| Istalian Empire|
|This article is part of a series on the|
| Politics and Government|
of the Istalian Empire
|Prime Minister of the Empire|
|Council of Ministers|
of the Istalian Empire
|Judiciary of Istalia|
|Political parties in Istalia|
|Elections in Istalia|
Politics of the Istalian Empire is conducted through a constitutional representative parliamentary monarchy with a multi-party system. For most part of its history the Country has been a secular and democratic republic based on the rules of law and on a rigid Constitution which provides the separation of the three Powers of the State. A part the form of Government, the Istalian Empire adopted the same foundamental constitutional and legal framework. However, the Country experiencing also several monarchical periods, all of them establishing Quanzarian revival forms of Government which, also if with different feautures and organizations, enforced heavy limitations to the Istalian ethnicity and culture. This page indeed deals with only the politics of the current Istalian Empire with some info about the previous republican regimes.
Currently, since 4571, the Istalian Empire is organized into an unitary constitutional parliamentary monarchy with the Emperor of the Istalians as symbolic head of state with a constitutional and institutional guardian role. The Executive power is vested in the Prime Minister Imperial Secretary of State (Istalian: Primo Ministro Segretario di Stato Imperiale) who led the istalian government presiding, directing and overseeing the works of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers-member are nominated by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the Emperor. The Prime Minister is chosen among the members of the legislature who can count on a majority, usually the leader of the largest party or of a coalition of parties. The Prime Minister and the cabinet must present themself before the the national legislature for a mandatory vote of confidence.
The Legislative power is vested primary into a unicameral parliament called the National Assembly of the Istalian Empire, and secondarily on the Government, which can introduce bills in the form of government proposal of law, government decree and Imperial decree (called in istalian Decreti di Legge or D.d.l.. and Decreti Imperiali).
The Judiciary, independent of the executive and the legislative branches, is vested in the two bodies: the Supreme Tribunal of Cassation (Istalian: Tribunale Supremo di Cassazione) and the Supreme Court (Istalian: Corte Suprema); alongside these institutions there other last istance courts for specific juridical fiedls and other constitutional entities which assures the indipendency of the Judiciary.
Constitution and Constitutional LawsEdit
The Imperial Constitution of Istalia is the founding law of the Istalian Empire since its adoption in September 4571 and as mentioned it delineates the framework of an unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
The constitution structures the institutional order, outiligning the prerogatives and the relations between the powers of the State. It also provides rules about the Imperial Family and the Imperial succession, the Court-related bodies and dignitaries.
The Constitution during the years was amended several times while other constitutional laws have been introduced to delineate in detail specific institutional matters.
The Emperor Edit
The Emperor of the Istalians, is an hereditary and symbolic Head of State. As Emperor of the Istalian Empire he represents the Nation, guarantees its independence, the respect of the International Treaties and see to it that the Constitution is observed. The Emperor has effective power of action only as protector and guarantor of the constitution, the institutional order and the democratic istalian regime.
As said the Istalian Empire adopt a representative parliamentary system. The executive power is vested in the Prime Minister Imperial Secretary of State of the Istalian Empire who retains the executive power and it is the Head of Government, presiding over the Council of Ministers. He shall direct and coordinate the actions of the Government and shall determine and conduct the policy of the Nation. The Prime Minister is formally appointed by the Emperor but he is nominated and elected by the National Assembly. The position of prime minister is allocated to the member of Parliament who can obtain the confidence of a majority into the legistlature, usually the current leader of the largest political party or, more effectively, through a coalition of parties. The prime minister nominates the cabinet and then present itself to the National Assembly for the vote of confidence.
The Legislature of Istalia is organized as an unicameral parliament called National Assembly of the Istalian Empire. It is the only government body which can approve the laws and recognize its confidence to the Government's cabinet; it can also propose and vote both a costructive and destructive vote of no-confidence against single Ministers as well as the whole Government. The Assembly is elected with a proportional system based on 5 costituencies coinciding with the 5 Regions of Istalia. The electoral system, however, is affected by an electoral law called "Honoris", adopted under the Fourth Republic but maintained also under the Fifth Republic and the Empire, which allows and promotes the formation of pre-electoral coalition for the parties, a system which introduces majoritarian tendencies and a strong coalition responsibility which forces to a greater stability, however the formation of coalitions is not mandatory and in this case the formation of a majority follow the logic of post-electoral deals.
The Constitution of Istalia states that Justice is administered in the name of the Emperor as guarantor of the democratic constitution and order and that judges are subject only to the law. So the judiciary is a branch that is completely autonomous and independent of all other branches of power, even though the Minister of Justice is responsible for the organization and functioning of those services involved with justice and has the power to originate disciplinary actions against judges, which are then autonomously administered by the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the Imperial Cancellor in the name of the Emperor. The administration of the Justice is articolated in three systems of courts: one for the ordinary and criminal justice, with regional and national courts, one for the constitutional justice and one for the administrative justice.
The highest bodies of the Judiciary in Istalia are the Supreme Tribunal of Cassation (istalian: Tribunale Supremo di Cassazione), which is the highest court of last resort for most disputes for both criminal and civil appeal cases, the Supreme Court (istalian: Corte Suprema), which has a duty of judicial review of the laws and can strike down legislation as being in conflict with the Constitution, and the Council of State, which is the supreme courts for the administrative justice but also a legal-administrative consultative body that ensures the legality of public administration in Istalia.
Istalia for most part of the its history presented a multi-party political landscape in which the parties have been mostly divided on the economic and civil rights matters with great space for the religious one while very few political players questioned the essential democratic form of the State, a behavior which allowed the developement of a democratic and plural dialectic and of a political landscape which contributed to the traditional and lasting stability of the Country whose previous Fourth Republic lasted since 3365 to 4546, and the same plurality political landscape has been adopted also under the Fifth Republic and the current Empire, although principles of defensive democracy's philosophy has been adopted (with special law limiting the action and the existence of anti-democratic political movements and parties).
Another features which contributed to the stability of the istalian politics has been also the tendency by part of the parties, during relative long periods, to form ideological and programmatic coalitions with the other parties with which support common candidates to the Presidency of the Republic or, in the past, to the Presidency of the Council, assuring in this way stable majorities into the Parliament for the Governments so to propose and enforce common political programs and policies. The coalitions too, like the parties, has almost always been divided mainly on the basis of economic and personal freedom policies which pushed often for a polarization on the classical left-right axe.
The right-wing parties usually have expressed conservative-nationalist and liberal-capitalistic coalitions while the left-wing parties progressive and socialdemocratic coalitions. The traditional fragmentation of the istalian political stage often has forced the creation of coalitions formed by numerous parties of which the most moderate have always mitigate the more extremist programs and projects granting, as said, stability and continuity. The most recent organized coalitions which competed between them to led the Country were the Alliance of Progressives for Istalia and the Union of Liberals, the former a progressive and leftist coalition, the second conservative and economically liberal.
Since the end of the 42nd century, however, the Istalian political forces didn't established anymore large and lasting coalition and often the at the time Head of State were forced to post-electoral long consultations.
The system of government adopted in Istalia during the centuries of its existence is changed several time to face and adpat to the mutable social and political condition of the country, but the records of this changements often deseappeared or have been damaged due to the time but also to the human activities. In fact, a part of brief info, the history of the Republics before the third and last Quanzarian restoration are few and very fragmented compared to the historical knowledge on the fourth republic.
The historians and constitutionalists of Istalia, however, was able to collect sufficent info to delineate the following institutional evolution of the Istalian nation.
A part the dramatic changement during the three monarchic periods carried out by Quanzarian restorationist forces, the first Republic experienced just only one important institutional changement when in the second half of its existence for less than twenty years was experimented a Presidential form of Government which however didn't offered the expected results and was quickly abandoned.
The second and third Republics too experienced few changement, with only two reforms eachone which alternated between the Head of Government elected, or chosen, by the Legislature or appointed by the Head of the State. Tendencially the istalian forces always tried to respect the practice and laws adopted during the first Republic
The fourth Republic, instead, was the one which experienced the more number of reforms which transformed several time the Republic from a Parliamentary system to a Presidential or a Semi-presidential system, especially during the 37th and the 39th century when the Republic experienced also such Constitutional reforms between an election and another.
Since 4133 to 4546 the Fourth Republic was organized under a successfull semi-presidential system which lasted until the fall of the Republic, more than 400 years after its establishment.
The current monarchical regime is a representative parliamentary monarchy with a powerfull Prime Minister expression of the national legislature and the head of state as symbolic role with effective power only for the defence of the democratic and imperial order and institutions.
|width: 10px;" |2233||Foundation of the Quanzarian Republic||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister appointed by the Head of State)||The last People's Assembly of the Union of Quanzari Soviets, now under the control of Istalian forces, transforms the socialist regime in a democratic republican regime with a parliamentary system|
|2263||Foundation of the first Istalian Republic||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister appointed by the Head of State)||After thirty years of Quanzarian Republic, with the Nation firmly in the hands of the Istalians, was finally officially declared the first Istalian Republic|
|2562||Presidential Reform||Presidential Republic||During a long period of Governments which remained at the power also for more than a decade, due to the high political fragmentation of the Country, the political forces agreed to try to reform the Republic so to have a strong and central officials, the Head of State, to compensate the instability of the Parliamentary system|
|2579||Retourn to the Parliamentary system||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister appointed by the Head of State)||After less then two decades the Presidential reforms didn't give the expected results and so the political forces agreed to retourn to the previous parliamentary system|
|2685||End of the First Republic||Constitutional Monarchy (with large Royal Powers)||The Republic, falling into a serious political crisis, is seized by the Hessexian Majatran Royalists which establish the Royal Union of Quanzar|
|2738||End of the first Quanzari Monarchy||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||With the decrease of the power of the pro-monarchic and anti-istalian forces in the Kingdom, finally the monarchy was abolished in view of a future Republic of Quanzar|
|2745||Parliamentary Reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister appointed by the Head of State)||All the political forces agreed in recognize to the President the right to appoint the Prime Minister to endorse an authoritative figure to led the new republican regime|
|2751||The new Istalian Republic||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister appointed by the Head of State)||The Istalian forces, back on full control of the State, found definitively the second Istalian Republic|
|2866||Reform on the right to appoint the Prime Minister||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||The political forces agreed to reintroduce the election of the Head of Government by part of the Parliament|
|2898||Parliamentary reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister appointed by the Head of State)||After more than 30 years the political forces agree in restore the role and the prestige of the President as cerimonial holder of the executive power with the dutie to deal with the Legislature to appoint the best candidate|
|3077||End of the second Republic||Parliamentary Monarchy (with large Royal Powers)||After a revolution led by a refounded Quanzari Restorationist, supported especially by the large luthorian speaking solentian and south majatran ethnicities flooded in mass in Istalia since the beginning of fourth millennia|
|3119||End of the Kingdom of Quanzar||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||The istalians once again come back to led the national politics beginning to reform the State in the third Istalian Republic|
|3133||The third Istalian Republic||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||Finally the Istalian Republic is fully restored after the fall of the last Quanzarian political forces|
|3178||Elective Monarchy reform||Elected Constitutional Monarchy||During a period which saw far-right forces arise to the power, however always through legal means, for three decades, despite the Istalian Republic was never officially changed, was introduced the title Sovereign of Istalia as Head of State. The people continued to elect the Head of the State which however was vested of Royal Prerogatives but this experience failed to introduce a real and full monarchic system and remained in force only since the political forces who supported the reform continued to be at the power|
|3211||Republican reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister appointed by the Head of State)||After the fall of the previous istalian monarchic forces, the attempt to establish a Kingdom of Istalia ended and was reintroduced a full republican constitution and government system|
|3291||Third Quanzari restoration||Constitutional Monarchy (with large powers to the quanzari ruling party)||After the previous reforms Istalia entered in a new period of decadence and political apathy, to which also contributed the long lasting actual one party rules of the 33rd century which saw for almost 60 years the same Head of State leading the country. The Quanzari restoration profited of the political weakeness of that semi-regime and of the disappointment of the people to led another coup to establish the Hessexian Monarchy|
|3363||End of the third Quanzari Monarchy||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||After an efforts which lasted for almost half a century, finally the istalians was able to defeat the Quanzarian forces and to restore the Republic, the fourth one. Notable the great mobilization which culminted in the formation of the CLNI, the Istalian National Liberation Coalition and which seizing years after years even more power finally was able to put an end to the monarchy and to re-establish the Republic, banishing definitively the Hessexian monarchs and with them many luthorian speaking solentian and south-majatran who never again were able to represent a threat decreasing progressively their presence in Istalia|
|3364||The fourth Istalian Republic||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||With the republican system fully established and the quanzarian restoriationist reduced to be a minor political forces, the Parliament officially declares the foundation of the fourth Istalian Republic on March 1, 3364|
|3383||Semi-parliamentary electoral reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||Due to a period of high political fragmentation culminated with the formation of a Government disunited and with strong political differences, it was adopted an electoral law to introduce pre-electoral parties coalition supporting a common candidate Premier|
|3449||Parliamentary reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister appointed by the Head of State)||After several decades, to find a solution to improve the semi-parliamentary electoral law, which experienced difficulties and was too often disregarded, it was invested the Head of State as key figure and mediator between the parties|
|3608||Presidential reform||Presidential Republic||Due to the then political situation and landscape, it was introduced for the first time a Presidential system of government to increase the power of the Executive|
|3634||Semi-presidential reform||Semi-Presidential Republic||Seen the political empasse at the time, most part of the political forces considered necessary to divide Head of State and Head of Government in order to achieve the formation of cabinets by part of coalitions also if the President's party was not its member|
|3667||Parliamentary reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister chosen by the Parliament and formaly appointed by the President)||During a period of long constitutional debate, the political forces decides to return to the Parliamentary system with a compromise solution for the role of the Head of State|
|3683||President's duties reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister appointed by the Head of State)||The compromise solution of twenty years ago showed several criticality and finally it was decided to re-invest the President of its duties in appointing the Prime Minister|
|3762||Presidential reform||Presidential Republic||Second introdution of the Presidential system which responded to a new semplification of the political stage, dominated by a large conservative party which estimed also that a stronger President would have been able to contrast a resurgence of Quanzarian ideologies|
|3836||Parliamentary reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||Due to the electoral seize of the power by part of political forces which opposed the Presidential system of government supporting larger power to the Parliament, it was briefly reintroduced a Parliamentary system|
|3848||Presidential reform||Presidential Republic||The parliamentary system this time survived only a decades and largely rejected, thanks to the large electoral gain of the presidential system's supporters, it was replaced again|
|3909||Parliamentary reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||At the beginning of the 40th century, a laburist political force reintroduced the Parliamentary system after it gained large electoral support becoming the dominant political forces for the next decades|
|3987||Presidential reform||Presidential Republic||The parliamentary system this stime was maintained for almost a century but close to the 41th the Presidential system was reintroduced after the returning to the power of the party which historically in Istalia was the most important promoters of this system of government|
|3991||Parliamentary reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||This time was the Presidential system that didn't survived very long: the election just after the reform, in fact, saw a center-rightist candidate gaining the Presidency but a landslide victory for the Parliament by part of a communist party which reitroduced the parliamentary system to avoid such incompatible situations|
|4042||Battisti's seizure of power||Authoritarian Presidential Republic (Battistian Dictature)||During the terroristic crisis of the People's Brigades, after the destruction of the Palace of Parliament the President Antonio Battisti reorganized the Republic to face the crisis but actually crusching Istalia under his own personal dictature|
|4046||Redemocratization of the Republic||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||After the defeat of Antonio Battisti and the end of the Istalian Civil War, the victorious democratic forces restored the previous democratic Republic|
|4059||Presidential reform||Presidential Republic||This reform was introduced with large consensus a decade after the end of the Civil War as a new more suitable system for a new and modern course for the Republic|
|4090||Parliamentary reform||Parliamentary Republic (Prime Minister elected by the Legislature)||At the end of the 70's and during the 80's of the 41st century the Republic experienced for two consecutive legislature a serious political empasse due to the inability of the Head of State to form not only a Government to support his policies but also any other kind of Government, a situation that finally pushed the large majority of the political landscape to return to the Parliamentary system|
|4133||Semi-presidential reform||Semi-Presidential Republic||Due to the serious problem for the political forces to form majority Governments with clear political colors rather then unstable Grand Coalition, finally was reached a compromises between the presidentialists and the parliamentarists in the form of the current semi-presidential system|
|4547||Thallerist regime reform||Thallerist Revolutionary Regime||After the first half of 46th century dominated by socialist governments and with socialist regimes arising all over Majatra, the Thallerist leader Julius von Thaller convinced the Armed Forces for a counter-socialist coup after whitch was imposed a Thallerist "revolution"|
|4155||The Fifth Istalian Republic||Presidential Republic||The Thallerist "revolution" doesn't lasted a legislature, defeated by the uprising of Armed Forces, Politics and People. The Liberals sized the new Parliament, but the rose to the power of General Michele Appiano De Borromei paved the way to the born of a new strong Republic and of a new era of Istalia led by the unitary Coalition for the Democratic Cooperation|
|4571||The Imperial Constitution||Constitutional Representative Parliamentary Monarchy||After almost 20 years at the helm of the country, the National Congress offered to Michele Appiano De Borromei the perpetual role of head of state of Istalia and he was acclamed Emperor of the Istalians.|