For the current Prime Minister of Istalia see: Prime Minister Imperial Secretary of State (Istalia)
Seal of the Prime Minister of the Republic
His Excellency, the Prime Minister of the Republic
No term limit
The Prime Minister's term of office ended when the Parliament withdrew its confidence to the Cabinet or in case of resignation
2263 (first time)
4546 (last time)
Minister of Internal Affairs
The head of government of Istalia, at least until 4490, had traditionally the title of President of the Council of Ministers (Istalian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri), generally shortened to President of the Council (Presidente del Consiglio), which was the title of the Head of Government for most part of the republican history of Istalia.
The Prime Minister, under the semi-presidential regime of the New Fourth Republic (4132-4546), proposed a list of ministers to the President of the Republic. Decrees and decisions of the Prime Minister, like almost all executive decisions, were subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. All Prime Ministers defended the programs of their ministry, and made budgetary choices. The extent to which those decisions laid with the Prime Minister or President depended upon whether they were of the same party or parties coalition.
The Prime Minister were appointed by the President of the Republic. The President had the freedom to choose whomever they want. While Prime Ministers were usually chosen from amongst the ranks of the Chamber of Deputies, on rare occasions the President has selected a non-officeholder because of their experience in bureaucracy or foreign service, or their success in business management.
The President appointed a new Prime Minister after each general election and because the Chamber of Deputies had to confirme its confidence and had the power to force the resignation of the government, the choice of President had to reflect the will of the majority in the Chamber.
According to the semi-presidential constitution of 4132, the Prime Minister was the one to direct and coordinate the actions of the Government and had to determine and conduct the policy of the Nation. The other members of Government were appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. In practice, however, the Prime Minister acted on the impulse of the President to whom he was formally a subordinate, except when there was a "cohabitation" in which case his responsibilities were akin to those of a classic prime minister in a parliamentary system.
Before he was allowed to dissolve the Parliament, the President of the Republic had to consult the Prime Minister together the Presidents of both Houses of Parliament.
Given the semi-presidential form of the last 400 years of the Fourth Istalian Republic, the cohabitation was the situation when the President was forced to work with a Prime Minister who was expression of a party or coalition opponent or however not expression of the same party or coalition to which belonged the President of the Republic.
In fact, if the party or the coalition which support the President of the Republic had the majority into the Chamber of Deputies after the elections, the President of the Republic could have presented a Government expression of his own party or coalition and in that case he would have lead the Government acting as Head of the State and Head of State, with the Prime Minister acting more as a coordinator of the Ministers and of the work of the Council.
But in case the majority party or coalition in the Chamber of Deputies was not the same which supported the elected President, the President of the Republic was forced to present a cabinet expression of that majority and he would have acted as a cerimonial Head of the State while the executive power would be owned almost exclusively by the Prime Minister.
However, given the power recognized to the President of the Republic by the Constitution, he maintained the role of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and continued to influence and determine the foreign policy of the Nation.
Despite the 400 years of the semi-presidential system under the second half of the Fourth Republic, during most part of its history the Istalian Republic has been a parliamentary system and so the head of Government was the highest political institutional position and the effective holder of executive power while the President of Republic acted as ceremonial head of the State.
During the Istalian institutional history, however, the form of government of the nation changed several times and experimented also periods under presidential systems under which the position of prime minister was abolished, like under the brief Fifth Republic which was organized into a presidential government without prime minister.
List of Presidents of the Council and Prime Minister of the RepublicEdit
The official residence and office of the Prime Minister was Antinori Palace (istalian: Palazzo Antinori), located in the historic center of Romula not far from Quattroregni Palace, the seat of the Presidency. The building was used as residence and workplace of the istalian prime ministers since the foundation of the first istalian democratic regime, the Quanzarian Republic, the provisional governments which preceeded the first Istalian Republic.
In the past, especially under the parliamentary regimes, the Palace was considered as the veritable heart of the istalian politics and the fulcrum of the istalian government. The previous semi-presidential or presidential regimes didn't survived long enough to make rise in prominence the Presidential Palace but with the more than successful Semi-Presidential reform of 4132, in more than two centuries Quattroregni Palace, seat of the Presidency, replaced definitively Antinori Palace as fulcrum of the Istalian Government under the last centuries of the Fourth Republic.
The Seal of the Prime Minister, like the ones of the President of the Republic and of the Parliament under the Fourth Republic, consisted of a blue oval whose main axis was horizontal and in which were shown, in order from the top to bottom, a stylized image of the building which houses the institution, the official name of the institution and finally the Emblem of the Republic; in this case there was the image of the facade of Antinori Palace with the inscription in italian of "Prime Minister of the Istalian Republic".