|Location||Romula, Mezzodiurno, Istalia|
|IESCO Global Heritage Site|
|Criteria||Cultural, (i.), (ii.), (iii.), (iv.).|
Although founded relatively late compared to the earliest of the city-states in region, Qolshamih managed to assert its dominance over the region by 750 BCE. When Lombash was conquered in 612 BCE by the Kingdom of Sokyill, Qolshamih controlled all of the mainland, later know as Sarrentina Peninsula, except the central deserts.
The city was ruled by various kings (šarrū) since its foundation, and two primary dynasties are known to history. From at least 800 until 530 BCE, the city was ruled by the Haqlu dynasty. These kings established the dominance of the city on the mainland, but they were ultimately unable to drive back the repeated invasions of Sokyill that threatened the very heart of the Kingdom. Thus, they were replaced in a relatively peaceful palace coup in 530 by the dynasty of Karron, which originated from nobility in northern Pheykran that had married into the royal line that it eventually replaced. This dynasty lasted until the fall of the kingdom in 123 BCE to the chieftain Harun.
By the time that the conquest of Alaria was completed, royal power became more focused on the coast of Therak, and Qolshamih, which had no harbors and which was situated far away from the lucrative coastal trade routes, was abandoned by the dynasts in 445 for a new capital Tuffad. The city remained powerful, however, throughout the remainder of the kingdom. It appears to have suffered a fire that destroyed most of the old quarter in 395, but it was soon rebuilt, making extensive use of the awesome selucian architecture imported from Alaria, with public buildings as well as private homes and palaces. The city is mentioned as a center of pagan celebrations during the hight of the Kingdom, and its skyline was adorned by the Four Magnificent Temples to the gods of the Harvest and dominated by the Divine Citadel, an acropolis dedicated to other major gods arose within the circle of the most ancient walls, on top of the highest hill of the city, where next to the oldest temples were built magnificent new temples in selucian style.
In 268 BCE the King Alsemet the Great bring back to Qolshamih the Royal Court and proclaimed the city as his Capital and set up his court. Alsemet is remembered in the city as the builder of the Great Temple of Ancient and New Gods, a magnificent holy citadel whose heart was constituted by the circular temple dedicated to all gods, famous for its large golden dome, and the Amphitheater of the Alsemet, the largest selucian style amphitheater in the world (Alsemet had a passion for the selucian origin's gladiatorial combat). Under the reign Alsemet and his descentants the city lived the most flourishing period in its history.
The golden age of the city, and of the Kingdom, was known as Alsamite Era, under which the descentants of Alsamet the Great led the Kingdom to its hights, expanding also in the modernday Solentia while the syncretism between the Qolshamin and Selucian cultures increased drastically. The Selucian colonies, under the Alsamite Kings, thanks to fair relations with the Qolshamin, experienced a great degree of authonomy and were able to establish new colonies in the mainland as well as around the world. This golden era lasted until the second century of the Hosian era, when the kingdom experienced a decline due to economic crisis, foreign invasions, a series incompetent sovereigns and the spread of corruption and inefficiency in the state apparatus.
During the chaos of the civil war at the beginning of second century, the city was sacked twice and most of its wealth was taken by the marauding armies of the rival Masters of Arms (the kings had lost their power in favor of their generals). When Royal power was collapsing through the middle and end of the second century, little is recorded of the city, but it is known that it was depopulated by an army of Harun in 126 BCE. During the Post-Classical Period, it appears that the city declined and became completely abandoned by the beginning of first century CE.
During the years of the struggles against the ahmadi invasors, very close to fhe site of the ancient city was founded a fortress which was the nucleus of the modernday city of Romula, Capital of the Istalian Republic.
"Qolshamih" is derived from the Therakan qōl šamħī, meaning "voice of the heavens," qōl being a singular masculine noun in the construct state and šamħī being a plural masculine in the genitive case. The original compound, Qōl-šamħī, which is attested in Old and Middle Therakan texts, was modified as Therakan fell out of use during the Post-Classical period, and the pharyngeal fricative and /i/ underwent metathesis under Majatran influence.