Main Article: History of Tukarali
The Democratic Republic Edit
The Democratic Republic of Tukarali was created by Declaration of the Democratic Republic of Tukarali in April 3286. Largely as a reaction to the Staton regime, the Fascist State of Tukarali, which had held Tukarali in its grip from 3256 to 3284, the Democratic Republic was devised as a parliamentary republic with a very weak president.
However, as the most of the history of the Democratic Republic was marked by the continued antagonism between the Tukarese Democratic Union and the former supporters of the Fascist regime, which continued their party under number of changing names until 3345, the distribution of powers was, especially in the early days, not quite as clear-cut as intended. Presidents John Staton and Charles Newstone jr. were unwilling to accept their weak position and did try to continue the Fascist tradition of ruling by presidential decree. Their attempts to restore authoritarianism being rebuffed, their party finally seemed to accept the Democratic Republic and its procedures.
The Democratic Republic was politically dominated by the Tukarese Democratic Union for most its early history. However, this changed after the founding of the Society of Patriots, a revival of the Aikokusha. This new organization quickly swept into power and dismantled the Democratic Republic in favor of the new Glorious Republic of Greater Tukarali. Little could be done by the TDU and they were forced completely out of politics.
Just over a decade following these events though, the TDU reemerged in politics, standing against the Alliance of Liberals and Progressives, a new party which had ended the rule of the Society of Patriots. The TDU won a landslide victory in elections against the ALP and the TDU under the newly elected President, Getulio Araya, declared the reestablishment of the Democratic Republic of Tukarali.
The Democratic Republic continued the presidential system of government inherited by the Glorious Republic of Greater Tukarali until the 3372 election, when the parliamentary system was reestablished. With this finalization of the reestablishment process, Araya took over the recreated post of Chancellor of the Democratic Republic, while Julia Guterres was elected to the once more mostly representative position of President.
For the following ten years, the government under Chancellor Araya continued the difficult process of dismantling the authoritarian heritage of the Glorious Republic by incremental reforms, and in 3382 Araya yielded the office of Chancellor to Gerard Thomas, who had held various ministerial positions in Araya's cabinets, most recently that of Minister of Finance.
At the next election in 3384, however, the Tukarese Democratic Union now led by Thomas lost power to a new grouping calling itself the Most Serene House of Valdiza which seeked to supersede the Democratic Republic by a new monarchy under the newly emerged House of Valdiza. However, the new group failed to win the requisite 2/3 majority to be able to unilaterally establish a new system of government and were restricted to introducing a variety of measures designed to lay the groundwork for a monarchy.
Presumably with the aim of winning an increased majority, the De Valdiza government called a snap election for December 3387, which they lost to the Tukarese Democratic Union which was now led by José Magalhães. Being caught somewhat unawares by the early election, Magalhães only managed to form a new cabinet in March 3388. by which time the House of Valdiza had disappeared from the political scene just as fast as it had emerged.
Magalhães maintained his position as Chancellor unchallenged until he ceded that office in 3403. The following year, in 3404, he was elected to the mostly representative position of President of the Democratic Republic, while the TDU under his successor as Chancellor, Guálter Basurto, once more won the parliamentary election without any competition, a feat which was repeated in 3408.
The Tukarese Democratic Union lost the 3412 election in a landslide to the Pirate Party which immediately started a programme of far-reaching changes.
The Pirate Party went into coalition with the newly founded right-wing Order and Progress Party after the 3416 election. While this coalition failed to achieve much due to the inherent ideological differences between the two parties, it held until the OPP's sudden dissolution just after the 3428 elections. The TDU then formed another cabinet under chancellor Adão Machado, but failed to win a majority in 3432 and had to give way to a cabinet under new Chancellor David Cannon of the Pirate Party.
However, the 3432 election win proved to be the last success of the Pirates, and the 3436 elections ushered another era of TDU dominance. For the following 33 years the Tukarese Democratic Union was able to govern alone under Chancellors Amilcar Simões (3436 - 3451) and Aníbal Machado (3451 - 3469).
The TDU lost its majority in the April 3468 election, and it took more than a year until a new government could be formed, a coalition between the TDU and the Republican Nationalist Party, and Héber Passini of the TDU became Chancellor.
Passini remained in office with the coalition cabinet after the 3472 election, and when the RNP was dissolved in 3475 formed a new cabinet consisting of TDU ministers only. The TDU government was confirmed in office in 3476 and every subsequent election until 3512. Passini was succeeded as Chancellor in 3479 by Laura Simões, the daughter of Amilcar Simões, who stayed in that office for a record time of 20 years.
Simões' successor Tristão Leite managed to defend the TDU's majority in 3500, 3504 and 3508 and finally ceded the chancellorship to Amilcar Abreu. Abreu, who is the son of Laura Simões and former President Oscar Abreu, narrowly failed to to win a majority in 3512 and formed a coalition cabinet withe centre-left Alliance of the Centre until the 3516 election, when the TDU regained a majority and another single party cabinet was formed.
In 3520, the TDU failed to fight off the triple challenge presented by the Socialist Workers Party, the Alliance of the Centre and the newly formed Democratic Workers Party and fell back to 46 seats, a loss of 23 and the party`s lowest number of seats since the 3384 election, although it held on to a plurality. Abreu then formed another coalition with the Alliance of the Centre, which had fallen back to 22 seats, but there has been little cooperation between the two parties in government and the TDU has since lost a number of votes in the National Assembly, as the other parties have quite frequently acted together.
The 3524 election saw the TDU losing another 19 seats (to 27), and a gain of 13 (to 40) enabled the DWP to from a cabinet with the SWP, which held 30 seats, a number unchanged from the previous election. The formation of the DWP/SWP cabinet was the first complete change of government since 3436.
The 4399 election led to the rise to power of new parties. The recently formed People's Socialist Party won the presidency while Democratic SocioLiberal Party got the role of Head of Government after successful negotiations with Tukarese Democratic Union, People's Socialist Party and Left Patriotic Front. All these parties have formed a coalition government together in order to take the far-right National Conservative Union of Tukarali out of power. After the 4403 election, which was again won by National Conservative Union of Tukarali but with People's Socialist Party in second, the latest took over the role of Head of Government, besides the election of the President Miguel Mansilha for a second-term.
In 4436, after the disbandment of the Verdes, Progressistas, Socialistas (Greens, Progressives and Socialists) party, the National Conservative Union of Tukarali regained majority and so formed a brief cabinet, soon replaced in the elections of 4437 by a coalition of the Tukarese Democratic Union and the recently founded Dark Green Party, formed to defeat the far-right party and remove them from power. The two parties formed a joint cabinet headed by Chanceler Marcela Ramires, from the Tukarese Democratic Union.
Geography & Climate EditMain article: Geography of Tukarali
Tukarali lies not far from the equator and is a rather tropical nation. During the spring it is rainy and humid and the summer is usually hot. The fall is warm and windy, and then the winter is cool and snow is common in the heights of the southern mountains near Aldegar. Rainforests are located in Lago Kwantu and Shrin Kali, but most plentiful Boruska where they compose around 80% of the land. There is also a large river system that runs through Tukarali.
Running along Tukarali's southern border is a large mountain range that extends into Aldegar. In the north in Morata Valley is a smaller, and more tropical, mountain range which extends into Valruzia. The northern mountain range is dotted with lakes and has several waterfalls.
Government & Politics Edit
Main Article: Politics of Tukarali
The Democratic Republic of Tukarali is a parliamentary republic. The head of state is the President, officially President of the Democratic Republic (Tukarese: Presidente da República Democrática) and the head of government is the Chancellor, officially Chancellor of the Democratic Republic (Tukarese: Chanceler da República Democrática). The President is largely a symbolic figure and acts as representative of the state internationally, but plays no role in everyday government business. By convention, most Presidents have only been in office for two terms, though, as there is no actual term-limit law, this convention could be challenged any time.
The Chancellor leads the cabinet and usually also the government party in the legislature.
There is an unicameral parliament, called National Assembly (Tukarese: Assembléia Nacional), which holds most of the power in Tukarese government. All laws are made in parliament. The parliament is responsible for approving appointments to the cabinet, for the selection of the Chancellor, and for approving the signing of international treaties.
Political Parties (Currently Active & Recently Extinct) Edit
|UDT||Tukarese Democratic Union
(União Democrática Tukarese)
|Marcela Ramires||Center Right||Regionalism, Moderate Conservatism.||Active|
|Antonio Linhares||Far-right||Nationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Hosianism||Active|
|UNCT||National Conservative Union of Tukarali
(União Nacional Conservadora de Tukarali)
|Téo Simões||Right wing||National Conservatism, Nationalism, Populism.||Active|
|PST||Tukarese Socialist Party
(Partido Socialista Tukarese)
|Haroldo Franco||Left-wing||Left-libertarianism, Social Progressivism, Environmentalism, Ethical Capitalism||Active|
|VPS||Verdes, Progressistas, Socialistas||Lorenzo Silva||Left-wing||Anti-Corruption, Democratic Socialism, Green Politics, Social Progressivism||Extinct since 4437|
|PVS||Dark Green Party
(Partido Verde Sombrio)
|Francisco Salazar de Oliveira Garcia||Right-Wing||Dark Green, Green Conservatism||Extinct since 4461|
See Also: List of Former Parties of Tukarali
Administrative Divisions Edit
The Democratic Republic is divided into five first-level subdivisions, called prefectures. The prefectures are divided further into regions and municipalities, as designated by the state government.
Each state is headed by a governor, elected every four years. The states have their own local unicameral legislatures that handle issues prescribed to local governments. In the general sense, most power is held with the federal government, meaning the assemblies often only have to handle minor issues.
|Morata Valley||426,300 km²||120,959,185||Kirota|
|Lago Kwantu||355,200 km²||163,499,221||Guri|
|Shrin Kali||358,200 km²||142,632,365||Kalipur|
Foreign Relations Edit
Tukarali has historically be a minor nation in global affairs and the government has usually prescribed an overall policy of self-reliance. In general the nation seeks to stay out of too much international politicking and it takes a cautious stance towards most foreign nations. Throughout its whole history, Tukarali has never been involved in any major conflicts or wars.
In 3058, Tukarali signed a friendship treaty with Sekowo, a landmark treaty for Greater Tukarali. The treaty was Tukarali's first major interaction with a foreign nation in hundred of years.
Around the time of Greater Tukarali's founding a Declaration of Tukarese Neutrality was drafted. Under this document the nation has pledged itself to be a neutral state and a number of foreign nations have officially recognized this status.
More recently, a treaty of cooperation with other countries, the Tukarali Diplomatic and Economic Cooperation Treaty, has been ratified by 6 countries, besides Tukarali.
Tukarali has a moderately strong economy and the main industries are fishing and electronics. The nation is largely self-reliant, an encouragement from the government. Other strong industries Tukarali are manufacturing, mining, and agriculture. Recently, Tukarali has legalized the watching of movies and, as a result, has been heavily investing in its movies industry. The Tukarali Cinema Institute has been founded.
The primary stock exchange of Tukarali is the Sangon Stock Exchange (SSE), located in Sangon.
Tukarali is a multi-ethnic society composed of many types of peoples and cultures. The Tukarese are divided into five groups: pardos (browns), amarelos (yellows), brancos (whites), pessoas da mata (rainforest people), and negros (blacks).
The pardos are the largest group and compose 56% of the population. The second largest group are the amarelos, who are mostly Mu-Tze, and they make up 35% of the population. The brancos are the most noticeable minority, composing 9% of the citizenry. The pessoas mata and negros compose less than 1% of the nation.
The primary language of Tukarali is Modern Tukarese, which is considered the main official language of the nation. Modern Tukarese came into usage in the 2800s, and today Old Tukarese is nearly extinct. However in the most secluded regions of Tukarese rainforests the language is still spoken.
Tukarali has a secondary official language, Panmuan, which is spoken natively by the Mu-Tze. It is required in all schools for students to learn Panmuan as a second language.
A variety of minority languages exist in Tukarali. The most noticeable of these come from white immigrants, such as Hulstrian and Valrizen. Majatran also has some presence as a result of the Queranzariah population.
The next largest religion in the nation is Queranzariah, which is practiced by about 8% of the population. The group saw its number rise considerably during the existence of the Tukarali Emirate in the early 3100s.
Main Article: Culture of Tukarali
Popular Media Edit
Literature, Philosophy, and Arts Edit
Tukarali is still not much into arts however recently it has been investing heavily in cinema. The Tukarali Cinema Institute has been founded and those who came with the idea think they can turn Tukarali into the world leader of the movies industry. The recent investment on that industry has also led to the surge of othe arts including threate, painture and literature.
The two most popular sports in Tukarali are association football and horse racing. These two sports have gone back and forth in serving as the official "national sport" of the nation. Despite that, now the national sport is futsal.
Other sports present in Tukarali include volleyball, tennis, martial arts, and baseball.
There are five big universities in Tukarali:
- University of Shrin Kali
- Boruska Tech University
- University of Lago Kwantu
- University of Morata Valley
- University of Dhataan
Main Article: Military of Tukarali
See also: Tukarali and weapons of mass destruction
The President is formally the top commander of the military, although this function is de-facto fulfilled by the Minister of Defence in times of peace, and by the Chancellor in times of war. The Minister of Defence works closely with the Chancellor to decide appointments of military leaders and generals.
The Tukarese Armed Forces are divided into three branches, the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force.
External Links Edit
|History||Kemokian Empire • Phraatid Dynasty • Mu-Tze Khanate • Ryan Malagar • Tukarali Emirate • Insurectionnal Disorder of Tukarali • Democratic Kingdom of Tukarali • Fascist State of Tukarali • Democratic Republic of Tukarali • Tukarali State • Glorious Republic of Greater Tukarali|
|Prefectures||Boruska • Dhataan • Lago Kwantu • Morata Valley • Shrin Kali|
|Political Parties<||Tukarese Democratic Union • Social Democratic Party (Tukarali) • Partido Socialista Democrático • Cidadania e Democracia Cívica|
|Demographics||Religion: Daenism, Jienism, Kanzo, Ahmadism, Yazdism • Ethnicity: Tukarese, Mu-Tze|
|Notable People & Families||João Pedro Coli • Alexandro Zapata • Andreas Magbantay • Geoffrey Thornalley • Guo Qi • House of Aynako • K. Huy Luong • Kyuma Naruhito • Marisol Paresi • Nasri Family • Roi Tiangco • Roland Lafarge • Rui Malagar • Ryan Malagar • Shinji Kuninobu • Shuya Nakagawa • Takahiro Tran • Cristiana Ferreira das Neves|