party from the center-left to the center/center-right. Under Gasbarro began the cooperation with the right-wing party, first of all Confederazione Capitalista and Alternativa Istaliana. Gasbarro maintained high the name of Istalia internationally, however he was personally verbally attacked by Rildanor's Government after his death occured during his last term caused by a stroke.
His successor was Davide Tajani, another libertarian, a choice led by the constant increase of the electoral support for LP, convincing the Congress to continue on the same way. Tajani was elected to the Presidency in 4241 while LP gained the plurality of the Parliament. Under Gasbarro LP continued to show to be a real institutional party, ready to bring to the order the Republic after the six years of institutional limbo caused by the opposition of the President Largisini (CC) to present leftist Governmemt respecting the electoral results. Tajani cintinue to led in this way the party, pushing for an organic internal reorganization of the legislation after long years of fast and often confused reforms due to a certain fragmentation which caused problem to maintain the Govenrment coalition on a single path. For this reason Tajani demanded to the ally during his Presidency to comunicate as much as possible before to act to wait for the opinion of the other party of the Govenrment coalition, a position always supported by LP which still again imposed itself as cardinal and institutional party in Istalia.
Despite this, LP suffered in the middle of the century during the Presidency of Tajani, highly criticized for his aggressive foreign policy which caused a serious crisis for the istalian relationships. For this reason the party itself decided to remove Tajani, led by Lavinia Maggi, the powerful Whip during the Secretariat of Tajani, simbol of the Social Liberal wing that at the time was retaken even more space inside the party after the liberal period. Lavinia Maggi was elected to the Presidency and radically changed the foreign policy of Istalia, most oriented now to dialogue and diplomacy. During this time the most important cooperation of the party was with the i Verdi! and their leader, Fatima el-Nusri, with which managed to govern Istalia during the difficult times of the Badaran Civil War. Maggi and el-Nusri during the peace negotiations have been wounded after a terroristic attack but fortunately both reconvered fast.
After Lavinia Maggi, who resigned due to an important electoral fall, the party was dangerous divided between Liberal and Social Liberal with the Socialist and for this reason the National Directory pushed for the nomination of Malik Astori, dean of the party at the time and known for his moderation. He led the party respecting the foreign policy of Maggi and promoting economic solution inspired by Marra. Under the Secretariat of Astori the party for a last period worked with the Right-wing parties, first of all with Alternativa Istaliana, at the time the largest party for several elections and from which came the President Gianluigi Rosso, one of the most notable statemen of the entire century, rewarded into the Country and internationally for its activity dedicated to the peace. With LP and Astori Rosso worked very well and together they gathered together all the istalian parties against the Tallerist Party, founded in Istalia by a Thaller to destroy the nation from the inside.
Malik Astori despite this cooperation continued his work to rebuild the relations with the leftist and progressive parties, especially since 4269 after the passage of a bill by AI which in only one vote stamped out from Istalia any form of Social Security. This led to the creation of a progressive coalition to support the LP's candidate to the Presidency, Adriano Andreatta, who was elected while LP and the progressives gained the majority into the parliament. The new Government in less then two years reintroduced high standard of social security, workers rights and support to contrast the poverty. However, due to health reason, Astori was forced to leave in 4270.
The National Directory, formed with the new generation of the second half of the century, supported than the proposal of Giorgia Mulino, at the time the Whip of the Party into the Chamber, backed up by the President Andreatta himself, to organize a Party Primary to elect directly the new Congress and the Management of the single sections on the territory. The Primary saw Andreatta, strong of good level of satisfaction as President, gain on the other candidate but given his institutional role decided to leave the effective representation of the Party to Giorgia Mulino which was endorsed also of important privilege as the Secretary. This close-knit duo, supported by a Directory and a Congress largely in favor, represented for the part a strong shift to the left wing of the istalian political stage, promoting a new cooperation with the progressive forces of the Country.

The leftist derive and the 43rd centuryEdit

The end of the party and its heirEdit

Electoral HistoryEdit

President of the RepublicEdit

President of the Republic
Election Candidate Round 1 Round 2 Win
 %  %
4032 Vittorio De Santis 16.45 none No
4050 Eleonora Antani 13.71 No No
4054 Alessandro Senna 49.30 none No
4058 35.83 none No
4059 44.66 none No
4063 54.04 none Yes
4067 31.04 59.02 Yes
4070 Eleonora Antani 32.60 56.32 Yes
4074 60.43 none Yes
4078 45.12 46.44 No
4081 Marcantonio Borgiese 48.67 38.14 No
4085 41.07 51.89 Yes
4088 32.78 58.16 Yes
4091 Emanuele Paolelli 15.02 No No
4095 26.02 No No
4096 Vittorino Respighi 26.43 45.71 No
4098 51.72 none Yes
4100 48.59 none No
4107 Francesco Toso 30.00 48.52 No
4111 26.66 60.10 Yes
4115 23.11 No No
4118 54.43 none Yes
Mai 4150 Claudio De Michelis 33.47 52.24 Yes
December 4150 37.02 57.35 Yes
4154 39.71 51.87 Yes
4158 Michele Scialoja 40.80 40.89 No
4162 26.54 58.97 Yes
4186 Lorenzo Verhoeven 29.96 49.96 Yes
4190 48.88 48.05 No
4191 42.44 57.03 Yes
4195 44.62 62.04 Yes
4199 25.58 69.13 Yes
4203 Camilla Fiorenti 20.23 No No
4204 22.38 No No
4208 Filippo Marra 36.99 58.12 Yes
4211 37.93 58.18 Yes
4215 21.53 No No
4219 27.10 63.88 Yes
4223 Camilla Fiorenti 19.47 No No
4131 Nicola Gasbarro 37.53 64.63 Yes
4235 20.40 No No
4236 48.33 50.91 Yes
4241 Davide Tajani 53.15 none Yes
4245 Lavinia Maggi 32.95 57.55 Yes
April 4249 31.59 51.25 Yes
June 4249 32.94 49.80 No
4267 Adriano Andreatta 41.10 49.74 No
4268 50.75 none Yes
4272 27.25 46.92 No
4276 53.65 none Yes
4280 57.28 none Yes
4287 Giorgia Mulino 20.09 No No
4291 Alessandro Eugenio di Nacosia-Rohan 24.47 No No
4295 24.91 56.41 Yes
4299 19.67 37.34 No
4303 15.47 No No
4307 Stefano Romulani 31.28 44.33 No
4311 Alessandro Eugenio di Nacosia-Rohan 30.18 47.16 No
4312 30.10 47.98 No
4316 Stefano Romulani 47.79 52.76 Yes
4320 33.02 54.30 Yes
4322 38.25 59.12 Yes
4326 Aisha Menchi 17.77 No No
4330 Francesco di Nacosia-Rohan 12.55 No No
4334 30.40 48.57 No
4338 9.20 No No
4346 Sultan Karamanli 17.74 No No

Chamber of DeputiesEdit

Chamber of Deputies
Year Number of votes Total votes % votes Seats +/- Position Status
4032 6,329,114 49,738,911 12.72
89 / 630
New 3rd Opposition
4036 20,001,418 52,623,242 38.01
257 / 630
Increase168 1st Coalition
4040 16,416,399 30,994,615 52.97
291 / 630
Increase34 1st
4046 8,452,821 45,318,236 18.65
20 / 90
Increase20 3rd
4050 9,146,988 67,171,235 13.62
68 / 500
Increase68 4th Opposition
4054 4,575,033 52,709,883 8.68
46 / 500
Decrease22 4th
4058 17,764,827 54,900,745 32.20
161 / 500
Increase115 2nd Coalition
4059 22,762,818 50,721,035 44.63
270 / 605
Increase270 2nd Opposition
4063 26,367,124 49,288,634 53.50
320 / 605
Increase50 1st Majority
4067 18,739,585 61,133,926 30.65
187 / 605
Decrease133 1st Coalition
4070 19,704,732 60,602,600 32.51
193 / 605
Increase6 2nd
4074 10,691,703 48,717,926 21.95
134 / 605
Decrease59 3rd
4078 10,862,613 62,516,622 17.38
104 / 605
Decrease30 3rd Hung Parliament
4081 12,145,345 63,140,940 19.24
117 / 605
Increase13 3rd
4085 6,556,429 58,834,734 11.14
66 / 605
Decrease51 4th Coalition
4088 6,462,027 60,043,872 10.76
64 / 605
Decrease2 5th
4091 9,708,449 63,911,326 15.19
92 / 605
Increase28 3rd
4095 8,910,907 59,660,348 14.94
89 / 605
Decrease3 4th Hung Parliament
4096 7,920,646 55,873,346 14.18
85 / 605
Decrease4 4th
4098 6,393,965 50,831,036 12.58
75 / 605
Decrease10 4th Hung Parliament
4100 19,713,238 45,916,112 42.93
260 / 605
Increase185 1st Opposition
4103 9,244,521 57,839,138 15.98
95 / 605
Decrease165 4th Coalition
4107 10,225,682 64,474,230 15.86
96 / 605
Increase11 3rd
4111 9,943,707 66,428,110 14.97
90 / 605
Decrease6 4th
4115 6,879,263 66,713,555 10.31
62 / 605
Decrease28 5th Opposition
4118 9,121,742 65,682,335 13.89
62 / 605
Increase21 4th Hung Parliament
4119 10,419,577 63,687,214 16.36
100 / 605
Increase17 3rd Coalition
4123 8,323,110 61,918,428 13.44
84 / 605
Decrease16 4th
4126 5,935,301 35,997,919 16.49
112 / 605
Increase28 3rd
4130 5,094,041 51,446,968 9.90
60 / 635
Increase60 6th
4134 7,119,801 62,805,813 11.34
72 / 635
Increase12 5th
4138 6,238,418 58,552,163 13.46
83 / 635
Increase11 5th Opposition
4142 14,126,612 59,398,041 23.78
150 / 635
Increase67 1st Coalition
4146 11,694,404 58,000,262 20.16
126 / 635
Decrease24 1st
May 4150 9,187,836 60,164,148 15.27
92 / 635
Decrease34 3rd Hung Parliament
December 4150 9,994,587 56,304,893 17.75
109 / 635
Increase17 3rd Coalition
4154 11,884,842 57,392,213 20.71
127 / 635
Increase18 2nd Opposition
4158 8,787,702 61,155,455 14.37
92 / 635
Decrease35 3rd
4162 6,037,172 58,416,373 10.33
65 / 635
Decrease27 7th Coalition
4166 5,589,557 59,286,230 9.43
58 / 635
Decrease7 7th Coalition
4170 5,279,275 56,683,738 9.31
58 / 635
Increase1 5th Coalition
4174 6,678,847 54,927,078 12.16
77 / 635
Increase18 5th
4178 5,928,184 54,927,078 10.06
67 / 635
Decrease10 6th
4182 7,925,745 56,936,269 13.92
92 / 635
Increase25 4th
4186 5,424,159 54,228,424 10.00
64 / 635
Decrease28 5th
4190 6,135,051 56,532,556 10.85
70 / 635
Increase6 5th Hung Parliament
4191 6,168,806 54,974,427 11.22
72 / 635
Increase2 5th Opposition
4195 6,495,499 54,668,122 11.88
78 / 635
Increase6 4th Coalition
4199 7,424,938 61,083,045 12.16
83 / 635
Increase5 3rd
4203 8,190,593 62,712,910 13.06
88 / 635
Increase5 3rd Hung Parliament
4204 9,796,347 65,167,486 15.03
96 / 635
Increase8 4th Coalition
4208 10,803,394 63,678,051 16.97
108 / 635
Increase12 2nd
4211 8,865,223 61,975,634 14.30
87 / 635
Decrease21 5th Coalition
4215 12,731,979 67,759,589 18.79
120 / 635
Increase33 1st Coalition
4219 15,531,361 61,076,870 25.43
173 / 635
Increase34 1st Coalition
4223 9,244,564 60,590,717 15.26
96 / 635
Decrease77 5th Hung Parliament
March 4227 9,004,781 61,895,885 14.55
92 / 635
Decrease4 3rd Hung Parliament
October 4227 9,161,165 63,018,734 14.54
91 / 635
Decrease1 3rd Coalition
4231 5,938,733 63,110,229 9.41
59 / 635
Decrease33 5th Opposition
4235 9,636,303 60,935,929 15.81
98 / 635
Increase40 3rd Hung Parliament
4236 10,792,479 64,211,467 16.81
106 / 635
Increase8 3rd Opposition
4239 9,949,671 60,045,896 16.57
105 / 635
Decrease1 2nd Hung Parliament
4241 15,321,360 56,749,673 27.00
168 / 635
Increase63 1st Coalition
4245 15,783,664 61,925,433 25.49
160 / 635
Decrease8 1st Coalition
April 4249 16,355,285 61,867,351 26.44
169 / 635
Increase9 2nd Hung Parliament
June 4249 15,774,553 60,325,764 26.15
167 / 635
Decrease2 2nd Coalition
4253 4,472,939 57,055,553 7.84
48 / 635
Decrease119 7th Opposition
4257 5,789,443 60,876,509 9.51
58 / 635
Increase10 6th Hung Parliament
4259 11,099,249 55,563,037 19.98
125 / 635
Increase67 3rd Coalition
4263 3,693,081 59,848,343 6.17
40 / 635
Decrease85 7th
4267 5,927,869 54,244,584 10.93
71 / 635
Increase31 5th Hung Parliament
4268 6,098,635 48,732,308 12.51
83 / 635
Increase12 4th Coalition
4272 5,361,954 57,797,453 9.28
34 / 355
Increase34 5th Coalition
4276 4,316,698 51,231,621 8.43
30 / 355
Decrease4 5th Coalition
4280 4,750,741 52,121,011 9.11
32 / 355
Increase2 5th
4283 11,185,051 65,039,014 17.20
62 / 355
Increase30 4th Coalition
4287 12,033,609 62,394,511 19.29
70 / 355
Increase8 3rd Coalition
4292 5,672,171 62,289,843 9.11
58 / 635
Increase58 5th Opposition
4295 13,731,155 64,384,183 21.33
139 / 635
Increase81 1st Coalition
Minority Government
4299 13,412,604 65,699,232 20.42
132 / 635
Decrease7 1st Coalition
4303 11,221,619 66,339,992 17.32
110 / 635
Decrease22 3rd Opposition
4307 20,598,499 65,835,990 31.29
203 / 635
Increase93 1st Coalition
4311 18,115,894 63,431,791 28.56
185 / 635
Decrease18 1st Hung Parliament
4312 18,544,114 64,863,482 28.59
183 / 635
Decrease2 1st Coalition
4316 15,832,328 65,965,739 24.00
154 / 635
Decrease29 1st Coalition
4320 11,055,225 63,591,081 17.38
113 / 635
Decrease41 2nd Hung Parliament
4322 17,769,759 58,839,079 30.20
192 / 635
Increase79 1st Coalition
4326 7,920,064 61,975,075 12.78
81 / 635
Decrease111 4th Hung Parliament
4330 6,517,928 64,558,603 10.10
63 / 635
Decrease18 7th Coalition
4334 8,774,178 58,779,646 14.93
94 / 635
Increase31 2nd Hung Parliament
4338 4,479,753 61,711,525 7.26
45 / 635
Decrease49 7th Coalition
4342 6,521,689 63,838,211 10.22
64 / 635
Increase19 6th Opposition
4346 3,971,797 60,645,991 6.55
41 / 635
Decrease13 8th Opposition


The electoral records about the Senate date back to 4134 after the reform of the Upper Chamber of 4132.

Senate of the Republic
Year Number of regions Seats +/- Position
4134 None
8 / 100
N/A 5th
4138 1
18 / 100
Increase10 3rd
4142 2
36 / 100
Increase18 1st
4146 2
30 / 100
Decrease6 N/A
May 4150 1
16 / 100
Decrease14 3rd
December 4150 1
18 / 100
Increase2 3rd
December 4154 1
22 / 100
Increase4 3rd
4158 None
22 / 100
Increase4 3rd
4162 None
6 / 100
Decrease16 7th
4166 1
12 / 100
Increase6 7th
4170 None
6 / 100
Decrease6 6th
4174 None
8 / 100
Increase2 4th
4178 None
6 / 100
Decrease2 6th
4182 None
14 / 100
Increase8 4th
4186 1
12 / 100
Decrease2 4th
4190 None
4 / 100
Decrease8 7th
4191 None
6 / 100
Increase2 6th
4195 None
12 / 100
Increase6 4th
4199 1
13 / 100
Increase1 4th
4203 None
10 / 100
Decrease3 4th
4204 None
10 / 100
Steady 4th
4208 1
19 / 100
Increase9 2nd
4211 1
9 / 100
Decrease10 4th
4215 None
16 / 100
Increase7 4th
March 4219 2
30 / 100
Increase14 1st
4223 None
9 / 100
Decrease21 5th
March 4227 1
15 / 100
Increase6 3rd
October 4227 1
19 / 100
Increase4 3rd
4231 None
8 / 100
Decrease11 4th
4235 1
14 / 100
Increase6 4th
4236 1
15 / 100
Increase1 3rd
4239 1
16 / 100
Increase1 2nd
4241 2
36 / 100
Increase20 1st
4245 2
36 / 100
Steady 1st
April 4249 None
31 / 100
Decrease5 2nd
June 4249 None
31 / 100
Steady 2nd
4253 None
7 / 100
Decrease24 5th
4257 None
7 / 100
Steady 6th
4259 None
15 / 100
Increase8 3rd
4263 None
3 / 100
Decrease12 5th
4267 None
12 / 100
Increase9 4th
4268 None
12 / 100
Steady 4th
4272 1
12 / 100
Steady 5th
4276 None
6 / 100
Decrease6 5th
4280 None
4 / 100
Decrease2 5th
4283 1
18 / 100
Increase14 4th
4287 1
16 / 100
Decrease2 4th
4292 None
4 / 100
Decrease12 5th
4295 3
36 / 100
Increase32 1st
4299 2
31 / 100
Decrease5 1st
4303 1
20 / 100
Decrease11 3rd
4307 3
43 / 100
Increase23 1st
4311 2
32 / 100
Decrease11 1st
4312 2
32 / 100
Steady 1st
4316 3
35 / 100
Increase3 1st
4320 1
21 / 100
Decrease14 2nd
4322 2
37 / 100
Increase16 1st
4326 None
14 / 100
Decrease23 3rd
4330 None
3 / 100
Decrease11 7th
4334 1
13 / 100
Increase10 3rd
4338 None
1 / 100
Decrease12 7th
4342 None
3 / 100
Increase2 7th
4346 None
1 / 100
Decrease2 8th


Since its formation the party has always had a National Secretary who is the leader of the Party elected by party primaries in which the party members and supporters vote directly to choise the new leader which however will be formally appointed by the National Congress, formed by representatives of the sections among the country (chosen on the basis of the outcome of the primaries in each sections). Until 4270 the Secretary was elected by the National Congress, formed by representatives from all the local national sections which were chosen through internal party deals. Alongside the National Secreatary the party statue provides also a National Coordinative Committee (colloquially also called as Directorate) which act as permanent and executive committee of the National Congress in charge of overseeing the day-to-day work of the party, decide whatever happens internally in the party and advise the Secretary. It is formed by a minimum of 15 memebers chosen among the National Congress to represent proportionally the different internal wings and is the innermost or topmost circle of members who are of highest importance within the party.

National Secretary
Name Portrait Leader Age (election-resignation) Internal Wing
1 Alessandro Senna President Alessandro Senna 4030-4070 37-77 Social Liberal
2 Eleonora Antani Eleonara Antani 4070-4082 59-71 Socialist
3 Marcantonio Borgiese Marcantonio Borgiese 4082-4091 48-57 Social Liberal
4 Emanuele Paolelli Emanuele Paolelli 4091-4095 51-56 Socialist
5 Yusef Al-Mahmud Yusef Al-Mahmud 4095-4115 68-88 Liberal
6 Giorgio Accorsi Giorgio Accorsi 4115-4131 36-52 Liberal
7 Michele Scialoja Michele Scialoja 4131-4170 39-78 Social Liberal
8 Lorenzo Verhoeven Bigstock-Geert-Wilders-93424856-400x585 4170-4203 35-68 Social Liberal
9 Camilla Fiorenti Camilla Fiorenti 4203-4223 36-56 Libertarian
10 Nicola Gasbarro Nicola Gasbarro 4223-4236 61-74 Libertarian
11 Davide Tajani Davide Tajani 4236-4247 39-50 Libertarian
12 Lavinia Maggi Sara marcozzi consigliere regionale-2 4247-4253 44-50 Social Liberal
13 Malik Astori Malik Astori 4253-4270 61-78 Social Liberal
14 Adriano Andreatta Adriano Andreatta 4270-4285 47-62 Social Liberal
15 Francesco del Grillo Francesco del Grillo 4285-4292 52-59 Social Liberal
16 Alessandro Eugenio di Nacosia-Rohan Alessandro Eugenio di Nacosia-Rohan 4292-4307 39-54 Social Liberal
17 Stefano Romulani Stefano Romulani Portr 4307-4322 46-61 Social Democrat
18 Francesco di Nacosia-Rohan Francesco di Nacosia-Rohan 4326-4342 39-55 Libertarian socialist
19 Sultan Karamanli Sultan Karamanli 4342-4346 63-67 Socialist
20 Not yet determined Unknown 4346- - -

Notable MembersEdit

Party leadersEdit

Alessandro SennaEdit

See Alessandro Senna.

Eleonora AntaniEdit

Historical whip of the ISLP party group in the Chamber of Deputies, Mrs Antani was also the most close collaborator of the Segretary and then President Senna. Antani came from the Istalian Revolution Party like Senna and followed him in his adventure. Key element within the party, Antani became the voice of the party when Senna began to occupy institutional roles and began to coordinate the work of the party in the Chamber of Deputies during its role as government party. Stand in defense of the legitimacy of the parliament and the government during the parliamentary crisis of 4069, already designed by Senna, it was finally acclaimed by the rest of the party as a new national secretary. After the dimission of Senna and his retirement from the politics Antani has fully embrace his heritage as Leader of the ISLP and in this position gained two consecutive presidential elections (4074 and 4078). Under the leadership of Antani the party has politically moved further to the left, supporting without problems the LDE policies, at the time more and more predominant respect to the Social Liberals.

Marcantonio BorgieseEdit

Historical collaborator of Alessandro Senna, Marcantonio Borgiese became the National Segretary in 4082 after the dimission of Eleonora Antani for Health Reasons. After two legislature without government under the two ephemeral Neloni's presidencies because the istalian political scene fragmentation, Borgiese fight for years to convince Istalia of the need of a Costitutional Reform to the establishment of the Parliamentary Government form. Gained two elections (4085 and 4088), the second with the support of almost all the political forces of Istalia, he reached the goal to make approve the parliamentary reform and then dimissioned in 4088 satisfy for the change declaring to have no intention to a third candidature.

Emanuele PaolelliEdit

Famous International Relationship's professor in the Romula's Bergson University, entered in the ISLP after the grave insistence of Alessandro Senna. He has served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in many ISLP and ISLP-LED governments and after the dimission to the presidency of Mr Borgiese became the new National Secretary and candidate of the ISLP after the parliamentary reform, chosen for its authority and international experience. After years, more and more close to Eleonora Antani was him to lead the alliance between the ISLP, LED and SEL but after the 4095 election the National Directorate of the party ousted him for the disappointing electoral results and for his excessive political subjection to the leftiest party.

Yusef Al-MahmudEdit

Son of a prominent businessman of Silicia, during his university time at the economic department of the Silicia High University, was attracted by the liberal position and fought the dirigist and authoritarian derive of the Battistian Leadership. He fought in the Civil War under Senna's command and then, after he graduated he entered in the ISLP and through the years has become the leader of the liberal wing of the Party in opposition of Eleonora Antani, leader of the leftist group. Under the Antani segretariat's years he became on of the most prominent member of the Party, but not reached to become whip in parliament, because the opposition of the then president Antani, very criticized by Al-Mahmud for his subjection to the LDE and his leftist policies. Under the Borgiese's era he fully supported the parliamentary reform and slowly has overtaken Mrs Antani in influence and visibility inside the party. Strong opponent of the segretary Paolelli, criticised for the same reasons that opposed Al-Mahmud to Antani, in 4095, after the disappointing government in coalition with SEL and LDE, has organized the "internal coup" against Paolelli to remove him from the segretariat and then was appointed as his successor to the segretary.

Giorgio AccorsiEdit

Young protege of the historic party member Mattia Ranieti and member of the "Sennani" current, after having served as National Spokesman of the Istalian Students (as leader of the Alliance of Young Progressives), was elected to the Chamber in 4101 at 25 in the Bunogna electoral district. Strongly critical of the interventionist policies of the then Secretary Antani, is taken under the benevolent wing of Mattia Ranieti who, with Al-Mahmud, began to form the hard liberal core of the party to counter the interventionist policy of Antani as well as the political submission of Paolelli in front the leftist parties. During the leadership of Al-Mahmud, enthusiastic guides the Internal Committee for the economic policies of the party and we can say that it's thanks to him if the party begins to apply the principles of the "slogans" only today presented during the Congress and that sums the guidelines of the ISLP. It's the first leader of the ISLP that does not belong to the generation of Senna. Accorsi was punished by the PSLI voters because its role as leader of two coalition, the first with PPI, PSLI DI, Patriot and PSDI and the second the Tetraparty Government (PPI, Patriot, PSLI, DI), occur during hard time and the threat of the PdCI, great coalitions that have dissatisfied many from all sides. After the election 4126 and the fall of the electoral support for the party decide to resign.

Michele ScialojaEdit

Originally better known as political philosopher, frequent guest of television and radio programs and author of two well-known books (Ethic or Liberty? and At the time of Stat), Scialoja was professor of Political Doctrines at the Faculty of Political Science of the Enrico Bergson University of Romula and theorist of Political Systems. He was PSLI parliament member for two legislatures but even before he joined the Ethical and Ideological Reflection Committee of the Party, also giving advice on technical issues, not least the semi-presidential proposal of 4133 to which he worked together with experts of the Populars in the formulation of the text of the constitutional reform. It became virtually the only stable voice of PSLI, after four years of discussions and clashes within the party's National Congress upset by the arrest of the ex whip and cadidate to the National Secretary, Karim Al Nasser. He bring to himself support from more and more congress' members, attracted by the role of great expert of istalian politics and external to the historical "bureaucrats" of the party. Scialoja seems to be more open to a strong social intervention of the State in economy, professing strong welfare and case by case accepting also state economic activity, but untile the election of 4138 the strong liberal opposition inside the party limited its power and its more leftist ideologies. But the efforts of Scialoja to unit the more libertarians and the more socialdemocratics paid his work: in 4142 the PSLI gained the relative majority of the Parliament and Scialoja became HoG leading the Union of Center-left together the PNI. After two legislatures dominated by the Union of Liberals, Scialoja accept the proposal of the newly Verdi Istaliani to create a coalition for the Center-Left, the Alleanza dei Progressisti per l'Istalia, "Alliance of Progressists for Istalia" (API), which follow the brief experience of the "Union of Center-Left", founded by the Partito della Socialdemocrazia Istaliana in the first half of 42nd century and as API's candidate in 4162 was elected President of the Republic with a majority in the Chamber, grant by the PNI, ready to support its own Government.

Lorenzo VerhoevenEdit

See Lorenzo Verhoeven.

Camilla FiorentiEdit

Born in the small village of Roncisvalle, in the Mezzodiurno, she moved to Trieste with her family at the age of 14, following her father hired in the Leonardi shipyards. Just in Triesta she's noted by an agent of Milona High Fashion, known fashion agency, and at age 16 she starts her career in the world of fashion as a model, appearing over the years in magazines, advertising and fashion shows for different fashion houses, working a lot abroad but also finding time to graduate in economics. At 23, however, she is a victim of a media campaign against some of her naked shots and after a year away from the scenes, she shows that he has developed a strong political soul that leads her to approach PSLI.
At the age of 26 she joined the party soon becoming a well-known face, and after two years in 4191 she was elected to the municipal council of Trieste, while in 4195 she won the race as mayor of the city forming then the "Trivendito Group" with Mirko Marcegaglia and Elio Bertinoti, Trivendito's President and Vinesia's mayor, with which adheres to the Libertarian Collective.
Elected as new National Secretary of the party, thanks to the support of the newly majoritarian Libertarian Collective, she led the reform of the party which assumed the current name and new political policies approaching the party to the liberals parties. Under her secretariat one of the most notable party exponents was Filippo Marra, architect as Minister of Finance of the foundamental reforms adopted by the liberals government under the presidency of the Republicans Marko Berlusconi (4204-4208) to face the Global Financial Crisis began in 4204, and who was elected in 4208 President of the Republic.
Under her leadership in cooperation with Marra, LP for almost 20 years was the larger party in Istalia and became a true "institutional party" in leading the nation with different coalitions.
She decided to resign after the party falls at the penultimate position at the 4223 elections.

Nicola GasbarroEdit

Right hand of the previous Secretary, Camilla Fiorenti, Nicola Gasbarro like her was an exponent of the libertarian wing of the party and he was a major supporter inside the party of the free market and of the possibility of the capitalism. Gasbarro entered into the party in 4182 when as independent he gained the local election for the mayor in Vinesia. He was reelected for two terms and then he was chosen as candidate of the Trivendito constituencies and elected to the parliament in 4199. In only two years he became one of the most active members of the libertarian wing where he met Camilla Fiorenti with which began a fruitful cooperation. When the latter became Secretary of the party Gasbarro was chosen as Whip into the Chamber and in this role he became the leader of the liberal wing and supporter of the free market economy. After the Fiorenti's depart by the Secretariat, the Congress of the party appointed Gasbarro to continue the work generally satisfactory of Fiorenti, considering the electoral debacle of 4223 as a conseguence of a smear campaign conducted by the socialist and of policies too complacent to some position of the opposition. After the four "anarchist" years under the first Largisini's President and the next instable term, in 4231 Gasbarro present his candidature declaring to want bring back order into the Republic: a good strategy which convinced the voters. Gasbarro in the next years presented himself as a champion of the liberalism and free market and was able to gather around him an alliance between the istalian right and center-right parties. Despite two victorious almost consecutive elections, however, the alliance failed to secure the needed majorities.
After the second successful Presidential elections, reached the age of 74, Gasbarro officially announced his resignation as National Secretary calling a new National Congress.

Davide TajaniEdit

He comes from Calliari, where he joined the party's youth movements both at the high school and at the Calliari State University, where he graduated in law. After have try to enter into the State Bar, he entered officially in the party and was elected in 4227 to the Calliari Regional Assembly and then into the Chamber of the Deputies in 4231.
He became an increasingly important personage into the libertarian wing of the Party, he became one of the spokeperson of the internal current starting his cooperation with the National Secreatary at the time, Gasbarro, his predecessor. During the National Congress of 4236 finally he was elected to the Leadership but with a narrow advantage: the other candidate, Lavinia Maggi, in fact was soon after appointed as Whip of the Party and Deputy Leader, one of the most important members of the National Directorate. Tajani confirmed the alliance with the other right-wing party to opposite the dirigist policies of the leftist coalition.
Tajani established then the electoral coalition with CC and AI and together they gained the elections (Presidency to CC) but soon a terrible terrorist attack killed President Rachele Delfina and many parliamentarians of CC decreting its dissolution followed also by the dissolution of the PCI. Tajani so, in such an institutional crisis, supported early elections presenting himself as candidate of the center-right. As espected Tajani was elected President and the coalition LP, AI, PMC (which supported him) gained the majority. However, during its Presidency (4241-4245) its foreign policy created some troubles for Istalia which suffer a lose of international support and a lot of critics.
For this reason Lavinia Maggi in 4246 decided to call for a Congress to launch a vote of no-confiance for Tajani which however resigned before.

Lavinia MaggiEdit

Born in Angona in 4203 into a family owner of a local little industry, she studied to become a layer but already since the early years of university she approached the politics and despite she failed to be elected into the local elections of 4223, in 4227 she was elected to the Parliament into the LP list.
Inside the LP she became even close to the minoritarian social-liberal wing and after having been re elected as parlamentarian in all the other elections, she emerged as leader of the social-liberal wing in the early '30 of 4200 and show herself to be a strong voice against the libertarian leadership of the party which, for Maggi, swifted to much on extreme capitalist positions. Under the Secretariat of Davide Tajani, with the growth of the social-liberal wing, she became the second most important exponent of the party, appointed to be the new Whip's party.
Under the Presidency of Davide Tajani Lavinia Maggi was even more critic about the international policy of the President and finally, in 4245, for the elections, Maggi was chosen by the party to contest it as President candidate not reconfirming Tajani who, after a year, resigned as National Secretary of LP.
Laviania Maggi replaced Tajani and as President of the Republic changed radically the foreign policy of Istalia, retake the path of a more diplomatic approach. She, together with the leader of Verdi!, Fatima el-Nouri, proposed Istalia to host a peace conference to solve the Badaran civil war and achieved to make accept by the beligerant parties a ceasefire and the sending of an istalian humanitarian mission.
During the peace conference however, one of the party, the so called "Coalition", rose up in arms against the legitime government, carried out a terrorist attack in Romula against the conference killing the Badaran foreign ministry and wounding President Maggi and President of the Council el-Nouri.
Recovered from the injuries, she continue to cover the role of President extremely active on the international stage where she opposed the nations supporting the Coalition, definitively declared to be a terrorist group.
Under the Presidency of Gianluigi Rosso, Lavinia Maggi acted as President of the Council and together with the authoritative leadership also of el-Nouri of the I Verdi!, the Government conducted its policy in defending the legitime Government of Badara against the terrorism and the external attempt to undermine it.
However, the elections of 4253 was a shock for LP, which lost more than 20% of the seats passing to be the second largest party to the last one. After such a defeat, Lavinia Maggi resigned and a new Congress of a party under shock was called. She continued to hold the position of President of the Council until the passage of the confiance for the next Government.

Malik AstoriEdit

Born in Turrino from an italian father and quanzarian mother, he grow up into a family of landowners. He was destined to take control of the family activities but during the years of the university he began to be interested by the politics. However, he took charge also of the economic activities of the family when his father was victim of a hearth attack, but continuing to make politics at local level.
After a career which led him to be elected as Deputy among the ranks of LP, as moderate and pure Social Liberal inspired by the policies of the then President Marra, he known then Nicola Gasbarro during the last years of the Fiorenti's Secretarian and then entered into the National Directory since the first days of Nicola Gasbarro as new Party Leader, who took it under his protective harm making him one of the narrowest but also discreet collaborators. Many had called Astori as "the Shadow," pointing to him as Gasbarro's eyes and ears inside the party.
Under the last years of the Gasbarro's Secretariat Astori, always with his usual discretion, became one of the most important members of the Directory and, after the death of Gasbarro, during the subsequent National Congress, before the clash beteween Al-Sahel, extreme liberatarian, and Silvano Rogi, social-liberal supported by the socialist and the radicals, was the Directory itself to push Astori as candidate of the compromise and also to "suggest" to Al-Sahel to retire its candidature and endorse Astori: the Directory didn't want risk that the left-wing of the party reached the Secretariat, a likely event given the fact that Al-Sahel was a supporter of the highly criticized international policy of Davide Tajani.
Astori presented so himself as a pure Social Liberal who support Marra's economic policies as his model to be re-introduced again in Istalia but internationally he follow the Maggi's Detente doctrine to deal with the Global Stage.
In 4270, after the breack of LP with the right-wing parties due to the passage of a large bill to dismantle the social security for the istalian workers, Astori resigned and left the politic due to health reasons.

Adriano AndreattaEdit

Born in Romula into a wealthy family, the father was an businessman while the mother a high society lawyer, Adriano Andreatta despite growing as a Romula's high society scion, since he was young showed a deep sensitivity, which pushed him to getting involved to support the less fortunate, cooperating especially with the charitable foundation of his family, specialized in assisting the homeless. The history Adriano heard by the homeless pushed him to go to Law school, intent to specialise in Work Law, concinced that many of the problems of the less fortunates derived by the problems and the abuses on the workplace and in the work world. Despite this sensitivity, Andreatta showed to be also a life lovers, a lover of luxury car, elegant dresses and of the beautiful women, charateristic which distinguesh himself also during his term as President of the Republic (4268-4270). He approached LP at the time of the University, when was convinced by the program of the party in favor of the protection of the workers rights and after reached to be the National Spokeperson of the LP Student wing, he began his political career first acting in the Romula's Party activity, where for two term he was elected as member of the city council, while in 4253 he was elected into the Chamber of Deputies entering definitively in the inner circle of the party. Despite his experience in Labour rights, initially he showed great interests for the international affairs, especially the fight against the crimes against humanity and the violation of democratic values and for this reason Andreatta became member of the party international commitee where approached the future Foreign Minister Ciro Esposito who then chosen Andreatta as the main colaborator making enter him into the Government as Undersecretary of the Foreign Ministry. However, soon the "first love" of Andreatta retook over deciding to put at the service of the Ministry of Justice Ortali his experience, being chosen as Undersecretary for the Labour Justice. It was just right his committment and experience in this field that convinced Malik Astori to propose Andreatta as LP and progressive candidate for the election 4267, won by Erardo Pula (Capitalist Confederation), and for the ones of 4268: this time Andreatta gained the Presidency. During his Presidency it worked first of all with the Government to reintroduce the Social Security then became active into the international stage. Just about the foreign relations of Istalia, he was heavily criticized for what seemed an intimate relationship with Augusta Maxima, pontesian opposition's leadership in exile in Istalia, and therefore for his discussed private life which gave a lot of material for the istalian and international tabloids. After his first Presidency he became the most important opponent of Istalian Alternative and its policy to contrast the emergency of the refugees from north-western Majatra, promoting an open stance in favor of solidarity and protection of the persecuted.
After being defeated by Eraldo Pula (CC) in 4272, a defeat probably due to the tabloids' news during his first presidency, considered not too adeguate for a Head of the State, assuming a more serious and institutional behavior he gained the Presidential elections again in 4276 and was reconfirmed in 4280, also thanks to the victory of the progressive forces for four consecutive terms.
During the Presidency of Eraldo Pula, the Istalian Government lead by Mrs Nacon (AVP) brooke the relations with the World Congress and the International Community given the opposition to act against the menace of Beiteynu against Istalia. For this reason also under the two next Andreatta's Presidencies Istalia maintained an isolated international stance, ignoring also the menaces of a great war in the west of Majatra between Deltaria and the Jelbek nations.
With a general normalization of the situation in Majatra however, Andreatta was able to focus on the internal affairs, being elected for a third term in 4280 and continuing to lead together with the carismatic Vittoria Nacon a progressive government until 4283, when the nation was shocked by the scandal about the Minister of Justice Cassandra Lavarin, accused, and judged than convicted, to have organized a series of murders against key figures of the istalian criminal organizations (Mafia), and then by the uprising of the Padagnan Nationalists.
After the early elections, Andreatta continued for one year to be National Secretary of LP supporting the new President Aham (FR) in his mission to maintain united the Republic and to dialogue with the indipendentists.

Francesco del GrilloEdit

Born in 4233 in Castiglione di Padua, in Trivendito, from a middle-class family, after compulsory school he enrolled at the University of Padua to attend the Political Science courses, specializing in International Relations. At university, he joins the Progressive Student Association, where he does not take an active role and move away from politics once graduated. In fact, he focused himself to the diplomatic career by entering the Foreign Ministry following a regular public competition and then departing after a few years to Valruzia as assistant to the ambassador. Until 4261 he was sent to various countries by assuming in the late 1950s the consulate position in Laurenne and Egelion. In 4261 he was appointed Ambassador in Jakania and then in Solentia where he worked to bring the country closer to Istalia. In 4265, returning from Solentia, he was approached by Liberty and Progress due to the diplomatic experience accumulated in view of replacing the expert but aged Ciro Esposito. Elected to the Chamber already in 4267, shortly before the early election in 4268 Malik Astori appointed him as LP candidate at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and was then nominated to serve under the cabinet Nacon I. In collaboration with Adriano Andreatta at the Presidency, he was one of the country's new foreign policy makers, who was definitely more discreet and wary because of the serious break with the World Congress. This, however, does not prevent del Grillo from lead the re-entering of Pontesia into the Majatran Alliance and the establishment of new important relationships. In 4284 Andreatta announces his withdrawal and del Grillo, now a major member into the party, gathered around himself the Social Liberals to counter Yasser Farhan, exponent of the Liberals and also Minister of Defense. The crisis triggered by the Independentists of Padagna, however, makes change the fronts opposed into the primaries, and the members are therefore divided between moderate and intransigent on the Padagnan issue. Del Grillo becomes the moderate leader while the intransigents are all together behind Alessandro Eugenio di Nacosia-Rohan, a former member of Istalian Alternative joining only recently the LiberalProgressives.
Del Grillo manages to gain the primaries but with a minimum margin, so he has to seriously come to terms with Nacosia-Rohan, now becoming a charismatic voice within the party: Grillo reaffirms his trust in President Aham and in dialogue with secessionists but stresses that LP will not accept solutions that could put the Unity of the nation at risk.
Despite the victory of the primaries, di Nacosia-Rohan became the real soul of an LP which was shifting drastially to the left. Del Grillo was heavily affected by the disappointment of LP for the President Aham, which tried to propose a referendum on the federalization of the nation. After the defeat of Aham in 4287 presidential run and the debacle experienced by his party, del Grillo established a deal with the new elected President Maddaloni (Capitalist Confederation) to work on an autonomous status of Padagna to be approved by a referendum during the next elections.
During thi term however, the party became aven more distant from its Secretary following di Nacosia-Rohan and his right hand, Stefano Romulani: during the 4291 Presidential run, di Nacosia-Rohan, proposing himself against the advice of del Grillo as the president of a new more leftist Istalia, was defeated and the party experienced the major loss of that legislature. After the election del Grillo finally resigned leaving also the party in contrast with di Nacosia-Rohan and its social democratic entourage.

Alessandro Eugenio di Nacosia-RohanEdit

Son of Francesco Vittorio di Nacosia-Rohan, wealthy landlords and businessmen, he descends from the ancient kings of the Istalian Kingdom on the Island of Alaria. Growing in Alaria, in the family estate near Palerno, he approached the politics after his university economic degree, becoming a member of Istalian Alternative staying among the ranks of AI for almost ten years, attracted mainly by the charism of former President Rosso. He was elected as one of Istalia's youngest municipal councilors (precisely in Palerno) and remained in the AI ​​ranks until the of Padagnan Nationalist turning point of the 80's, leading before the Palernian section of AI but then abandoing it due to the fall of Ricollo and considering Liberty and Progress a better platform, especially attracted, as said, from the front of the intransigents.
Di Nacosia-Rohan inside Liberty and Progress immediately became one of the most important exponents of a nationalist and unitary line to which he merged, thanks to the closeness with the openly socialdemcoratic Stefano Romulani, strong Social Liberal and Social Democratic economic principles. When Adriano Andreatta announced his intention to resign, the expected successor was Francesco Del Grillo, leader of the Social Liberals, and which had to easily defeat the Liberals exponent, the Minister of Defense Farhan. The Padagnan indipendentist crisis however, changed drastically the basis of the internal opposed ideologic positions from a "fight" between Social Liberals and Liberals to one between Moderate-proa-utonomists and intransigent-unitarists. Del Grillo managed to gain the primaries against di Nacosia-Rohan, but just for few votes, allowing to the nobleman to became the second most important party member, at the head of an even more intransigent factions and, thanks to the cooperation with Stefano Romulani, also the promoter of a more social democratic economic policies.
While Del Grillo in the last years of Secretariat day by day was losing his authoritative role, di Nacosia-Rohan was taking even more space and just before the 4292 elections, during which he was the Presidential candidate, he became the de facto leader of Liberty and Progress. After the disappointing electoral results Del Grillo decided to leave the party, drammatically in contrast with the new soul of the LiberalProgressives, and this paved the way to di Nacosia-Rohan which during the subsequent party primary managed to win with more than 70% of the votes and to see elected a National Directory filled with social liberal and social democrats and coordinated by the trusted Romulani who became the most irreverent and fiery voice of the party while di Nacosia-Rohan showed an even more assertive and institutional-like distinctive-looking.
Under di Nacosia-Rohan, Liberty and Progress come back essentially to the veritable origins of the party when it was the PSLI, claiming to follow the path of the founder Alessandro Senna, leaving the third way economic position to come back to an approach far more social democratic. The fierce opposition to the center-right government of the 4292-4295 legislature, with the numberous proposals presented by LP, showed clearly the new social democratic path taken by the party.
The new route rewarded LP which in 4295 became the largest party and di Nacosia-Rohan was elected President of the Republic. He asked to his right hand, Stefano Romulani, to form a center-left minority government supported externally by the Istalian Hosian Democrats with the objective, achieved at the end of the legislature, to reintroduce a minimal but universal welfare system.
At the end of his Presidency Istalia was touched by the Wolfshein Bacteria Infection, a Dovanian pandemic which spread through the world during the years between the 43rd and 44th century. He was remember for his role in fighting the disease, first as President with his National Emergency Health Plan and then as President of the Council. In fact, after the 4299 election to the Presidency of the Capitalist Confederation's candidate Naazim el-Arafat, di Nacosia-Rohan to oppose the President's aim to reppeal the emergency measures, considered too extreme, was able to gather together all the parties but CC to form a National Unity Government which fought effectively the disease reducing the infection rates and then organizing the national vaccination to give the cure discovered in 4303 to all the istalian citizens, objective reached during the 4303-4307 legislature.
Di Nacosia-Rohan led the party until the election 4307 when, after having failed for two times to be re-elected to the Presidency against Naazim el-Arafat, endorsed his right hand Stefano Romulani as Presidential candidate of LP and then, after the landslide victory of the Party into the legislative, decided to resign from the position of National Secretary calling the National Congress which, without surprises, chose Romulani as his successor.

Stefano RomulaniEdit

Born in Nepuli on the outskirts of Nepuli in a proletarian neighborhood, since the years of the high school he approached the politics with the ideals to improve the conditions of many workers like his father and so to improve the social and economic conditions of places like his neighborhood and of its inhabitants.
Romulani committed himself on the study in order to get a scholarship which he achieved and which allowed him to move in Milona and attend the courses at the High School of Economy of Milona. At the University he definitively join the student wing of LP which during the last two decades of the 43rd was shifting on more leftist positions criticizing the excessive liberist society in the Country asking for a new central role for the State to assist the citizens.
After a Bachelor's degree and a Doctoral degree in Economic policy, achieved two years in advantage, he full committed itself into the Party being elected at the 4283 elections. In less than two years, thanks to his strong dialectic and got even more closer to the new party's star, Alessandro Eugenio di Nacosia-Rohan, he became in 4285 the Whip of the Party in Chamber.
Romulani is considered to be one of the major players responsible for the radical shift to leftist positions of LP, defining himself as a moderate Social Democrat pushing for a large and well founded welfare state but with a limited active intervention of the State in the economy preferring instead the introduction of regulatory policies to protect workers and customers.
During his years as Whip, he distinguished himself to be the sharpest tongues of the oppotions of the center-rights governments (4288 and 4292) led by Dagoberto Vigilante, denouncing the demolition of the welfare state in Istalia, which reinstallement became the main objective of the center-left government led by Romulani since 4196, a minority government as cabinet of the then President of the Republic di Nacosia-Rohan externaly supported by the Hosian Democrats thanks to whom was granted again to the Istalians a minimal welfare system.
He remained the candidate Prime Minister of LP until the 4307 elections when di Nacosia-Rohan endorsed Romulani as Presidential candidate: Romulani was defeated alone at the second turn only thanks to the join forces of PNI and two other center-right parties, but LP gained a landslide victory seizing 203 seats, 83 more than PNI, the second largest party. Just after the elections di Nacosia-Rohan announced his decision to resign from the National Secretariat calling for primaries which, organized in only two months, elected a Congress fully in support of the promising Romulani, the first Secretary since the days of Emanuele Paolelli to have socialist positions (namely social democratic).
Thanks to the large advantage of his party, Romulani was immediatly contacted by the President Votta to form a Government also if the Head of State, as leader of PNI, proposed him a Grand Coalition which Romulani accepted to form: so, in 4309 the new leader of LP inaugurated his second Cabinet.
Romulani, leading Great Coalition with PNI and then with DHI, which entered in the third Romulani's Cabinet . After having leading the country in tandem with Votta, with the ever prominent shift of the Demohosians toward more social position and with the emergence of a new Socialist Party, in 4316 Romulani proposed himself as champion of the center-left to challenge the outgoing President Votta: Romulani gained leaving the Presidency of the Council to his Deputy HoG. As President he led the Nation in the total victory of the war against Hulstria but internally he had to form a Government with ULD and PSI, a Government seen by many as a mere caretaker formed just to overcome the political stalemate (left-wing president and a slight advantage for the rightist party which however were divided between conservatives and liberals). During this term the long efforts of Romulani to improve the social assistance and services for Istalian began to pay off thanks to the ever closer cooperation with DHI and to the support of the Socialist.
Romulani gained also the 4320 elections, thanks to the confirmed support of DHI and PSI: DHI and LP, respectively first and second largest parties, thanks to the entering in Parliament of the Right's National Party, despite the dissolution of PSI, disappointed by the poor electoral results, they have been able to introduced important reforms: tax reforms (increase in sales tax, corporation tax and for the highest brackets of the income tax), Universal health care services and Infrastructure reforms to increase the presence of the State, foundamental reforms to make emerge Istalia from a century of liberist and highly capitalist policies which, as denunced by many parties in the end of the 43rd century, had generated important and excessive social-economic contrasts and disparities.

Francesco di Nacosia-RohanEdit

Son of Alessandro di Nacosia-Rohan, after graduated in Political Science he followed the path of his father entering in Liberty and Progress where he joined the libertarian socialist wing, bringing with him the businessman Riccardo Morelli, a lifelong friend. Supporting the shift impressed by his father and consolidated by Stefano Romulani, also Francesco became a strong promoter of a State-interventionist social policy but also he adopted extreme liberatarian positions on the side of the civil rights, pressed especially by Morelli with which Francesco quickly reached to led the libertarian members of the party.
Due to the blow that the party experienced during the 4326 election, the primaries called by Stefano Romulani announcing his retirement from the politics saw the mass rejection of the "old guard" led by the right hand of Romulani, the former Prime Minister Aisha Menchi, and the surprising victory of di Nacosia-Rohan. Despite this, Aisha Menchi and several other members of the old leadership continued to maintain several important positions into the National Directory generating some contrasts and internal conflict due to the libertarian positions of the new National Secretary and of his right hand, Morelli, which was criticized also for his style of life.
However, Francesco di Nacosia-Rohan was able to silence the internal opposition thanks to its committment for the establishment of a party coalition with the other economic leftist forces, first of all DHI, with which Liberty and Progress founded the Coalition Altra Istalia (luthorian: Another Istalia) which at its first contested elections (4334) failed to gain the majority for just 5 seats.
During his first years at the head of LP di Nacosia-Rohan find himself involved into a diatriba with the leader of Monarchical Party Caesar Antonio Zappeli, self-proclaimed candidate to the throne of Istalia, about the rights of Zappeli and di Nacosia-Rohan to be crowned in case of a monarchical reforms, however, considered as a remote possibility by di Nacosia-Rohan himself and which mainly criticized the trivial motivation of Zappeli for his candidature.
After few years the Secretary, instead, found himself defending the party by the attack of Coalition of the Future and the Union of Liberal Democrats, hyperliberals party which accused Liberty and Progress of communism and with which the party clashed on all the economic issues, criticizing them in turn for the attempts to undermine the social security of the nation.
In 4338 the Communist Party gained the elections with a consistent plurality which pushed Altra Istalia to form with them a center-left Government. Despite the broad reforms introduced by this Government, the leadership of di Nacosia-Rohan suffered for the poor electoral results and also he was criticized by the liberal wing of the party for the excessive support for the communist agenda. After the election 4342, with the victory of the rightist parties, DHI decided to enter into a center-right Government together with PNI and ULD. All the other members of Altra Istalia, the Populars first of all, expressed their dismay demanded that DHI leaves Altra Istalia, but di Nacosia-Rohan pushed for a more conciliatory stance. Despite this pushed DHI to ensure to the allies that it would be working to defend the most important reforms of the previous Government, di Nacosia-Rohan leadership was heavily criticized by the National Directory and by the supporters of the Party which wanted a more resolute stance before DHI. For this reason, in 4342, nothing the internal situation of the party, the Secretary decided to resign: the National Directory called for an extraordinary National Congress to vest an interim Secretary, postponing the primaries to the end of the term. The successor of di Nacosia-Rohan was Sultan Karamanli, former Minister of Defence.

Sultan KaramanliEdit

Born in Vinesia in 4279, Karamanli, descendant of Jakanian migrants, started his political carrier after his service into the Armed Forces. Entering the Army Accademy of Bescara in 4298, he studied also to graduate in International Relations and after the Accademy he began his carrier into the Intelligence services of the Republic. First into the Army Intelligence services but soon he was assigned to the AISER, the AISER. During his years of services he was approached by several politicians of LP and PNI, especially under the presidencies of Demetrio Votta who, just before the election of Stefano Romulani, recommended Karamanli to be the appointed as new Private Secretary of the President for the National Security. During his service as Private Secretary of Romulani, he approached even more Liberty and Progress, influenced and attracted by the social policies promoted by Romulani. In 4326, just before the elections, Romulani pushed Karamanli to candidate himself among the ranks of Liberty and Progress: he was elected entering for the first time into the Parliament going to be appointed as LP main exponent into the COPACISN due to his experience. At the same time, due to his support for di Nacosia-Rohan against the former supporters of Romulani, first of all Aisha Menchi, he was able to increase his influence into the party entering into the National Directory as party responsible for the defence and security affairs. During his years into the Directory Karamanli increased furthermore his influence becoming one of the major supporters of the idea about the coalition Another Istalia and then strongly criticizing DHI for its decision to cooperate with the rightist party. For the first time Karamanli clashed with the official leadership but this time he had the Directory with him. When di Nacosia-Rohan resigned, the Directory, decided to postpone the primaries, vested Karamanli as possible interim Secretary, decision followed by the extraordinary National Congress called to appoint the provisional successor of di Nacosia-Rohan. As new Secretary, although ad interim, Karamanli pushed to united even more the leftist members of Another Istalia taking an harsher stance toward DHI.
Karamanli, as declared by some source within the party, aimed to be confirmed during the primaries expected after the elections of 4346, but due to the fall of support which has relegated the party to the last position into the Parliament, he decided to resign.
Together with him also most part of the members of the National Directory resigned from any role into the Party which, without leadership, was going to the next extraordinary Congress with uncertainty and dubt about the future of the party.

Other notable membersEdit

Francesco TosoEdit

Franesco Toso

Francesco Toso at the World Congress

Already known for his brillian diplomatic carrer, Toso joined the Social liberals in 4101 becoming in short time the diplomatic expertise of the party. Thanks with a great relationship with the the Secretary at the time, Al-Mahmud, Toso was chosen to be the Foreign Minister under two Government in coalition leaded by Enrico Berlingeri (NSU) (4104-4107 and 4107-4111). As Foreign Minister Toso increase his notoriety and became well known to be the veritable engine behind the run of Istalia to the first election of the World Congress Security Council. Toso was one of the more internationalist statesman of Istalia and it is considered the founder of the so called Friendship and Prestige foreign policy doctrine which caratherized Istalia for almost all the 42nd century.
After the great work as Foreign Minister, since 4107 LP decides to support Toso for the next presidential elections. But if in 4107 he failed against Stefano Paresi (PPI, in 4111 at the second turn he won with a resounding 60% of the vote in favor and a similar performance (55%) allow him to return to the Presidency in 4119.
Also during his term as President of the Republic the most important committment of Toso was to increase the prestige of Istalia and the relationships with the rest of the World. Among its numerous official visit in other nations, one of the most important was the voyage in Indrala at the time ravaged by the turmoil of the conflict between the socialist government and the crown guilty to have supported anti-democratic military coup. In this occasion Istalia presented itself as an international protagonist trying to mediate into the internal crisis of the decadend giant that was Indrala at the time before the subsequent fall of the monarchy.

Claudio De MichelisEdit

President of the Republic for four terms in the middle of the 42nd century, Claudio De Michelis is remembered for his activity against the Ameliorate Regime in Saridan, activity began when he worked as Foreign Minister under the Adami's Government, during the time of the Semi-Presidential refom.
He was the first President with a Government formed by parties who supported him but after the dissolution of the Adami's party, he had to support a cohabitation. It was remember to have protected with all his force the istalians' rights from the assault of the right-wing parties at the power during the 50's of the century and led by Popolars for Istalia.
He marked furthermore, as said, the international history for its activity to improve even more the position of Istalia into the International Stage, began since his activity as Foreign Minister, and to have led the first fights to contrasts the rogue nations, first of all the then terrible and slavery Ameliorate regime of Saridan against which he managed to create a large international front to hit Saridan with embargos and sanctions which led to the fall of the regime crushed by the economic crisis and internal ethnic troubles (for someone De Michelis organized also the underground support for the democratic forces in Sarida which fought against the repressive religious regime).

Filippo MarraEdit

Filippo Marra

Presidential portrait of Marra

Well known economist from the Enrico Bergson State University of Romula, Marra get close to the party since the last years of the 42nd century when began to be known as economist and partecipate to conferences, tv and radio programmes and to write on the economy newspaper Il Sole Finaziario. In 4200 he officially joins the PSLI becoming in short time a major figure into the economic commission of the party.
When PSLI became Liberty and Progress under the leadership of Camilla Fiorenti, Marra since the 4203 began to become even more close to the Secretary who turn all the economic policies of the party to follow the positions of Marra which finally became a leading member of the party.
For this reason, with the sympathy for Marra increased even more, in 4207 the National Secretary announce that for the 4208 presidential run, Marra will be the candidate of LP: a good choice given the fact that Marra will be President of the Republic for two terms between 4208 to 4215 and then once again between 4219 to 4223.
Under the Presidency of Marra Istalia progressively recover from the world financial crisis started in 4204 and even emerged from it with a strengthened economy. Furthermore, Istalia became definitively a Great Power on the International stage and Marra acted as one of the international leaders more involved to contrast the Majatran Revolutionary Socialist Federation as well as the hegemonic objectives of Vanuku, and for this he worked strenuously to create a sort of military and economic alliance between the democratic and free nations of Majatra which bring to the foundation first of the Alliance and Common Economic Area of Istalia and Zardugal and then of the Majatran Alliance and Common Economic Area.
During his presidential terms Marra was often accused by the socialist/left-wing parties for its capitalist policies, however, the positive results of its efforts allowed to the Nation to became one of the major world economies and to experiencing more than satisfactory economic growth. The international activity instead was largerly appreciated and he will be always remembered as one of the greatest defensor of the democracy and of the Liberty.
Before the 4223 elections Marra announced its decision to retire from politics and so he retourned to the Enrico Bergson University to persue his economic accademic carrier.

List of the Whips of the party into the Chamber of DeputiesEdit

  • Alessandro Senna, as National Secretary (4030-4036)
  • Eleonora Antani (4036-4070)
  • Marcantonio Borgiese (4070-4085)
  • Yusef Al-Mahmud (4085-4095)
  • Camilla Lacroix (4095-4124)
  • Giorgio Accorsi (4124-4126)
  • Enrico Carrema (4126-4132)
  • Aldo Martiri (4132-4166)
  • Sara Zanardi (4166-4187)
  • Giuseppe Al-Walid (4187-4203)
  • Nicola Gasbarro (4203-4223)
  • Harun Al-Sahel (4223-4237)
  • Lavinia Maggi (4237-4241)
  • Silvano Rogi (4241-4255)
  • Giorgia Mulino (4255-4289)
  • Stefano Romulani (4289-4296)
  • Aisha Menchi (4296-4309)
  • Carlo Mainardi (4309-4323)
  • Riccardo Morelli (4323-4342)
  • Sultan Karamanli, as National Secretary (4342-4346)

Institutional positions held by party exponentsEdit

Presidents of the RepublicEdit

  • Alessandro Senna (4063-4067/4067-4070)
  • Eleonora Antani (4070-4074/4074-4078)
  • Marcantonio Borgiese (4085-4088/4088-4091)
  • Vittorino Respighi (4098-4100)
  • Francesco Toso (4111-4115/4118-4119)
  • Claudio De Michelis (4150/4150-4154/4154-4158)
  • Michele Scialoja (4162-4166)
  • Lorenzo Verhoeven (4186-4190/4191-4195/4195-4199/4199-4203)
  • Filippo Marra (4208-4211/4211-4215/4219-4223)
  • Nicola Gasbarro (4231-4235/4236-4239)
  • Davide Tajani (4241-4245)
  • Lavinia Maggi (4245-4249/4249)
  • Adriano Andreatta (4268-4272/4276-4280/4280-4283)
  • Alessandro Eugenio di Nacosia-Rohan (4295-4299)
  • Stefano Romulani (4316-4320/4320-4322/4322-4226)

Presidents of the Council of MinistersEdit

  • Alessandro Senna (4036-4040/4040-4044)
  • Giorgio Accorsi (4120-4124)
  • Michele Scialoja (4142-4147/4147-4151)
  • Lorenzo Verhoeven (4174-4180/4183-4186)
  • Camilla Fiorenti (4209-4213/4219-4229)
  • Filippo Marra (4216-4219)
  • Lavinia Maggi (4241-4245/4250-4255)
  • Stefano Romulani (4296-4301/4309-4314/4314-4316)
  • Alessandro Eugenio di Nacosia-Rohan (4301-4305)
  • Aisha Menchi (4322-4333)

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